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Romans i., 19, ao 





** Dayid, in a ehoioe of erils siinilAr to these, said, ' Let me fall into the handa of 
the Lord, fbr Yerj great are his merdes ; but let me not fall into the hand of man' 
(1 Chron. zzi. 13). The people of En^and know what it is to experience somewhat 
of the latter calamity ; and thoogh they are bound to acknowledge that their long- 
protraoted grieft are to be preferred to the short but severe sufferings which the 
natjoms of the Continent had to endure, they must feel, after aU, that it is a deep 
affliction which many have had to bear. But let them'with Faith and PaHenee endure 
their tzonbles a little longer. Their redemption drawtth nigh,** 

Jomr Taylor's Wealth ihe Name and Jfwnber of Qu Btastf p. 149. 





(dBPARTBD JULY, 1864) 












Edikbvboh, 1874. 




JBRBMIAH zxxii. 18 — 20. 



TTjTHEN the late worthy John Taylor, of Gower Street, 
London (originally of Bakewell, Derbyshire) pub- 
lished, first his larger work entitled " The Great Pyra- 
mid ; why was it built, and who built it ?'' in 1859 ; 
and afterwards, in 1864, his smaller pamphlet which 
. he called " The Battle of the Standards (of Linear 
Measure) : the ancient of four thousand years, against 
the modem of the last fifty years — the less perfect of 
the two," — ^he opened up for archaeology a purer, 
nobler, more important pathway to light than that 
study had ever enjoyed before. 

But Academic Archaeology did not accept it; and 
meanwhile some portions of the new pathway were so 
little removed from much of my own scientific profes- 
sional occupations, that I felt it something like a public 
duty to examine mto the foundation of Mr. Taylor's 
theory as rigidly and extensively as I .could, though by 
home work only, at first; and my publication of 1864 
(i.e., the first edition of the present book) contained 
the findings so arrived at Findings, in man; 


confirmatory of the principal thread of Mr. Taylor's 
chief discovery ; but exhibiting in the general literature 
of the subject a lamentable deficiency in the numerical 
data required for solid investigation ; and which data 
of measure, nothing but practical examination at the 
place could hope to supply. 

How, when no one else would volunteer, for the 
sake of Great Pyramid knowledge alone, and only one 
gentleman* in all the kingdom, throughout ofiicial and 
private circles alike, kindly tendered a subscription 
(£50) towards the expenses, — how, I say, my Wife 
and self deterrSined to sail for Egypt ; and did, very 
soon after Mr. Taylor s death, through four months of 
residence on the Pyramid hill itself, employ a large 
variety of scientific instruments, in obtaining many 
measures of the mighty monument, some of them to 
far more accuracy than had ever been attempted before, 
and others descending to numerous details unnoticed 
by former observers, — all this was described by me, 
first in abstract to the Royal Society, Edinburgh, in 
April, 1866 ; and afterwards (in 1867) at much more 
length to the world in general in my three-volume 
book, " Life and Work at the Great Pyramid in 1865/' t 

That last publication undoubtedly helped to spread 
a knowledge both of the importance of the question at 
issue, and the only means for solving it : especially 
as against the modem hieroglyphic scholars ; who, 

* Andrew Ck)yenti7, Elsq., of 27> Moray Place, Edinburgh. 

t Pages 1,653; plates 36. Published by Edmonston & Douglas, Edinburgh. 

whatever iheir learning may be concerning other Egyp- 
tian buildings, have never troubled thcmaolvea to 
examine the Great Fyramid in the manner now 
jequired, and remnin singularly and perse veringly 
ignorant of its mathematical proportions and mecha- 
,Dical features. Indeed, thtse literary Egyptologists are 
iTather angered than otherwise to hear that such exact 
rdata of scientific measure, when collected by others 
^than themselves, tentl to i^tahHsh that the Great Pyra- 
mid, tliough in Egypt is not of Egj^pt ; and though 
built in the earliest ages of man upon earth, fju- before 
all history, was yet prophetically intended to subserve 
1 tiigh purpose for these days in which we live and the 
.Doming days. Tliat it, the Great Pyramid, has never 
»n even remotely understood yet by any race of men, 
though it has been a standing riddle guessed at by all 
of them in their successive ages ; but that it is able 
oovertholess to tell its own story and explain its mission 
I most unmistakably : not indeed by reference to, or uae 
Lof. any written language, whether hieroglyphic or vulgar, 
K> — hut by aid of the mathematical and physical science 
|.of mtKlern tunoe: a moons fore-ordained both for pre- 
I venung the parable being read too soon in the history 
I of the world, and for insuring its being correctly read by 
[ .all nations when thu fulness of time shall have arrived 
Til is spread of purely-obtained Great Pjramid infor- 
mation, unalloyed by the Caiuite profanitias of Pha- 
iBonic Egypt, or the interested errors and perversions 
■ of the classic Greeks, brought by degrees several able 

intellectuftlists into the field ; and they have, during 
the last six years, applied so many of my ovm obser- 
vations at the place to Mr. Taylor's theory, with a 
success beyond anything that he had ever hoped for, — 
that the matter has now completfly outgrown its first 
book, and produced this publication as the best answer 
that I, with the assistance of the original publishers, 
can make to frequent demands from various quarters 
for more information. And there are even some most 
interesting and hopeful circumstances in the evolution 
of the scientific contents of the Great Pyramid just now, 
causing the present time to be almost the beginning 
of a new era of increased certainty and more precise 
knowledge regarding all that that ancient building was 
originally intended for ; and which certainly includes 
much of the sacred, as well as the secular. 

And although some well-meaning persons may have 
too hastily concluded, merely because they do not find 
the very name of Pyramid wiitten down in Scripture, 
that therefore there is nothing about the Great Pyra- 
mid in the Bible,- — yet they may rest perfectly assured 
that there is a great deal about the Bible subject, in the 
Great Pyramid. "WTiich building is moreover an earlier 
document in the history of the human race ; while the 
putting together of its stones into the vocal and deeply- 
meaning shapes we see them in now, was absolutely 
(•OTiiemporary with the first of the primeval events to 
which it vm& destined to bear indubitable witness i 
■these latter days, and not sooner. 
































XTn. ''time measures in the GREAT PYRAMID** .... 304 












Appendix I. Mr. Wayninan Dixon's Casing-stone . 489 
II. Dr. Orant's crucial Pyramid investigations 493 
III. Dr. Leider's supposed Pyramid .... 497 
lY. Mr. James Simpson's further Pyramid calculations . 499 
y. Kude stone monuments versus the Great Pyramid . 506 
VI. Becent attempts to shorten both the Great Pyra- 
mid's base-side and the profane cubit of Egypt . 611 

INDEX 519 






L Genbbal SscnoNAL YiBW OF Grbat Ptbamid (Fh>ntiapieee). 

Alluded to in Chapters. I. and YI. ; but of more or leas ser- 
yic'eable reference throughout the book; and of especial use in 
showing the respective places of several particular parts of the 
monument which appear separately in subsequent plates. 

II. Casino-stone Tsstimont to Great Pyramid's r Construction. 

Alluded to in Chapter IT. The upper fig^ure gives an illustra- 
tion of John Taylor's r theory, requiring a particular side anffle 
for the Pyramia ; and the lower figures give the angle found by 
Colonel Yyse. 

m. Diameter and Circumference Relations. 

Alluded to in Chapters 11., lY., and X. Certain useful com- 
putation numbers, both in angnlar and linear measure, are ent^ed 
in their appropriate places on the several Pyramidal figures, and 
will be found of frequent service. 

lY. Diameter and Abxal Rblatxgnb. 

The upper figures alluded to in Chapters lY. and X., and the 
lower figive m Chapter XXY., where toey are shown to confirm 
the numbers in Plate III. meet remarkably. 

Y. Great Pyramid's Place in Egypt, and Egypt's nr the Wgbld. 

See Chapter Y. This is a xedootioii and ooaoentnitioii of 
•evend platea in my ** Equal Snrlaoe PiojeotioB.' 




YI. All thb Ptbaxids of Jebzbh. 

See Chapter YI. All these figures being on the same scale, show 
the Great Pyramid to be ab^lutely the largest of the Jeezeh 
group ; and the only one with an tueending system of passages : 
and it enjoys the same superiority over ail the Fyxamids of 

Vn. Placing of the Passages in Gbeat Pt&amid. 

See Chapter X. These two figures illustrate a simple goo- 
metrical arrangement, which comes exceedingly dose to the actual 
lengths and angles of the passages in the Great Pyramid. 

Vni. The Chambeb and Passage Systems in Great Ptramid. 

See Chapter YI. This is a generally useful plate to refer to, 
for the more interesting parts of the interior ; when the frontis- 
piece fails from the smallness of its size. 

IX. The Queen's Chamber. 

See Chapters X., XIX., and XX. A chamber of important sym- 
bolisms, beginning with the excentricity of the niche by the 
amount, apparently, of the length of the sacred cubit. 

X. The Ante-Chamber. 

See Chapters IX. and X. A small chamber full of sym- 
bolisms, especially of the subdivision of the sacred cubit into 
inches ; and the equal area equation of squares and circles. 

XI. The King's Chamber. 

See Chapters YI., IX., X., XIX., and XXY. The final cham- 
ber of the ascending series of passages in the Great Pyramid, 
the most exquisitely constructed of all the chambers, and with 
the noblest symbolisms. 

XH. The Grand Gallery: ascending and descending. 

See Chapters YI., Xvil., and XX. The grandest interior 
feature of the Great Pyramid, unknown in any other Pyramid, 
and with supposed prophetic Christian symbolisms. 

Xm. Mouth of the Well, in Lower Corner of Great Pyramid. 

See Chapters YI., XVll., and XX. Two views, one elevational, 
and the other in perspective, of the exit from the Grand Ce- 
lery to the symbolism of the bottomless pit 



XIY. Stak-Map fob Sitb of Gbsat Ptbamid in AwTBDiLUTiAir Times. 

See Chapter XVil. Exhibiting the constellations of hostile 
attributes to man, occupying the mid-heaven at the night begin- 
ning of the primeval autunmal year before the Flood. 

XY. Star-Map for Site of Great Pyramid at Epoch of its 

See Chapter XYII. Representing the constellations of friendly 
attributes to man, at the night beginning of the year of the Great 
Pyramid's foundation ; after both the flood and the Dispersion. 

XVI. Star-Map for Site of Great Pyramid at the Present Time. 

See Chapter XYII. Representing the portion of time elapsed 
since the foundation of the Great Pyramid, as now indicatea on 
the precessional dial of the Pyramid and the heavens. 

XYII. The Numbers measured in the Entrance Passage of the 
Great Pyramid. 

See Chapter XX. The numbers entered here are Pyramid 
inches of oistance from the north beginning of the Grand Gal- 
lery ; and are supposed to represent years B.C. 




viz.: — 



"When a Circle's diameter s=rf=-= — = 2v^-; 


4 a 
And its circumference zszcss ir dz=s —r- s= 2 ^ ir a; 


And its area == a s= - rf' = - - ==. — ; 

4 4 w 4 

c 4 fl <?' 


= 3-14169 I 26535 | 89793 | 23846 | + &c.y &c., &c. 
= log. 0-49714 I 98726 | 94133 | 85435 | -f- &c., &c., &c. 

^ = 0-785 39816 + &c. = log. 9-895 0899 + &c. 

? = 0-523 59878 + &c. = log. 9-718 9986 + &c 

_i- = 0-079 57747 + &c. = log. 8900 7902 + &c. 
4 X I o 

g-1-^ = 0-016 88687 + &c. = log. 8227 5490 + &c. 
^ IT = 1-772 45385 + &c. = log. 0-248 5749 + &c. 

i5?^ =: 57-295 77951 + &c. = log. 1-758 1226 + *c. 





vii. : — 



"When a Circle's diameter z=zd=z -zss — = 2 %/ -; 


4 a 
And its eireumferenee sscsstrdzs:-— zz:2,^ ir a; 


And its area = a ^ - rf* =: - — =. — ; 

4 4 IT 4 


<• _ 4 a e^ 


= 3-14169 I 26535 | 89793 | 23846 | + &c., &c., &c. 
= log. 0-49714 I 98726 | 94133 | 85435 | -f- &c., &c., &c. 

^ = 0-785 39816 + &c. = log. 9-895 0899 + &c. 

J = 0-623 69878 + &c. = log. 9-718 9986 + &c. 

~ = 0-079 67747 + &o. = log. 8900 7902 + &c. 

J-j = 0-016 88687 + &c. = log. 8227 6490 + &c 
^ r = 1-772 46385 + &c. = log. 0-248 6749 + &c 

^^ =: 67-296 77961 + &c. = log. 1-758 1226 + *c. 

PLATE fll 




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3*i5 74-t S V 


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TTanCLES of casing STONES OF 

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—r- too in th^ Ant*' rfttitnl-t 

P J 'PI'H.I \fll> !.\rHKS 

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•Aiw.; .;:' \ 

Ptfvri \'rrtt4-u/ Srt-iitui of (it J'xH' 

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.7/.;/ r^i 

OUTSIDE GREAT P V R A M I D. .*>*• ' 7/ ' Jr 

* ri*ll> t« r^ •• n I ' 

» •• IC»'I I l" ■" 

So.? Ch? iC fi ■!'>. 



Pl^iT£ VU 



A D B " Dirrt i.ttr ry/ht . I rrlicttl 
Srctwn of'dnnl ^nunid 
f'n*m Xi^rtM tt* south ■ 

E F GH " SifHarrttndtXtri^ofrqiutl 
tura A» ahc%T . 

Jnsfif BCS — -W* ts'- Mt' 



'••»•«» CI l* 

. I,U In Ftg J . I C 
Iruwt tnt <t- C K A/Art ifti 
by httri^»»nt*iJ /tftf.'i. 

fhtmllrl //> C S. mtirk^ 

itt M<n r*fU4tl but tftf^Kafr 

/HJufiyir itmJike iinutd liUtrt r. 

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tint* stfHnrr / ^ .k** — 

.)->€ -^ 11/' 




3440 B.C. % 






il70 B.C. 





1881 A.D. 


MAL EQUINOX far from meridian, westward; 



J'L.ITE .xfq. 












rilHE ancient Pyramids of Egypt form somewhat of a 
-*- long clustering group, extending chiefly over about 
a degree of latitude, and in nearly a central division of 
the country, as regards North and South, or Lower and 
Upper, I«ypt 

One traveller claims to have noted forty-five, another 
says sixty-seven ; and another still, mentions no Idbs 
than one hundred and thirty as existing in the neigh- 
bourhood of Meroe, Noori, and Barkal in Ethiopia ; 
though they ought, rightfully, to be classed under a 
very different head ; for when we extend the name to 
such large numbers, very inconsiderable, various, and 
often comparatively modem, structures are then in- 
cluded, and too wide variations allowed in form and 
material from the more ty})ical examples, or those really 
mathematically-shaped pyramids which, though few in 
number, are what have made the world-wide fame ot" 
their land's architecture from before the beginning of 

Now it is precisely with those particular specimens, or 
the oldest examples of the country (probably not more 
than thirty-eight . in number), and no others, that we 
have to do in this book; and selecting even further 
ainpDgst them, we find, that of all the more voi'^QTVAXiV. 


instances that have yet attracted the attention of man- 
kind, there are none to equal the combined fame and 
antiquity, the purity of shape and excellence of construc- 
tion, of the several stone pyramids near Jeezeh,* in view 
of the ancient Memphis, and not far from the present 
city of Cairo. This group is situated on the western, or 
more thoroughly African, and desert, side of the river, 
but close to the southern point of origin, or sectorial 
centre of the delta-shaped land of Lower Egypt ; planted 
there apparently on the very edge of the dry and rocky 
steppe, and overlooking on one side the sand-strewn 
wastes of the interior, and on the other the green and 
fertile plains of Nile, about 130 feet below them. But 
amongst these Jeezeli Pyramids, again, there is one that 
transcends in importance all the rest ; one that has beeQ 
named for ages past the " Great Pyramid ; " and which 
stands out distinct and distinguished from all its fellows 
by its giant size, its wondrous internal structure, its 
superior age, exquisite linish, the ancient mysteries of 
its origination, and the hitherto inscrutable destiny of 
its purpose ; the greatest of the seven wonders of the 
world in the days of the Greeks, and the only one which 
is still in existence on the surface of the earth. 

With many of the smaller and later pyramids^ there 
is little doubt about their objects ; for, built by the 
Egyptians as se^julchres for the great Egyptian dead, 
such dead were buried in them, and with all the written 
particulars, pictorial accomj)animents, and strange sepul- 
chral adornments of that too graphic religion, which 
the fictile nation on the Nile ever delighted in. But 
as we approach, ascending the stream of ancient time, 
in aiiy careful chronological survey, to the " Great 
Pyramid," Eg}'ptian emblems are gradually left behind ; 

* Tho foUowing Tarietics of orthography, by different anthora, may 
load to the correct pronunciation, viz. : Gyzeh, Ghizeh, Gizeh, Jeeseh, 
Ghef'zch, Jizch, Djiza, Dsjiso, DschUeh, Geezch, £l-(}eezehy Dnntb, 
&c.. Ace. , 


and in, and throughout, that mighty buikled mass, which 
all history and all tradition, both ancient and modern, 
agree in representing as the first in point of date of the 
whole Jeezeh group, the earliest stone building also posi- 
tively known to have been erected in any country, — ^u'e 
find in all its finished parts not a vestige of heathenism, 
nor the smallest indulgence in anything approaching to 
idolatry ; not even the most distant allusion to Sabaism, 
or to the worship of sun or moon, or any of the starry 
host of heaven. 

I have specified " finished parts," because in certain 
unfinished, intermU portions of the constructive masonry 
discovered by Colonel Howard-Vyse in 1837, there arc 
some rude markings for a temporary purpose to be pre- 
sently explained ; and I also except, as a matter of 
course, any inscriptions inflicted on the Pyramid by 
modern travellers, even though they have attempted to 
cut their names in the ancient hieroglyphics of the old 
Eg}'ptians. But with these simple exceptions we can 
most iK)sitively say, that both exterior and interior are 
absolutely free from all engraved or sculptured work, as 
well as from everything relating to idolatrj' or erring 
man's theotechnic devices. From all those hieratic 
emblems, therefore, which from the first have utterly 
overlaid every Egyptian temple proper, as well as all 
their obelisks, sphinxes, statues, tombs, and whatever 
other monuments they, the Eg}'ptians, did build up at 
any knoAvn historical epoch in connection with their 
peculiar, and, alas ! degniding religion. 

Was the Great Pvramid, then, erected before the in- 
vention of hieroglyphics, and previous to the birth of 
the Egjptian religion ? 

No ! for there, both history, tradition, and recent ex- 
ploratory discoveries, testified to by many travellers and 
antiquaries, are perfectly in accord ; and assure us that 
the Egyptian nation was established, was power{M\^^TA\\:3. 


spiritually vile hieratic system largely developed, though 
not arrived at its full proportions, at the time of the 
erection of the Great Pyramid ; that that structure was 
even raised by the labour of the Egyptian population ;* 
but under some remarkable compulsion and constraint, 
which prevented them from putting their unmistakeable 
and accustomed decorations on the finished building, and 
from identifying it in any manner, direct or indirect, 
Avith their impure and even bestial form of worship. 

According to Manetho, Herodotus, and other ancient 
authorities, the Egyptians hated, and yet implicitly 
obeyed, the power that made them work on the Great 
Pyramid ; and when that power was again relaxed or 

* This very important conclusion results from the '* quarry marki " of 
the workmen (see Colonel Howard-Vyse's volumes, " Pyramids of Giseh," 
London, 1840), being found in red paint on parts of the stones left 
rough, and in places not intended to be seen. The marks are evidently 
in the Egyptian language or manner freely handled ; and in so fkr ptrove 
that they were put in by Egyptians. They are excessively mde, no 
doubt, but quite sufficient as checks for workmen, whereby to recogniee 
a stone duly prepared at the quarr}', and to see it properly plaoed in ite 
intended position in the building. 

That theso marks were not meant as ornaments in the building, or put 
on when there, is abundantly evidenced by some of them being upside down, 
and some having been partly pared away in adjusting the stone into its 
position (see Colonel Howara-Vyse's plates of them) ; and, finally, by the 
learned Dr. Birch's interpretation of a number of the marks, which seem 
from thf nee to be mostly short dates, and directions to the workmen at to 
which stones were for the south, and which for the north, waU. 

These markings have only been discovered in those dark holes or 
hollows, the so-called ** chambers," but much rather " hollows of con- 
Mtruction,*' broken into by Colonel Howard- Yyse above the ''King's 
Chamber " of the Great Pyramid. There, also, you see the square holes 
in the stones, by which the heavy blocks were doubtless lifted to their 
places, and everything is left perfectly rough ; for these void spaoes were 
sealed up, or had been built up outside in solid masonry, and were never 
intended to be used as chambers for human visitation or living purposes. 
In all the other chambers and pts^ages, on^the contrary, intended to be 
visited, the masonry wan finished ofi* wilh the skill and polish almost of a 
jeweller ; and in them neither quarry marks nor " bat holes," nor hiero« 
glyphics of any sort or kind, are to be seen : excepting always those 
modem hieroglyphics which Dr. Lepsius in 1843 put up over the enttmnoe 
into the Great Pyramid, ** on a space five feet in breadth by four ieet in 
height," in praitie of the then sovereign of Prussia; and whi<^ have 
recently misled a learned Chinese envoy, by name Pin-oh'*un« into 
claiming a connection between the Great Pyramid and the early monn* 
ments of his own country., (See Aihtnttum^ May 21, 1870y p* 677») 


removed, though they still bated its name to such a 
degree as to forbear from even mentioning it, — ^yet vdth 
involuntary bending to the sway of a superior intelli- 
gence, they took to imitating as well as they could, 
though without any understanding, a few of the more 
ordinary mechanical features of that great work on which 
they had been so long employed ; and even rejoiced for 
a time to adapt them, so far as they could be adapted, 
to their own more favourite ends and occupations. 

H6nce the numerous gucwi-copies, for aeptdchral pur- 
poses, of the Great Pyramid, which are now to be 
observed along the banks of the Nile ; always betraying, 
though, on close examination, the most profound igno- 
rance of that building's chiefest internal features, as jirell 
as of all its niceties of proportion and exactness of 
measurement ; and they are never found even then at 
any very great number of miles away from the site, nor 
any great number of years behind the date, of the 
parent work. 

The architectural idea, indeed, of the one grand 
primeval monument, though copied during a few cen- 
turies, yet never wholly or permanently took the fancy of 
the Egyptians ; it had some suitabiUties to their favourite 
employment of lasting sepulture, and its accompanying 
rites ; so, with their inveterate taste for imitation, they 
tried what they knew of it, for that purpose ; but it did 
not admit of their troops of priests, nor the seas of 
abject worshippers, vdth the facility of their own temples ; 
and so, on the whole, they preferred them. Those more 
open and columned, as well as statued and inscribed 
structures, accordingly, of their own entire invention 
and elaboration, are the only ones which we now find 
to have held, from their first invention, an iminterrupted 
reign through all the course of ancient Egyptian history ; 
and to reflect themselves continuously in the placid 
stream of Nile, from one end of the long-drawn Ian ^ 


Egypt to the other. They, therefore, are Egypt. 
Thebes, too, with its hundred adorned Pylon temple- 
gates, is intensely Egypt. But the Great Pyramid is 
something perfectly different. ^ 

Under whose direction, then, and for what purpose, was 
the Great Pyramid built ; and under what sort of special 
compulsion was it that the Eg}rptians laboured in a 
cause which they appreciated not, and gave their un- 
rivalled mechanical skill for an end which they did not 
at the time understand ; and which they never even 
came to understand, much less to like, in all subsequent 

This has been indeed a mystery of mysteries, but 
may yet prove fruitful in the present advancing stage 
of knowledge to inquire into further ; for though 
theories without number have been tried by ancient 
Greeks and mediajval Arabians, by Italians, French, 
English, Germans, and Americans, their failures partly 
pave for us the road by which we must set out. Pave 
it poorly, perhaps ; for their whole result has, up to the 
present time, been littFe more than this, that the authors 
of these attempts are either found to be repeating idle tales 
told them by those who knew no more about the subject 
than themselves ; or skipping all the really crucial points 
of application for their theories which they should have 
attended to ; or, finally, like some of the best and ablest 
men who have given themselves to the question, fairly 
admitting that they were entirely beaten. 

Hence the exclusive notion of temples to the sun 
and moon, or for sacred fire, or holy water, or burial* 
places, and nothing but burial places, of kings, or 
granaries for Joseph, or astronomical observatories, or 
defences to Egypt against being invaded by the sands of 
the African desert, or places of resort for mankind in 
a second deluge, or of safety when the heavens should 
kll, have been for a long time past proved untenable ; 


and the Great Pjrramid stands out now, far more clearly 
than it did in the time of Herodotus, as a pre-historic 
monument of an eminently grand and pure conception ; 
and which, though in Egypt, is yet not of Egypt, and 
whose true and full explanation is still ta come. 

Under these circumstances it is, that a new idea, 
based not on hieroglyphics, profane learning, classic 
literature, or modem Egyptology, but on scientific 
measures of the actual facts of ancient masonic construc- 
tion, was recently given to the world by the late Mr. 
John Taylor, of London, in a book published in 1859.^ 
He had not visited the Pyramid himself, but had been 
for thirty years previously collecting and comparing all 
the published accounts, and specially all the best certified 
mensurations, of those who had been there ; and while 
so engaged, gradually and quite spontaneously (as he 
described to me by letter), the new theory opened out 
before him. Though mainly a rigid induction from 
tangible facts of number, weight, and measure, Mr. Tay- 
lor's result was assisted perhaps by means of the mental 
and spiritual point of view from whence he commenced 
his researches, and which is simply this : — 

That whereas other writers have generally esteemed 
that the mysterious persons who directed the building 
of the Great PjTamid (and to whom the Egyptians, in 
their traditions and for ages afterwards, gave an immoral 
and even abominable character) must, therefore, have 
been very bad indeed, — so that the world at large has 
always been fond of standing on, kicking and insulting 
that dead Uon whom they really knew not, — he, Mr. John 
Taylor, seeing how religiously bad the Egyptians them- 
selves were, was led to conclude, on the contrary, that 
those ihjty hated (and could never sufficiently abuse) might 
perhaps have been pre-eminently good ; or were, at all 

• *• The Great Pyramid. Why wm it huilt P and who huUt it \ " 
(Ixmgmaiis and Co.) 

, » 




John Taylor s First Discovery, 

"ITR. TAYLOR'S first proposition with regard to the 
-"-*- Great Pyramid, when slightly but immaterially 
altered to suit convenience of calculation, is, — that its 
height in the original condition of the monument, when 
every one of its four sloping triangular sides was made 
into a perfect plane by means of the polished outer, 
sloping, surface of the bevelled casing-stones, and when 
those sides, being continued up to their mutual inter- 
sections, terminated at, and formed the summit in, a 
point, — that its height then was, to twice the breadth of 
its base, as the diameter to the circumference of a circle. 

Or, as the case is graphically represented in the 
diagram (Plate II., Fig. 1), where the square E F o H 
represents the square base of the Pyramid, and the 
darkly-shaded triande A B D exhibits a vertical seStion 
of the triangular mass of the building taken through 
the middle of opposite sides ; — 

Then A c, the vertical height of the Pyramid, is to 
B D, the side or breadth of its base, when multiplied by 
2, as the diameter to the circumference of a circle ; or, 
A c : 2 B D : : I : 314159 + &c. ; this last number, 
3*14159, &c., being the quantity kno^vn amongst 
modern mathematicians under the convenient, to us 
now doubly convenient, designation tt. 


Or again, as shown more recently by Mr. St. John 
Day, the area of the Pyramid's right section, viz., ii D B, 
is to the area of the base e f h g, as 1 to the same 
814159, &c. 

Or, as the same fact admits again of being differently 
expressed, the vertical height of the Great Pyramid, A c, 
is the radius of a theoretical circle, A i, the length of 
whose curved circumference is exactly equal to the sum 
of the lengths of the four straight sides of the actual 
and practical square base of the building, viz. e F, F o, 
o H, and H £. 

Now this is neither more nor less than that cele- 
brated practical problem of the mediaeval and modem 
ages of Europe, " the squaring of the circle ;" and the 
thing was thus done, truly and properly accompUshed 
at the Great Pyramid, thousands of years before those 
mediaeval days of our forefathers. For it was accom- 
plished by the architect who designed that pyramid, 
when, over and above deciding that the building was to 
be a square-based pyramid, — with of course all the 
necessary mathematical innate relations which every 
square-based pyramid *m,U8t have, — ^he also ordained 
that its height, which otherwise might have been any^- 
thing, was to bear such a particular proportion to its 
breadth of base, as should bring out the nearest value of 
m as above mentioned : and which proportion not one 
out of millions, or of any nimiber, of square-based pyra- 
mids would be necessarily endued with ; and not one 
out of all the thirty-seven other measured pyramids in 
Egyi)t has been proved to be endowed with. 

If, therefore, the quantity is really found built into 
fact with exactness at the Great Pyramid, it must have 
been the result either of some most marvellous accident, 
or of some deep wisdom not less than 3,000 years in 
iidvance of the world in its own time. And that 
wisdom apparently was building in confidence, Ti<^\> i^ 


its contemporaries, to whom it explained nothing and 
showed very little, but for distant posterity ; knowing 
well that a fundamental mathematical truth like x, 
would be imderstood both in and by itself alone, and 
without any written inscription, in that distant day 
when mathematics should come to be cultivated amongst 
mankind, even as they are now. A most true con- 
clusion too, for experience has shown that neither mathe* 
matics nor mechanics can progress in any country in 
modem times without knowing well the numerical value 
and calculational quantity of 'tt. In testimony whereof 
I may mention that in Dr. Olinthus Gregory's " Mathe- 
matics for Practical Men," third edition thereof by H, 
Law, C.E., at page 64 of Appendix, there is a Table 5, 
of " useful factors in calculation," and consisting of that 
invaluable number or proportion tt, or 3*14159, &c., in 
no less than fifty-four different mathematical forms. 

Enquiry into the Data. 

Now of this scientific value of tt there is, and can be, 
in the present day, no doubt anywhere ; neither of the 
Great Pyramid's immense priority over all the existing 
architectural monuments raised, and much more over 
all known books ever written, anywhere by any of the 
sons of men ; nor again that the numbers which Mr. 
Taylor gives for the vertical height and breadth of 
base of the Great Pyramid do realise the tt proportion 
very closely. But, as we are to take nothing for granted 
that we can inquire into ourselves in this book, it 
becomes our duty to ask what foundation John Taylor 
may have had, for the numbers which he has employed 
being really those which the Great Pyramid was 
anciently constructed to represent, or does contain 
within itself, when duly measured and corrected for 
modem dilapidations. 



Chaf. n.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. j 5 

In tliis research I soon found it necessary to read 
rather extensively in a particular branch of literature, 
the Egyptological ; where the respective authors are not 
only numerous, but their accounts, as a rule, most 
strangely contradictory. Colonel Howard- Vyse, in the 
second volume of his important work,* published in 
1840, gives either extracts from, or abstracts made with 
admirable fairness of, no less than seventy-one European 
and thirty-two Asiatic authors. Several more are now 
to be added to the list, and it is extremely instructive to 
read them alL Unless, indeed, a very great number be 
read, no sufficient idea can be formed as to how little 
faith is often to be placed in the narratives even of 
educated men on a very simple matter; and when 
measures are given, though they are measures which 
those learned authors report to having measured them- 
selves, why then, and even because of all their book- 
lore and classical scholarship, ought we to feel most 
mistrust, according to the experience acquired in this 
looking up of pyramid literary modem authorities. 
Such at least cannot fail to be the unvarying case, 
unless there are other means of proving that some 
exceptional instance, among those often able men of 
letters and metaphysical philosophy, did also really 
understand what accurate measurement means, and is 
capable of. , 

It would be easy to string together a series of so- 
called measures, made by successive travellers, on the 
same parts of the Great Pyramid, which should show its 
blocks of solid stone expanding and contracting be- 
tween different visits to it, like elastic india-rubber 
balls ; but it will suffice for the present to indicate the 
necessity of weighing the evidence in every case most 
scrupulously ; to have a large quantity of evidence, a 
great variety of observers, and to place in the first rank 

• « The Pynmidi of Giseh.'* (Fnaer, Begeflt Stroot, Ii(mdsni>^ 


of authors to be studied in the original, closely in every 
word they have written, but not necessarily to be always 
followed therein : — 

Professor John Greaves in 1638, 
The French or Bonaparte Expedition in 1799, 
Colonel Howard-Vyse in 1837 ; and 
Sir Gardner Wilkmson from 1840 to 1858. 
At present the Great Pyramid is, externally to the 
sight, a huge mass, rudely though regularly and masterly 
built of rough Umestone blocks, in great horizontal 
sheets, or courses, of masonry ; their outer, broken off 
edges necessarily forming a sort of rectangular steps up 
the sloping sides ; and with a platform of sensible area, 
in place of a point, on the top. But this spurious or 
adventitious flattened top, as well as the spurious and 
adventitious steps on the sides, have all of them merely 
resulted from the mediaival dilapidations and removal of 
the p}Tamid's polished white-stone casing (with its outer 
surface bevelled smoothly to the general slope, see Plate II. 
Fig. 2), which had stood for more than 3,000 years, and 
had in its day given to the structure almost mathematical 
truth and perfection, lliis state of things was that de- 
scribed by Greek, Roman, and early Arabian writers, and 
it existed until the Caliphs of EgjT)t, about the year 
1,000 A.D., profiting by the effects of a severe, and for 
Egj^pt very unusual, earthquake recorded to have hap- 
p^uifidin 908 A.D., began methodically to strip off the 
polishetTciISTnj^-stone, bevelled blocks ; built two bridges 
to convey them more efisily to the river, after chipping off 
the prismoidal angles and edges ; and then employed them 
in building mosques and palaces ; for the lining of the 
great "Joseph" well, and for other public structures 
which still adorn their favourite city El Kahireh, or the 
victorious — the Cairo of vulgiir English.* 

♦ Very recently my friends Mr. "Waynman Dixon and Dr. Grant luiT6 
visited the celebrated Mosque of Sooltan Hassan, in Cairo, to aeo iif any 

Chif. n.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 17 

It is evidently then the original, not the present, size 
which we require, and must have, for testing Mr. 
Taylor's proposition ; and for approximating, by the 
degree of exactitude that may be found, to whether it 
was accident or intention which decided the shape of the 
building ; and he has well pointed out, that no one had 
got the true base-side length until the French Acade- 
micians, in 1799, cleared away the hills of sand and 
d^ris at the north-east and north-west comers, and 
reached the levelled surfiice of the living rock itself on 
which the Pyramid was originally founded. There, 
discovering two rectangular hollows carefully and truly 
cut into the rock, as if for " sockets " for the basal 
comer-stones, they measured the distance between them 
with much geodesic skill, and found it to be equal 
to 763*62 English feet. The same distance being 
measured thirty-seven years afterwards by Colonel 
Howard- Vyse, guided by another equally sure direction 
of the original building, as 76 4 English feet, we may 
take for the 'presemi problem where a proportion is all 
that is really required, the mean, or 763*81 feet, as 
close enough for a first approximation to base-breadth. 

But the height of the Great Pyramid, which we also 
need to have for the solution of our problem, is not at 
all easy to measure directly with any sort of approach 
to exactness ; and more dWficult still, to reduce from its 
present to its ancient height safely, after so very muchu- 
of the original top has actually been knocked away, as 
to leave a platform " large eiiough for eleven camels to 
lie down " in, or beneath, the very place where once the 
four triangular sloping sides were continued up to a 

of the component blocks forming its waUs coald be identified as having 
belonged to the Qreat Pyramid. They found them to be nndonbtedly Si 
the same Mokattam stone, but too weU squared to retain any of the 
onUide beveUed, and, perhaps, inscribed surface. The enqnirjr was, 
howcrer, put a stop to by the Mohammedan janitors, before it had 
reached some of the most likely places near the top of the Mosque to meet 
with an accidentally or oarelemly left oblique sur&oe of the older b^\\ASA^« 


point ; a sharp point on which an angel, or, as the 
monkish writer argued, any number of angels, might 
stand, but not one man. In fact, the key-stone of the 
whoie theory of the Great Pyramid would have been 
entirely wanting, even up to the present day, hut for 
Colonel Howard- Vyae's most providential finding of two 
of the "casing-stones" iiiai(«, attbe foot of the Pyramid ; 
for they enable the problem to bo attacked in a different 
manner ; or by angidar as contrasted to linear measure. 
And we might indeed accomplish the solution by 
reference to angle only ; but having begun with linear 
measure, we may as well on the present occasion employ 
the angle merely in a subsidiary manner ; or to supply, 
when used in connection with the one linear datum we 
have measured, the other linear datum, which we have 
not l>een able to mea.sure directly ; and both of them _ 
against John Taylor's linear numbers also. J 


Beginnings of Ohjections by Captious Individuals to 
tJie Data on which the Modei-n Scienti/w Tkeoi-y of the 
Qixat Pyramid rests. 

After reading my first paper on the subject to the 
Royal Society, Edinbuigh, I was seriously warned that 
two very shrewd and experienced members there had 
objected to this part of the Pyramid research ; one of 
them, an engineer, saying "tliat lie had passed through 
Egypt, been to the Pyramids, saw no symptoms of casing- 
stonea bevelled to any angle, and therefore did not be- 
lieve in them." The other, an Indian naval officer, had 
also been to the Pyramids on a visit, and "found such 
heaps of rubbish about the great one, that he could not 
see how any man cuukl measure even its base side length 
with any degree of correctness, much less casing-stones 
irliich he could not see." 


The First Ohjectoi'. 

Both these speeches are only too faithful examples 
of the small exteat of information on which many per- 
sons, of commandii^ social rank, will even yet persist 
in q>eaking authoritatively on both the present, and 
long past, state of the Great Pyramid. The first 
doubter ab<tut the casing-stones, sliould at least have 
read the accounts of Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny, and many 
early Arabian authors who described what they saw 
before their eyes when the casing was still complete, 
and eminently smooth and beautiful ; and then should 
have taken up Colonel Howard- Vyse's owu book, de- 
scriptive, in details vocal with simplts, naive truth, both 
of how he succeeded in dig^ng doirn to, finding and 
measuring probably the two last of the bevelled blocks 
still in situ, adhering closely by tlieir original cement to 
the pavement baso of the building; and then bow he 
fitiled, though be covered them uj) agiiin with a moun<l 
of rubbish, to save them from tliu baiumers of tourists 
and the axes of Mohammediiu Anibs, doubly and deadly 
jealous of Christians obtaining anything really valuable 
from the country they rule over. Hesidos which, the 
large amount of casing-stones, bevelled externally to tlie 
slope, still existing upon otlier pyramids, as on the two 
large ones of Doshoor ; the wc1l-}ireserved ones of the 
second Jeczeh Pyramid, conspicuous near its summit, 
and' on a bright day " shining resplcudently afar," as 
says U. Jomard ; and the granite ones of the third 
pyramid, so excessively hanl that modem worknu^n 
have not cared to have much to do witli tlioni — all this, 
which has long been known, and more which I have 
presently to relate, should etfect much in convincing 
unwilling minds as to what n-as the originid state of 
the outaids of the •Great P}'ramid. While a similar 
cue of spoliation to what that building expcrit-ncod iu 


A.D. 840, was perpetrated only a few years ago, on the 
south stone pyramid of Dashoor by Defberdar Mohammed 
Bey, in order to procure blocks of ready-cut stones of 
extra whiteness wherewith to build himself a palace 
near Cairo.* 

Th& SecoTid Objector. 

Then the doubter about the possibility of other men 
succeeding in measuring what would have puzzled him 
as he looked on idly, should have read the whole account 
of the French academicians in Egypt, of which the fol- 
lowing extract, from p. 63 of " Antiquity, Description," 
Vol. II., t is worthy of being more generally known than 
it is : viz., that after digging down through the rubbish, 
not merely looking on with their hands in their pockets, 
" They recognised perfectly the esplanade upon which the 
pyramid had been established ; and discovered, happily, 
at the north-east angle, a large hollow socket {eTicastre- 
rrvent) worked in the rock, cut rectangularly and unin- 
jured, where the comer-stone had been placed ; it is 
an irregular square, which is 118 British inches broad in 

* There is even a large consumption of ancient bailding-stones in the 
accidents of modem Egyptian life ; let alone the oft burning of limestone 
blocks into lime, for mortar and plaster- work. Thus I was astonished 
in 1864 at the massive outside stair to his house which one of the 
Sheikhs of the nearest Pyramid village had male, evidently with stone 
blocks from the tombs on the Great Pyramid Hill. But in 1873 I am 
informed by Mr. Waynman Dixon that that village has been in the 
interval entirely washed away bv a high Nile inundation, and that its 
inhabitants have since then built themselves a new village much closer 
to the Great Pyramid Hill, and in so far nearer to their inexhaustible 
quarry of stones, cut and squared to their hand. 

f *' Us reconnurent parfaitement Tesplanade surlaquelle a M 4tablie la 
pyramide, et decouvrirent heureusement h. Tangle nord-est un large 
encastrement, creus^ dans le roc, rectangulairement dress^ et intact, oCi 
avait pos^ la pierre angulaire ; c'est un carre irr^gulier qai a 3 metres 
dans un sens, 3*52 mHres dans Tautre, et de profondeur 0*207 metres ; ils 
firent les mdmes recherohes k Tangle nord-ouest, et ils y retrouv^rent 
aussi un encastrement semblable au premiere ; tons deux ^taient bien de 
nivoau. Cest entre les deux points les plus ext^rieurs de ces enforcements 
(«t avec beaucoup de soins et de precautions qu'ila mesurerent la base. Hs 
^^ trouv^rent de 232*747 metres." 


one direction, 137'8 British inches in another, and 7'9 
British inches deep" (measures since then tested by 
myself, but only after several days spent in digging 
ftnd clearing the locality by a civil engineer with a party 
of Arabs). " They made the same research at the 
north-west angle, and there also discovered a hollow 
socket {ewxi^rememX) similar to the former : the two 
were on the same level. It was between the two 
exterior points of these hollows, and with much care 
and precaution, that they measured the base-side length. 
They found it 76362 British feet." 

TTie "encastrement," so discovered in the basal rock 
at the north-east angle, is duly figured in plan amongst 
the large French plates ; and, as I have since verified 
at the place, has the inner comer curiously pared away, 
eridenUy indicating the well-shaped rectangular ovAtr 
comer to be the true starting-point for measure ; be- 
cause, also, it was originally the terminal point of the 
Pyramid's substance at that lower angle or foot. From 
the outer comer of the north-east to the outer comer of 
the north-west " encastrements " of their hap2)y dis- 
covery it therefi>re was, that the skiliiil French sur- 
veyors extended their measuring-bars, and with the 
result given above. 

Ur. Taylor has assisted the explanation of, or pre- 
sented some apology for, the errors of the better class 
of earlier observers, by imagining their having been 
really measuring along some of the elevated steps or 
ranges of stones, at a height up the sides of the P}Ta- 
mid ; when, fix>m the sand not having been cleared 
amy, they eironeously thought they were at the bottom 
of the pie. But the apol<^ was hardly required ; for 
none of them suJSciently realised the importance of 
Mcnnoy in what they were engaged in ; and if, indeed, 
any man redly believed the Great I^ramid to be only 
a tomb^ and nerer to hare been intended for anything 


but ft tomb, as too all our modem Egyptologists boastfully 
teach, why akotild he trouble himself to measure it as 
carefully as he would fi scientific standard of measure ? 

For the length of the real, or ancient, base-side o£"i 
the Great Pyramid, therefore, no measure previous to. 
the French one (which is the first socket measure) shoidd 
or need be used, or can be depended on to within &. 
serious number of feet. And as the French measures 
cannot now be repeated or replaced by any decidedly 
better, without previously incurring a large cost in re 
covering the sites of those important " encastrements' 
or fittinys-in of the outer comers of the Pyramid's base 
and still more in clearing and levelling the much-encum- 
bered ground between them, we must not let the said 
French measures drop out of sight. 

Colonel Howard-Vyse, indeed, did go to much of this 
remarkable expense ; and not only procured another 
measure of the very original pyramid base breadth of 
the builders on the north side from end to end, but, as 
already mentioned, found near the middle thereof two 
of the ancient exterior casing-stones still forming, on 
the rocky platform, both a firmly-cemented part of the 
old basal line, and a beginning of the northem upward- 
_ sloping side of the building. 

Howard-Vyse' s Casing-sfoncs. 

The extreme value residing in these angular relies, 
was not only because they were of the number of the 
original casing-stones actually in situ and undisturbed, 
and therefore showing what was once the veritable out- 
side of the Great Pyramid, viz,, smooth, polished, dense 
white limestone softer than marble in a sloping plane ; 
but because they exhibited such matchless workmanship ; 
as correct and true almost as modem work by optical 
' utrumeut-makers, but exhibited in this instance on 



blocks of » hoght of nearly 5 feet, a breadth of 8 feet, 
and a length perhaps of 12 feet ; with joints, including 
a film of inteistitul cement, no thicker than "silver 
paper." The angle of the inclined or bevelled outer 
surface, measured very carefully by Mr. Brettell, civil 
engineer, for the Colonel, came out 51° 50' ; and being 
computed from linear measures of the sides, made for 
him by another engineer, came out 51° 52' 15'5".* 
Results extremely accordant with one another, as com- 
pared with the French determination (before there was 
anything on which to determine accurately, other than 
the present ruined and dilapidated sides of the edifice) 
of 61° 19' i" ; or of previous modem observers, who 
are found anywhere and most variously between 40° 
and 60°. 

But the Colonel's engineers, though good men and 
true, were not accurate enough for the estraordinaiy 
accuracy and merits of the unique piece of ancient work 
they had to deal with ; and in the liriear measures 
which he givee in p. 261, Vol. I., of his great book (and 
the length measures of the sides of a triangle, as every 
practictd sorreyor knows, are capable of laying down its 
particulars on paper much more accumtely than can be 
done l^ using the angles through means of an angle- 
showing protractor), there is one anomaly which seems 
to have esciq>ed remark hitherto. The stone itself, in 
cross section, and its accompanying numbers, stand as 
in our i^g. 2 of Plate II. 

The lengths, having been only attempted to be given 
to the nearest inch, are lamentably short of the refine- 
ment to which they might have been taken ; and an 
accurate measure of such noble sides, would have given 
the angle by calculation iar closer thata it could have 
been observed to, by any clinometer then at the pyra- 
mid^ or indeed in dl Egypt, i^id perhaps Europe. 

* • Btr John BnHlwl, Mi*nmm^ April 23, IS60. 


By subtracting the uppci- from tiie lower surface length! 
the tigure is reduced to a triangle for calculation ; und ] 
we have what should be a right-angled triangle at B 
(Fig. 3), where a = 59, 6 = 75, and c = 48 inches all ] 
by measure. But the value of the angle A is then j 
found to be so very different, accordingly as it is com- 
puted from 6 c, or a h, that we may soon perceive! 
clearly that b is not a right angle ; and on computing wbajl J 
it is from iAe thre^ aides, it appears to be 88° 22' 52'6\ I 
This, however, is such an egregious error for workmen ' 
like those of the Great Pyramid to have committed, and 
in their earnest angle, that I incline to think Mr. Perring 
must have made a mistake of an inch in his measure of 
the base breadth of the stone, his most difficult sic 
measure. Indeed it would need a little more than an 
inch to be taken off his number, to bring the angle B 
up to 90° ; but as Mr. Perring does not deal in smaller 
quantities than an inch, and as none of the sides were 
likely to have fallen on an even inch exactly, I have 
not veuturod to make so strong a correction upon one 
of them only, though too it would be to bring it up to 
the round pyramid number of 100 inches in length; 
and I leave the twin results of the Vyse cosing-stonea 
as given out to the world by their discoverer. 

John Taylor's Proposition supported hy Soward-Vyse's 
Casing-sUme Angle. 

On the whole, then, takiug everything into practical 
consideration, the ancient angle of the Great Pyramid's 
slope may be considered to bo certainly somewhere 
between the two measured quantities of 51° 50' and 
51° 52' ISo", while there arc many reasons for believ- 
ing that It must have been 51° 51' and some seconds. 
How many seconds, the modem observations are not 
i competent altogether to decide : but if we assume for the 


lime 14*3', and employ the vhole angle, viz. 61° 51' 14-3' 
with the lei^th of Uie base side as already given from 
linear measure ^763*81 British feet, to compute the 
height, ve have for that element 486'2d67 ; and from 
these values of height and base-breadth, computisg the 
proportion of diameter to circumference, there appears 
486-2567 : 763-81 x 2 :: 1 : 314159, &&• And this 
result in so &r shows that the Great Pyramid does 
represent the value of v ; a quantity which men in 
general, and all human science too, did not begin to 
trouble themselves about until long, long ages, languages, 
and nations had passed away after the building of the 
Great Pyramid ; and after the sealing up, too, of that 
grand primeval and prehistoric monument of the patri- 
uohal a^ of the earth, according to Scriptnre. 

Vv/rQu/r Cim/ErmattoiM of John Taylor's Fropoaition. 

Hence the first stage of our trial tenninates itself 
with as eminent a confirmation aa the case can possibly 
admit of, touching the truth of John Taylor's proposi- 
tion or statement ; and I am even in a position now to 
add the absolute weight of personal examination, as well 
as of inquiries carried on at the place for a longer time 
■sd with better measuring instruments than any of my 
predecessors had at their command. I was not indeed 
■0 fortunate as Colonel Howard- Vyse in finding sucli 
large, entire, unmoved, and well-preserved casing-stones 
as he did ; but was enabled 'to prove that the enormous 
rubbish mounds now formed on each of the four base 
sides of the ^ramid , consist mainly of innumerable 
fragments of the old casing-stones, distinguishable both 
hy the superior quality of their component stone and 


their prepared angle of slope always conformable, within 
very narrow limits, to Colonel Howard-Vyse's determi- 
nation. And a number of these almost " vocal " frag- 
ments are now deposited in the museum of the Royal 
Society, Edinburgh. 

Also, by careful measures of the angle of the whi 
Pyramid along all four of its corner or "arris" lines' 
from top to bottom, observed with a powerful astrono- 
mical circle and telescope, as more particularly described 
in my larger book, ■' Life and Work at the Great 
Pyramid," in 1865, the same residt came out. For 
that comer angle so measured (see the outer triangla 
Kdh'va. Fig. 1, Plate II., and compare also Figs. 1 and 2 
of Plate III.) was found to be ^V 59' 45" nearly : and 
that gives by computation, according to the necessary 
innate relations of the parts of a square-based pyramid, 
for the side slope of this "Great" one, 51° 51' and soma 
seconds ; or without any doubt the representative of tha 
angle Colonel Howard-Vyse did observe on the side 
and the one wliich, if it is there, necessarily makes iho- 
Great Pyramid express the value of w, or the squi 
of the circle, whatever the absolute linear size of 
whole building may be. 

But that feature of linear size contains other pro- 
blems within itself, the nature of whose origination ia 
even still more mysterious than tliis one, now prac- 
tically solved, touching the angle of rise of each of the 
four inclined sides and the object thereof 




eat ^^k 

,1 (1 ^" 




A Foot Standard unsuitable for iron the Great Pyramid! s 

TN the pocess of recomputing Mr, Taylor's circum- 
-'- ferential aiial<^ of the Great Fyramid on p. 25, after 
his own manner by linear vertical height and horizontal 
bftse-breadth, the quantities which we employed * were 
expressed in Engliah feet; but it does not therefore 
follow that they, or indeed any foot-measures, were 
employed by the ancient builders. 

Certainly the length, want of meaning, and incon- 
venience of the intctions obliged to be introduced in 
order to represent the bne, or ir, proportion of the one 
I^nunid element to the other, in these particular, abso- 
lute, linear terms, tend to forbid the idea. No doubt 
that a foot is something of a natural and vcty common 
measure,t and may have been (I do not say that it was) 
extensively used in i^ypt for many agricultural and 
other operations, which, if lowly, " are innocent and 
hurt not ;" but still there is good reason for disputing 
whether a " foot " was ever lifted up against that 

• YiM., TCttlal URht<B480-3SU fM, ud Imgtlt ot oiw lide of 
bMS— TU-Slbvt. 

t n* aatovl or nakad Ibot of man is ihorter, ny mbont lOS in place 
•f ISioebMi bnt Um mctkal foot of ciriliiwl nun, wndallBd, ihoed, or 
booM, U aftM mm Uwn IS inohM long. 


grandest building of all antiquity, the Great Pyramid* 
by the authors thereof. 

If then a foot-measure was not likely, and the pn>^ 
fane Egj-ptian cubit {whose length was close to 20'V^ 
British inches) gave similarly inconvenient fractions, whal 
sort of standard of linear measure waa likely to havM 
been employed at the building, or rather by the builde^ 
or architect of the whole design, of the Great Pyramid f 

"What Sta-ndard would auit tt on ilie Scale of the Qreai } 
Pyramid ? 

As a first step in such an inquiry, let us see whether 
an equally exact proportion between linear height and 
twice base-breadth, to what our long fractions of feet 
gave, catiuot be obtained from some simpler numbers. 
Take, for instance, 1165 : 3G60. These do not give 
the value of it exact, as no simple numbers can, when 
the proportion itself belongs really to the incommen- 
surables ; but it is an astonishingly close approach, and 
an admirable clearing away of fractional troubles in all 
approximate work, for such plain' and small numbers to 
make ; and the exceedingly trifling fraction* by which 
the one should be increased, or the other decreased, does 
not, in the existing state of our pyramidal knowledge, 
make much practical difference upon most of the ques- 
tions which we shall have presently to take up. 

Are there, however, any other reasons than such 
mere convenience, why we should attach any significance, 
touching importance in the design of the Great Pj'ramid, 
to these particular numbers ? 

There are such reasons. 

In the Jirat place, 366, which represents here (16 

• Either 116-fiOU : 3ee-0000, or 

116-6000 : 36600.66. woDld be eloier, 
but not H ooUTeiiieiit in multipliutiou and diviHoo. 


oQT arbitrary diameter of a circle 116*6) the ir circum- 
ferential analogy of that circle, is also the nearest even 
nmnber of days in a year : or more precisely, of solar 
daj^ in a mean tropitnl solar year ; or, again, of day- 
steps in the circle of a year, the most notable and im- 
portant of all circles to man. 

We now know, by modem science, that the exact 
nnmber of these day-steps in the natural year is 
365'242S -f an almost endless fraction of unascertained 
length ; though practically, and for the ordinary pur- 
poses of life, all civihsed nations now une 3G5 even ; 
except in leap-year, when they do, evenly also, make 
their year to consist of 366 days. 

In the wcon/i place it may be stated, that that por- 
tion of the I^ramid employed as the chief datum of 
linear measure in the problem under discns.sion, viz., 
the length of each aide of its square base as determined 
by the " socket " measurements, both of the French 
aarante and Colonel Howard- Vyse, when it comes to be 
divided into 366 ports, seems to give each of them a 
length approaching nearly to one ten-millionth of the 
earth's semi-axis of rotation, or close upon 25 liritish 
inches. Equivalent, therefore, if further and inilopen- 
dmtly proved, to the architect having kid out the size 
of the Great PjTamid's base with a mensuring-rod 25 
inches long in his hand ; and in his head, the number 
of da}*? and parts of a day in a year ; coupled with the 
intention to represent that number of days in terms of 
that rod on each base side of the building. 

A Day and Tear Standanl imikaied, with EaHh 
Cvmmeneu rab'diti/. 

Xow this is a feature, in all sober truth, if that 
qoaotity of length was really used intentionally as a 
Standard of measure, of the most extraordinary iniiwrt- 


auce ; for it is only since Newton's time that men 
knew anything exact about, or have attributed anythii^ 
peculiar in its size to, the earth's axis of rotation as dif- 
ferent &om any other diameter thereof. It is, therefore, 
to man, evidently a result of modem science alone ; and 
every modem civilised nation has, during the present 
century, been obliged to perform gigantic trigonometrical 
operations and " degree measurings," in order to arrive 
at any approach to accurate knowledge of the true 
length of that earth-line, or rotation axis of the earth ; 
and they are still pursuing the inquiry with most 
extensive establishments of well-trained surveyors and 
scientific calculators. 

Their best results hitherto oscillate generally about 
500,500,000 English inches within very narrow limits, 
though some of the results are as great as 500,560,000, 
and others as sniall as 600,378,000. 

Such, then, are the ranges of uncertainty in which 
England, France, Germany, America, and Russia arc 
placed at this moment ; and yet they are immensely 
closer in accord, and nearer to the truth, than they 
were only fifty years ago ; while 1,000, 2.000, or 3,000 
years since, even the most scientific of men knew nothing 
but what was childish about the size of that earth on 
which it had pleased God to place his last and most 
wondrous act of creation — man — to dwell, and play his 
part, for a little season. 

Is it possible, then, that at a much earlier date still 
than 3,000 years ago, or on the occasion of the founding 
of the Great Pyramid in 2170 RC, the author of the 
design of that building could have known both the size 
and shape of the earth exactly, and have intentionally 
chosen the unique diameter of its axis of rotation as a 
reference for the standard of measure in that building ? 

Humanly, or by human science finding it out then, 
and in that age, of course was utterly impossible. But 


if the thing was ins^ted th^e in &ct — and if its in- 
sertion be not owing to accident, and if traces of the 
Bapematural are attributable only to God and to his 
IKvine inspiration, it must bo one of the most remark- 
able &cts that occurred at the beginning of the post- 
diluvial career of man, outside of Scripture history; and 
stands next in importance to Scripture itself for man to 
inquire into, as to how, and for what end, it was allowed 
or aided by the Almighty to take place. 

Mort Rigid Inquii-y into the Absolute Length of the 
Base-aide of the O'i'eat Pymmid. 

The first thing, therefore, for us to do now, is to 
ascertain if the alleged fact is there ; or, rather, to what 
degree of accuracy it is there ; for in all practical work 
of physical science and nicety of measurement, good 
scieDtific men know that nothing whatever can be as- 
certained absolutely, but only within certain limits of 
error ; those limits becoming smaller as observation 
improves, but never entirely vanishing. 

Is, then, the ten-millionth part of the earth's semi- 
axis of rotation, or 25*025 British inches (nccording to 
the estimate of the axis rotation being 500,500,000 
British inches long),* multiplied by 365 ■242 (the number 
of solar daj's in a year), the true length of a side of the 
square base of the Great Pyramid ; and if it is not, by 
how much docs it differ ? 

The above theoretically proposed quantity evidi'ntly 
amounts to 9,140 British inches, nearly. An<l at the time 
of the first edition of this book being pidiliNhoil, the 
only admissible, because the only socket -f(>un<1cd, deter- 
minations of the basc-si<lc lengtlis that I was ac<]uniittoil 
vith, were, Ist, the French ono (seep, 21):= 70302 
* Hm mrih't «q«toiikl diameter ie •boat 603,3ZG,(KI0 Drititb inchea 


English feet = 9163-44 British inches; and, 2nd, Colonel 
Howard-Vyse's, of 764 English feet =: 9,168 British 
inches ; and both of them are too large. 

This error, if it is so, did not affect our determination 
in the last chapter for the ir shape of the Great Pyramid, 
because we computed the height in terms of this same 
base-breadth by reference to an angle observed quite 
independently. But now we require to know more 
positively whether the length then used was real or 
figurative only ; and when I was actually at the Great 
Pyramid in 1865, Messrs. Alton and Inglis, engineers, 
succeeded in imcovering all four of the Great Pyramid's 
comer sockets (as duly detailed in my book, " Life and 
Work'*), and then proceeded to measure from socket 
to socket every one of the four sides of the base : and 
with what result ? They made them all shorter, far 
shorter than both the French and the Vyse determina- 
tions, or equal only to 9,110 British inches on the mean 
of the four sides. 

Either their measures then must have been very bad 
and too short, or those of the French and Colonel 
Howard- Vyse were bad and too long. I inclined to 
divide the errors between them in my book, " Life and 
Work," published in 1867 ; and in 1869, when the 
Royal Engineer surveyors, returning from the Sinai 
survey, went (according to orders) to the Great Pyramid, 
and announced, through their colonel at home, that 
the mean length of a side of its square base, from 
socket to socket, was 9,130 British inches, my idea of 
even-handed justice seemed to be in part confirmed.* 

* The Great Pviamid's baae-side length was recently quoted from 
Sir H. Jamee by me Warden of the Standards in Nature as 9,120 Br. 
inches. Bat this was an error; for on page 7, line 4 ai imo. Sir H. James 
l(then Col., now Qen.), R.E., states distinctly in his '* Notes on the Great 
Pyramid," that *^ the mean length of the sides obtained by the Ordnance 
Surveyors was 9,130 inches ; " and it is only when he goes on to take the 
mean of his men's 9,130, with Aiton and Inglis's 9,110, — wholly ex- 
cluding the French surveyors and Colonel Howard-Yyse, — ^that he 
announces that ** 9,120 inches was therefore the true length of the side 


But as there are internal features of cvidenco that 
none of the me&sures, not even the loKt, wore accumto 
enough to be depended on to the third place of figiircH 
(whether measured upon only one side, or all four sides, 
of the base considered square by everybody), all men 
are at this very moment left by the last pyramid 
base-sido meflsurers of modem timcH in this predica- 
ment — viz., the theoretical length of 9,140 inches, 
which would imply such almost unutterable wisdom, 
or such inconceivably happy occidcat, for tliat ]irimcval 
time, on the part of the designer of the Orcnt 
P\-Tamid, is really found amongst, or as though it wcro 
one of, the best results of modem mi-asiire. It 
is, indeed, notably couHrmcd by them ; or may bit 
asserted upon and by means of thcni, within such 
limits as they can continn anything ; and if thnsis 
limits are coarse, that coarseness is entin'ly the fault 
of the modem measurers, not of the ancient building; 
which, founded on a rock (and an ndinirably tinn an<l 
nearly unfisaured hill of dense rock of nuniiinditic 
limestone, in nearly horizontal strata), could not ]>as- 
sibly have expanded and contracted lietween the suc- 
cessive modem dates of 1799, 1S37, l«'i.j, nnd 1S6!» 
A.D,, as tha recent measures seem at first to imply. Thu 
variations, therefore, first from 9,163 to 0,1 US, then 
to 9,110 and then to 9,130, must be merely the pfim 
and minm errors of tlie modem mcasnnrs: or of men 
intending honestly to do well if thny could, but erring 
involuntarily, sometimes to one side and sometimes to 
the other of exactitude. 

. ^ oMgt DbBerron, trith 11 

TCfatta, ii ihowD in thsnsxt line, whvre iho Colnnel <levcl<'p» his nlisiirilty 
iTri''Vr' tlMm- of the mxich later Oreuk cubit hiivini; drnduil the Imgih 
of the early Ortat P;raiiiid baie-nidi-, and nqniriHj luch a Itii^h uh 
9,120 inclMi; of which moio uod.. 



r/tc Earth-axia, awl Year, Comme7isu.rablc lUsult 
further mdicaied. 

Of course better measures than all that have been yetV 
taken might be made, and shoukl be instituted forth-?^ 
with, to clear up bo notable a point in the primeval 
history of man : but the expense to be incurred hi thftl 
preliminary clearing of the ground to allow of accurate | 
measuring apparatus being brought to bear, is beyond , 
the means of any ordinary poor scientifie man ; and 
the Great Pyramid is not aiavourite subject eitlier with 
rich men or the wealthy governments of wealthy nations: 
while the iuvaluable comer sockets, never properly 
covered up since 1805, are daily being trodden and 
broken down at their edges out of shai>e and out of size ; 
80 that we are not Hkely to see speedily, if ever, any , 
better measures of the base-side length than those i 
already obtained. | 

But as they, when considered by any computer fully, 
honestly and fairly, do include the Uieoretical 9,140 
British inches, we are already justified so far (and we 
shall have in a future chajiter signal confinnation from 
the interior of the Pyramid), in upholding the high 
degree of probabilitj- that the reason why the Great 
Pyramid (made already of a particular shape to enun- 
ciate the value of the nmtliematical tenn ir) had also 
been made of a particuliu- size, was, — in part, to set forth 
the essence of chronologj- for man in chronicling all his 
works upon this earth. For evidently this waa accom- 
plished there, by showing that the niunber of times that 
the Pjramid's standard of linear measure would go into 
the length of a side of its square base, was equal to thei 
number of days, and parts of a day, in the course of I 
B year. That standard of linear measure being, more-J 
over, with a mar\'ellously complete appropriateness, thti 
ten-millionth of the length of the earth's semi-axis i 

Cmp.IIL] the great pyramid. 35 

rotation : or of half of that axis, by the earth's rotating 
upon which before the sun, that particular number of 
days for work and nights for rest is constantly being, 
produced for all humanity in the course of the earth's 
Anrmal revolution around the sun. 

Hence there is hero wheel within wheel of appro- 
priate and wise meaning, far above any mere single case 
of simple coincidence of numbers ; and which implies 
something beyond mechanical accident on the part of 
the ancient architect, though our own modem Egyjitolo- 
gists and the andent Egyptians and all the rest of the 
pagan world too, saw nothing of it. The affair was 
open, because it was on the surface, during all antiquity, 
and especially open during the days of the Greek 
philosophers in Alexandria, when the Great Pyramid 
was still complete in size and fiiiifih, with its l)evened 
casing-stones forming the then outsitlc finished surface 
of the whole ; and any of those learned men, by merely 
dividing the Pyramid's base-side length by tbe number 
of days in a year, might have acquired to themselves 
the most valuable scientific standard of length contained 
in the whole physical earth ; but none of them did so. 

Beginnvag ofRBfervace to tJie Great Pyramid's Xwiuhcm. 

And the affiur grows in wonder the further we inquire 
iDto it. For Mr. Taylor, led by the numbers of British 
inches which measure the earth's polar-axis k'ligth, — 
and other men, also led by the dominance of fives in tho 
I^ramid'a construction (as that it has five angles and 
five sides, including the lower plane of the Itase mathe- 
matically AS one) — ventured the suggestion, that tho 
■nthor (^ the Great Pymniid's design botli bod, and used, 
■s his smaller unit of measure, an inch. An inch, thoii^rli, 
larger than a British inch by a thousandth ynirt, i t: 
about half a hair's-breadth ; an ap2>arcntly unimiwr' 


quantity, and yet it is that which enahles the roand, 
and at the same time grand. Pyramid number oi five 
■hundred millions of them, even, to measure the length 
of the earth'3 polar diameter with exactitude. 

With these inches, the day standard of linear measure 
for the side of the base of the Great Pyramid is 5 x S, 
or just 25 of them; and that length, while it will be 
shown presently to be fully deserving of the appella- 
tion, amongst all Christians, of " Sacred Cubit," we will 
in the meanwhile only call the cubit of the Great 
Pyramid's scientific design. Next, as there are four 
sides to the PjTamid's base, the united length of all of 
them evidently equals 3G,524 Pyramid inches; or, at 
the rate of a round hundred inches to a day, the whole 
perimeter of the buikling (already shown to represent 
tile theoretical -n circle) is here found to symbolise once 
again, in day lengths, the practical circle of the year, 
so essential to the life and labours of man. 

Now is it not most strange, — or rather is it not 
ominously significant, that the ancient profane cubit of 
idolatrous Egyjit, 207 British inches long nearly, if 
applied either to the Great Pyramid's base-side, or base- 
diagonals, or vertical height, or axis lines, or any other 
known radical length of the building, brings out no 
notab'e physical fact, no mathematical truth. While 
the other length of 25025 British inches (which the 
profane Egyptians, and the Jupiter and Juno and Venus 
worshipping Greeks, when in Egypt, knew nothing of) 
brings out in this and other cases so many important 
coincidences with nature, as makes the ancient monu- 
ment speak both intelligibly and most intellectually to 
the scientific understanding of the present day. 

Why. it seems almost to imply, — so far as the close- 
ness of a 25 British inch length, to being the key for 
opening this part of the design of the Great Pyramid, is 
concerned, — that there was more of intercommunication THE GREAT PYRAMID. 37 

ia idea and knowledge between the itrcliitect of the 
Great Pyramid, and the Oi'ir/lnes of the Anglo-Saxon race 
(whose nationa] uniti of linear measure the inch more 
eRpedally is) than hetweeu the said architect or designer 
of the one Great Pyramid in Eg^'pt, and all the native 
E^'ptian people of all the ancient ages, with their in- 
variable 2U'7 inch cubit, which expliiins nothing, ex- 
cept their early connection with Babylon ; and they, 
the holders of it, idolaters worse than thoso of Babel, 
and Cunite religious professors every one of them. 

T%e Great Pyramid'a LiTiear Slifnrlurd conffaatcd with 
the French Mitre. 

We have thus arrivetl by a coniimmtivcly sliort and 
easy path, at the same chief rcKiilt tom-liing the Great 
I^Tsmid's staodjirdx and units of linear measure, and 
a probability of whence the British inch was deiived 
iu primeval days of purity and patriarchal worshi]) 
before idolatry began, — which Mr. Taylor equally ob- 
tained, but by a more circuitous process ; and wliat a 
result it is, in whatever point of view we look upon it, 
or by whatever road we have attained to it ! 

The nations of the world three tliouKiiwl years ago, of 
their own selves and by their own knowledge, cured little 
almut their national measures, and knew nothing but 
what tras childish with regard to tlu^ size of the earth ; 
so that all our present exact acquaintance with it in 
confined within the histor}' of the hinidred years. 
The gre&t attempt of the French jk-ojiIc in their first 
Revolution to abolish alike the Cliristian religion, and 
the hereditary weights and measures of all natioiH, 
and to replace the former by a worship of philosophy, 
and the latter by their " mfetre," " French metre," 
scheme depending in a certain manner of their own 
np<m the magnitude of tlie earth, as well as to substi- 




tute tlie week of seven clays by an ortificinl period of 
ten days, — is only eighty years old- And how did they^ 
the French philosophers, endeavour to carry out th«r' 
metrological part of their scheme ? By assuming as' 
their unit and standard of length, the l-10.000,000th 
of a *' quadrant of the earth's surface '," Well may we 
ask with surprise if tliat was all that science, trusting in 
itself, was able to do for them. For the grasp and 
understanding of the subject, that took a curved line 
drawn on the earth'3 surface in place of the straight 
axis of rotation, was truly inferior in the extreme. Sir 
John Herschel has well said, but only after Joba 
Taylor's statement about the Pyramid had lighted up 
his mind with the exquisite thought, of how near sfy,ex 
all the British hereditary inch ia to an integral earth- 
measure, and the best earth-measure that he had evet 
heard of, — Sir John Hersehel, I repeat, has said, "So 
long as the human mind continues to be human, and 
retains a power of geometry, so long will the diameter 
be thought of more primary importance than the cir* 
cumference of a circle ; " and when we come to a sphere, 
and in motion, the axis of its dynamical labour should, 
hold a vastly superior importance still. 

Again, the French phUosophers of eighty years ago, 
in fixing on a Meridional quadrant of surface for their- 
metre's derivation, had no idea that mthin the last 
three years the progress of geodesy would have shown 
that the earth's equator was not a circle, but a rather 
irregular curvilinear figure,* perhaps ellipsoidal on the 
whole, so that it has many different lengths of equa- 
torial axes, and therefore also different lengths of qua- 
drants of the Meridian in difl'erent longitudes. Tliey, the 
eavants of Paris, could not indeed foresee these things 

■ See M. do Sohubert in " TniiMctioni of Imp. Acnif. of 8l. Petenr 
Inrg;" ind Sit G. B. Air;, Aatr. R., ia "Uonlhlj Notice* ot BajA 



of the present day, or a state of geodesic science 
beyond them ; and yet these things were all taken into 
account, or provided for, or certainly not sinned against, 
by the mind that directed the buildmg of the Great 
Pyramid 4,040 years ^o ; and the reference for the 
grand unit, the 10"^, or ten-millionth, part of the 
earth's polar semi-axis, then adopted, is now shown to 
be the only sound and scientific one which the earth 

Through those long mediffival periods, too, of dark- 
ness, confusion, and war, when our nation thought of 
no such things as mathematics, geodesy, and linear 
standards, the same master-mind likewise prevented our 
h/trtdiiary, and qwm. I^ramid, vmM of, the 
inch, from losing more than the thousandth part of 
itself; for this is the result, if it turns out as John 
Taylor believed — and as he was the first of men in these 
latter days both to believe and to publish his belief — 
that the Great Pyramid is the one necessarily-material 
centre from which those practical things, weights and 
measures, in a primeval age, somewhere between the 
time of Noah and Abraham, take whatever chronology 
you will, were Divindy distributed to certain peoples and 
tongues ; and carried with the utmost care from land 
to land, for special purposes of some grand future mani- 
festation, which is yet to make its appearance on the 
stage of hanuui history. 



^H John Tay 




Taylor's Earth and Pyramid ATiaki^ies. 

TTAVING established thus much, and to this degree 
-'-■■ of approximation, as to shape, size, and linear 
standard of the Great PjTaniid, it may now he worth 
our while to bestow some special attention on two other 
analogies between that building and the earth, pubhshed 
by John Taylor ; and which, on being examined soon 
afterwards by Su- John Herscbel,* were honourably de- 
clared by him to be, so far as he then knew, the only 
good relations between the size of the earth and the size J 
of the PjTamid which had up to that date been l 
successfully nia<le out ; though at the same time he T 
expressed his belief that they were only approximate. 

A most naeftil caution ; and keeping it fully in view, 
let us test them over again and in the terms of those J 
pyramidid units and standards which we ourselves have 1 
now obtained ; for inasmuch as they allow us to speak I 
of the Great Pyramid in the very primal measiu-es appa- ] 
rently employed by its architect in plajining the design, 
we may thereby be enabled to put his work to a stricter 
and more direct test. 

The first of these two analogies by Mr. Taylor is, 4 

m, April, 1860 ; aod Ur. Taylor's " BatUe of tlie Stuidudt," 
1 864. Bee the AiipendU to tbe SglvdiI Edition of his •■ Qreat Fyramid." 


when put into the form subsequently chosen by Sir 
John Herschel, "s band encircling the earth, of the 
breadth of the base of the Great Fymmld, contains one 
hundred thousand million square feet." The l)uilt size, 
in &ct, of the Great Pyramid ia here stated to bear 
such a remarkably round and even number, as its 
proportion to the created size of the natural earth, at 
the epoch of its human habitation, that an argument for 
intention rather than accident may spring thcre&om, if 
it hold closely in &ct. 

The feet to be used on such an occasion, can hardly 
be any other than pyramid feet, or 1 2 pyramid inches 
set in a line ; and the part of the earth for the colossal 
band to encircle, what should tliat be \ 

Though it is allowable enough, and very useful too 
in approximate work, to speak of the earth as a globe, 
at sphere, whose every great circle, or section tlirough 
its centre, will have the same length of circumference, 
we cannot so do, or content ounwlvcs therewith, either 
in accurate modem science on oue side, or in any 
advanced stage of pjTamid investigation on the other ; 
especially when some of our earliest discurerius there, 
indicated that its design discrimiuate<l between the axis 
of rotation diameter, and any and every other pofisible 
diameter through the really s]>beroidal, or elli[>soidal, or 
chiefly flattened~at-the-potes figure, of the great mass of 
the earth. 

Let us come to some very clear conclusion then on 
the size and shape of the earth, in pyrniuid units of 
measure too, before we attempt tlie solution of any 
further problem supposed to connect the two. 

Of (A« LeT^h of the EartJia Polar Axin. 

Expressed in pyramid inches (each of them 0001 
of an iffi* longer than the national Britiidi inch) the 


polar diainctor, or axis of rotation of the earth, has 
stated by different observers of the best modern schools 
of the present time to be either (see p. 30) 499,878,000 
or 500,060,000 pyramid inches in length, or any and 
almost every quantity between those limits. They ci 
not, in fact, be determined much closer by the b( 
measures of the best men and the most powerfid govei 
ments of civilised nations in the present day 
although one office or nation publishes its results 
an arithmetical refinement of nine plat^^s of figures, % 
cannot convince any other office or nation of its 
rectness beyond the three first places of lignres. Soi 
of them may agree to- four places, few or none of them, 
to five or six or more places. Therefore in this case and 
all other similar one.s throughout this book, I shall try to 
simphfy all numerical statements of measures by not. 
putting them down to more places of significant ni 
hers than they can be nearly depended on to. Hei 
the 000 with which the above statements terminate 
merely to give the proper value to the preceding figui 
and not to indicate that any one man'.s measures of 
earth gave forth an even number of inches in tens,: 
hundreds, or thousands. 

" But why do they not ascertain what the length of 
the earth's axis is, and state it exact? " may ask many, 
a reader, not directly experienced in practical scienti " 
measurement. Well, by all means let any and evei 
such reader ask, and ask again that question in the 
proper quarter. Let them ask, for instance, at the 
Ordnance Survey Office in Southampton, or from the 
Trigonometrical Survey of India, where generations after 
generations of Engineer officers have been taken away 
from their proper military duties, and kept at nothing 
but observations and calculations to get at the size and 
shape of the earth all their lives long. They have 
lived and died at that emplo^'ment alone, and are still 



succeeded at the task 4)y others, and yet it is not com- 
pleted. In iact, the expense of the methods and the 
men employed, is increasing every day. And pot in our 
countty alone, but in eveiy state on the Continent, ia 
similar work going on, and with less chance than ever 
of one exact, absolute, and uoirersally admitted con- 
clusion being ever arrivetl at 

Neither is this any fault of those individuals ; it is 
the nature of human science, because it is human and 
not divine. Human practical science can only go on by 
approximations, and can never reach anything more 
than approximations, though it work at one and the 
same simple subject for ages. And though the subject 
itself in nature and to the eye of its Creator is abso- 
lutely simple, human science makes it so complicatotl 
md difficult as it advances with its successive approxi- 
mations, that the matter is crushed in the end by its ovm 
weight, and at last &lls out of the range of all ordinary 
men to deal with, <x even to be interested in. 

Not only, too, do the experts of two diiferent coun- 
tries produce different measured results for the size of 
one and the same earth's axis of rotation, but they 
produce different results in computing the same ob- 
servations ; until even one and the same computer will 
produce varying quantities out of the same data by 
different methods of computation, the absolute cor- 
rectness of any of which he does not preti-nd to 
guar.intee, though he can say a great deal for them all, 
is the present advanced state of the science. 

Lategt Determination of the Earth's Polar Axis. 

A good example of this condition of our best know- 
ledge of the earth's size was given by a volume 
published 1^ the Ordnance Survey in 1866. It con- 


tained some splendid computations by Colonel Clarke, 
R.E., the chief mathematician of the establishment, and 
gave perljaps the most highly advanced results of all 
earth surveys then made by any and every nation. 
Yet he presents his final results in two different shapes, 
and by one of them makes the polar axis of the earth 
(reduced here from British into pyramid inches) to 
measure by one mode of computation 499,982,000, and 
by another 600,022,000 ; leaving the reader to choose 
which he likes, or any mean between the two. 

This was, in its day, a great advance upon everything 
before it ; but now, in place of being contented with 
either one or other or both those results, all European 
countries are engaged on further measurements of the 
earth ; which measurements, after the consumption of 
more millions of money, may enable the parties con- 
cerned, in the course of the next century or two, to 
amend the above numbers by some very small propor- 
tional part ; but which way, there is no saying. 

In a work entitled '* The Metric System," by Presi- 
dent Barnard, of Columbia College, New York, 1872, 
that able analytical mathematician and forcible writer, 
at pages 94 to 105, sets forth admirably, and in plain 
words, the inconceivable practical difficulties which 
small irregularities in the earth's figure throw in the 
way of modem science determining the size and shape 
of the whole earth. And, wonderfully extensive, as well 
as dreadfully expensive, as have been the geodesic 
operations of all nations, taken together, during the last 
hundred years, he considers that all their resulting 
data, expressed by him shortly as " 40 Latitudes," 
must eventually be increased to not less than 4,000, 
before the materials for computing the earth's size will 
be worthily ready for the mathematicians to begin their 
•mwieldy, unenviable, and humanly almost impossible, 

scussions upon. 


Equatorial and other Diameters of the Earth. 

Meanwhile we have already assumed as the polar- 
axis length for computation in the pyramid comparisons, 
500,000,000 pyramid inches ; and that being a quantity 
which this recent Ordnance publication may, and to a 
certain extent does, lai^ely confinu, but cannot over- 
throw, let us hasten on to an equally close knowledge of 
what the other diameters of the earth may measure. 

These parts depend partly on what amount of elliptical 
compression the computers assume, as either ,1-^, ^J,, ^f^, 
or anything else ; and partly what shape they assign 
to the section of the earth at the equator where a 
species of transverse elUptical compression is assigned 
(not absolutely, but only with a certain slightly diO'erent 
degree of probability that it is so, rather than not) by 
the Ordnance book ; to an extent that mokes one of the 
equatorial diameters 150,000 pjTamid inches longer 
than another. 

Without then attempting to decide any one's correct- 
ness, I have represented these extremes in the accom- 
panying table, and placed between them tlie very set of 
earth measures which I had computed as probabit/ nearest 
the truth in the first edition of " Our Inheritance in the 
Great I^Tamid." 

Ta»li or 

Ea«ih'i. She i 

1 PrniMln IsrHlu. 



n*rko'« muUMl 

•ncp." Fir.t, 
edition, IWl. 

equator al Oiuu. 1 

Pntir Dlnmitor 
Dum«teriu Ut. BO. 






John, Taylors First Aiwlogy. 

With these data at our command let us return to the 
Taylor-Herschel Pyramid analogy, which asserts that " a 
band of the width of the Great Pyramid's base-breadth 
encircling the earth, contains 100,000,000,000 square 

An equatorial band is the only one which could 
encircle the earth in a great circle, and at the same 
time in one and the same parallel of latitude ; we pro- 
ceed therefore thus : from the equatorial dicmieters 
given above, we compute the equatorial dreumfereTices 
by multiplying them by that almost magic number to 
work calculations with, the tt of the Great PjTamid, or 
31 41 59, &c. Reduce them to pyramid feet by dividing 
by 12, and next multiply by the. already determined 
pyramid base-breadth in Pyramid feet, viz., 760*922 ; 
the following results then come out, viz. : — 

They all give smaller figures than the required 
100,000,000,000; for the smaller equatorial diameter 
gives 99,919,000,000, and the largest equatorial dia- 
meter gives 99,949,000,000. 

Not absolutely true, therefore, with any allowable 
equatorial diameter, to the first three places. An inter- 
esting approximation therefore, but, as Sir John Herschel 
truly remarked, only an approximation. Let us pass 
on, therefore, to the next analogy. 

John Taylors Second Analogy, 

The height of the Great Pyramid, says Mr. Taylor, is 
the irt-D^D-o th part of the circumference of the earth. 

But why -r>-5!(r<r<rth ? That is not any known pyramid 
number, like the 5 s, and 10 s, and 4 s of its practical 
construction, or the tendency to the marked tt numbers 
3 and 7 of its shape ; and the only approach to a 


reason which I have been able to discover is the 
following : — ^The squaring of the " circle " in everj'^ way 
is a continual problem throughout the Great Pyramid ; 
and if the area of its base be computed in hundredths 
of feet, the length of the circumference of a circle 
containing an equal area will be 269,740', not 270,000*, 
of the same terms. 

Hence the number 270,000 is not quite accurate to 
begin with ; and if we multiply that by the Pyramid's 
height in inches, and divide by tt, we have what should 
be a mean diameter of the whole earth in some gieat 
circle ; but the result comes out only 499,590,000 ; 
which number a glance at the previous table will show 
is too small for all its data ; i.e, not fully true when the 
third place of numbers is reached. 

Hence both of these analogies may have been useful 
in approximately leading an inquirer to a first eosmic^il 
foundation, or reason, for the Great Pyramid's size ; but 
they cannot take the place of that other relation esta- 
billed on pages 31 and 34, between the length of the 
Great Pyramid's base side in 2 5 -inch cubits, or its whole 
perimeter in standards of 100 Pyramid inches each, and 
the number of days in a year. 

For that relation is apparently true to the fifth place 
of numbers at least ; and, besides that, is baekeil l)y a 
cosmical relation with good reason of the utmost impor- 
tance to men ; and to the Pyramid too as an anthro- 
pological monument, and in so far as its design viay 
contain a message firom Heaven to man, touching 
closely on his personal welfare and future social and 
governmental condition upon this earth. ^^ 

* Etoi one siople aiithmetioal coincidence is not so frequently met with 
M KMne persona imagine. For whereas in 1869 one of the' Ordnance 
ofllcen attempted to turn the pyramid cnbit into ridicule ati an earth 
najsore, — ^^Becaose," «ud he, ''the British foot is as closely com- 
mensurable a meatore of an equatorial degree of longitude, in terms of 
the year and ita dajrs too, as the pyramid cubit of the earth's polar semi- 
mzia ; and w« kmw that thai relation of the modem firiiiah luol m\x«\.\A 


Qrander Pyramid and Solar Analogy, 

Yet however valuable these last two basal cum annual 
analogies may be, they only hold their position at all 
by means of the base-breadth being measured on each 
occasion in one particular linear standard, and no other. 
They are neither of them, therefore, that grander relation 
between the Pyramid as a whole, and something either 
in the heavens above or the earth beneath, quite inde- 
pendent of the terms of measure, which mankind had 
been long hungering and thirsting for ; but which was 
only at last obtained by my friend William Petrie, C.E., 
when studying the mensurations in " Life and Work," 
in October, 1867. 

He then remarked, and naturally enough, that the 
circle typified by the base of the Great Pyramid has 
already been proved to symbolise a year, or the earth's 
annual revolution around the sun ; and the radius of 
that typical circle had also been shown to be the ancient 
vertical height of the Great Pyramid, the most important 
and unique line which can be drawn within the whole 

Then that line, said he further, must represent also 
the radius of the earth's mean orbit round the sun ; 
and in the proportion of 10^ or 1 to 1,000,000,000 ; 
because, amongst other reasons, 10 : 9 is practically the 
shape of the Great Pyramid. For this building notwith- 
standing, or rather by virtue of, its tt angle at the sidcSy 
has practically and necessarily such another angle at the 
corners, — see Figs. 1 and 2, in Plate III., — that for 

purely accidental " — yet when I came to test the assertion hy calcalating 
the matter out, I found that the officer had taken Colonel darkens maxi- 
mum equatorial radius on the ellipsoidal theory, had used it as though it 
had been the mean radius, and did not get the mil number he required for 
his aseertions even then. So that his number, instead of coming out to 
365,242', only reached 365,234*, but had no right to be quoted higher 
than 365,183' ; and there all the scoffer's reasoning and analogy ended, 
while the Pyramid's continued to go forward to greater things. 

Cmif.IV.] the great pyramid. 49 

every Ufa units its structure advances inward on the 
diagonal of the base, it practically rises upwards, or points 
to sunshine, by mn«. Nine too, out of the ten charac- 
teristic parts (viz., five angles and five sides), being the 
number of those parts which the sun shines on in such 
a shaped pyramid, in such a latitude near the equator, 
out of a high sky ; or, as the Peruvians say, when the 
sun sets on the Pjrramid with all his rays/^ 

W, Pdriea Pyramid Sun-diatance. 

To computation Mr. Petrie instantly proceeded, reduc- 
ing the 5,813 pyramid inches of the Pyramid's height 
to British inches, multiplying them by 10^ and reducing 
those inches to miles, — when he worked out thn quantity 
91,840,000. Alas! sighed he, the analogy does not 
hold even in the second place of figures, for the real 
sun-distance by modem astronomy has been held during 
the last half century to be 95,233,055 milos.t 

So he threw his papers on one side and attended to 
other matters ; until one fine morning he (a man then 
almost wholly occupied with chemical engineering; 
chanced to hear, tliat although the above number, ninety- 
five millions odd, had 1)een held to for so long by all tln^ 
modem world, mainly because it had been produced by 

* Thii 10:9 shftpe of the Great Pyrmmid was independently discovered 
■OOB afterward bj Sir Henry James and Mr. 0*Farrell, of t}ic Ordnance 
Burrey Office ; and it is interesting to notice that the side an trie com- 
pated from it amoonts to 51* 50' 39-1 ; the ir angle heing 51' 51' U"-3 ; 
and the angle from Mr. Taylor's inter|)rctation of Ilenxlotus. or to the 
•fleet of the Great Pyramid haWng been built to represent an area on the 
ndei, eqojil to the height square^ 51' 49' 25 '. The verticul hci^'hts in 
I^nmid inches, are at the same time, using the same l)uK*-side li.-ngth f»r 
tbaa all — by the 10 : 9 hypothesis, 5,811 ; by the ir h^-pothcsia, 5,813 ; and 
by the Herodotus-Taylor hypothesis = 5,807. 

t Mr. Petrie may have used a rather greatt^r hcisht, viz., 5,826 inches 
fbr the Pyramid, in which case his sun-diAtance would have t>evn rut her 
mraater than 91,840,000 ; but the general nature of his ru^ult, on the 
quantity approred by aU European astronomy fifteen years ago, would 
hare been aenubly just the same. 



the calculations of a late first-rate German astronomer 
(calculations so vast, so diflScult, and with such a pres- 
tige of accuracy and power about them, that no living 
man cared to dispute their results), yet the astronomical 
world had been forced to awaken during the last twelve 
years* to a new responsibility, and not only admit that 
the number might possibly be erroneous, but to institute 
some observations for endeavouring to determine what 
it should be. 

Such observations, too, actually had just then been 
made, and the daily press was full of their new results. 
And what were they ? 

Why one group of astronomers of several nations 
declared the true mean sun distance to be about ninety- 
one to ninety-one and a half millions of miles ; and 
another group of the same and other nations declared it 
to be from ninety-two to ninety-two and a half millions 
of miles. And while they were fighting together as to 
whose results were the better (an actual duel with swords 
was expected at one time between M. Le Vender and the 
late lamented M. De Ijaunay),Mr. Petrie steps in and shows 
that the Great Pyramid result actually is between the 
two ; indeed, it is almost exactly the mean between the 
contending parties, and forms therefore a single repre- 
sentation of all the sun-distance results of all human 
kind even in the present age. 

Granting then that modem science is now so far 
advanced that it may talk, at least on a irwin of all its 
results, with some degree of confidence at last of what 
may not improbably be the true sun-distance, — the 
correct figures for it were given, and built up, by the 
Great Pyramid's design 4,040 years ago ; or before any 
nations of mankind had begun to run their independent, 
self-willed, theotechnic, and idolatrous courses. And if 
we desired any additional proof to the records of the 
history of science in general, and of the sun-distance 


problem in particular,* that such knowledge could not 
have been obtained in that early day, when men were 
few and weak upon the earth, except it came from 
Divine inspiration, — the modem astronomers are now 
splendidly, though involuntarily, affording it : giving in- 
deed, proof heaped on proof, in the enormous prepara- 
tions which they are making, at the expense of their 
respective nations, to observe the transit of Venus over 
the sun's disc, merely as one step towards getting the 
sun-distance number, perhaps a trifle better than before, 
in the year 1874. 

Modem Astronomers are involuntarily i^roving that 
Man, unaided by Supernatural Divine Power, could 
not possibly have measured the Sun-distance accit- 
ratdy in the Age of the Great Pyramid ; ami yet it 
is there ! 

These preparations for observing the next Venus-Sun 
transit by modem astronomers have already been 
going on for several years, and nothing of their kind 
80 costly, so scientific, so extensive, were ever seen on 
the fiice of the earth before. From Europe to America, 
and from tho most northern nation's old Hyper- 
borean strongholds to the most disUint and newest 
colonies in the Southern Hemisphere, the busy hum 
resounds. Steam navigation, iron ships, electric^ tele 
graphs, exquisite telescopes, both reflecting and re 
fracting, photographic machines of enonnous i)owej-, 
refined " regulator " clocks, and still more refined chrono- 
graphs, transit instruments, equatorials, spectroscopes, 

* In the age of the Greeks, the diitance attributed to tho sun from th<t 
eetth bggmn with the in&ntine qiuntity of about ten miles ; it increased 
elowly to 10,000 : etiU more slowly to 2',500,000 ; then, Hflei^ a long deUv, 
iacrsaMd to S6,000,000, under Gkurman Kepler ; to 78,000,000 in the days 
of liDoii XIY., n&der Fkendi La Caille ; and only at length reached the 
fall iiMUitity, and then clumsily OYerpasscd it, at the beginning of the 
praeot century. 


iiltitude-azimuth circles, aU these modem inventions aodi 
many others, with all the Icamiog of the UQiversitit 
are pressed into the cause ; preparatory computat:' 
too, with much printing, engraving, and puhlioatio] 
have been going on for years ; and all will he can-' 
ried out almost regardless of expense, of time, oft 
danger, of obstacles, to the most distant parts of the. 
earth ; and where necessary, to parts, some of them in 
the tropics, and some in frozen oceans, which neither 
Greeks nor Romans in all their days, nor even our own 
fathers only seventy years ago, knew anything of. 

But all this accumulation of power, of wealth, o£ 
numbers, of risk, co-operated in too by every civilised 
nation, is stated to be absolutely necessary ; nothing of' 
it can be spared, nothing omitted, if we are to enrich 
ourselves, in the present age, with a better result for 
the sun-distance than mankind has yet obtained ; ex- 
cepting always that one result of old laid up in the 
Great PjTamid. So the expeditions will set forth 
gloriously next year, amid the warmest plaudits of the 
whole modem world, and especially of its scientific 
associations. Many of the pilgrims may fall like heroes 
by the way, and some of them leave their bones to 
whiten distant lands. Large populations at home may in 
the meanwhile stance for want of the necessaries of life, 
and the crimes arising out of ignorance uneducated, 
crowding in squalid residences, and the innate wickedness 
of human nature when left to its own devices uncorrected, 
will go on wholesale, making our morning paj>er8 
hideous. But for all that, the chosen parties will sail 
witli their treasuries of instrumental detail ; and, if the 
usual consequences of successful scientific researches 
follow, the science of the modern world will have 00- 
casion to boast, after it is all over, of having improvecl, 
ita number for expressing the sun-distance, —a little 
and its acquaintance with certain disturbing pheno* 



Diena iHCreasing tho difficulty of the obsorvations, and 
throwing new doubts upon the final result — a great 

ThA Great Pyramid before Science, 

What a solemn witness to all these unequal efforts 
of mankind, is not the Great Pyramid, which has seen 
all human actions from the beginning ; from the time 
when men broke away in opposition to both the Divine 
rale and inspired teachings of patriarchal life, and wil- 
fully went after their own inventions. 

Placed in the midst among all men, and especially 
those of the earliest inhabited regions of tho post- 
diluvial earth, thus has been standing the Great PjTamid 
firom dispersion times ; and they, the men so honoured, 
never knowing anything of its knowledge capacity, or 
suspecting its profound meaning. Yet these things, c^r 
the types and measures of them, so far as we have seen 
them here, were on its surface all the time. Any on(\ 
therefore, through all history, who should have known, 
if he could have known indeed, the true sun-distanco, 
had only to compare the Great Pyramid's height 
therewith, reasoning at the same time on its shape, in 
order to be enabled to perceive that the measure of 
that all-important physical, astronomical, motrological, 
and anthropological, quantity was hung up there from 
ancient days, and in figures more exact than any that 
modem observations have done more than merely approxi- 
mate to. 

But again we shall have to tell, and from facts ascer- 
tained and ascertainable in just as eminently practical 
a manner, that all that wonderful scientific information 
(mote than wonderful for the age and circumstances 
under which it was placed there) was not introduced mlo 
the Great ^ramid solely, or even at all, for stxcng^lYiomtv^ 



[Pabt I. 

men in science ; much less was it to promote tlie 
worldly fame of the introducer. 

Science is there, but mainly to prove to these latter 
scientific days of the earth that the building so designed 
has a right, a title, an authority, to speak to men of these 
times, and even to the most scientific of them, on 
another and fiir higher subject ; and with proofs of 
things unseen, quick and powerful, piercing even to the 
dividing asunder of the soul and spirit, and discerning 
the thoughts and intents of the heart ; as may pro- 
bably develop itself with unexpected clearness, if the 
inquiry into what the Great Pyramid does monumentally 
and mechanically testify to, is allowed to progress to 
the end. 

Chap, v.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 55 



Fmay, however, after our last chapter, be demanded 
by very earnest inquirers, to be shown some easy 
and material proofs of astronomy of more ordinary kind, 
let alone the possibilities of so transcendental a kind, 
having been intended by the primeval d(\signer of the 
Great Pyramid, — ^before they can fully admit the entirely 
non-accidental character of the remarkable numerical 
coincidences which liave just been given. 

The request is most reasonable, and I address myself 
to the answer immediately. 

Orientation of the Sides of tlte Great PyramuL 

To begin, the reader may be reminded, that the 
square base of tho Great Pyramid is very truly oriented, 
or placed with its sides facing astronomically due north, 
south, east, and west ; and this fact at once abolishes 
certain theories to the effect that all the phenomena of 
component parts of that Pj^ramid dejiend on pure 
geometry alone ; for to pure geometry all azimuths are 
alike, and one most particular astronomical azinuith or 
direction has been picked out there. 

In the early ages of the world the v(.Ty correct 
orientation of a large pile must have been not a little 
diflScnlt to the rude astronomy of the period. X e\> v(\\!ti 


such precision haJ tlie operations boon primevally per^ ' 
formed on the Great Pyramid, that the French Academi- 
cians in J..D, 1799 were not a little astonished at the 
closeneaa. Their citizen Nouet, " in the month Nivose^p 
of their year 7," made refined observations to test thef 
error, and found it to be only 19' 58"; but with the3 
qualification added by M. Jomard, that as M. Nouet I 
only had the ruined exterior of the Pyramid before him 1 
to test, the real error of the original surface might hare I 
been less. In this conclusion M. Jomard was doubtles 
right ; for in the similar sort of measure of the angle o£i 
slope of the side with the base of the Pyramid, it WEts,l 
jjroved afterwards, on the discovery of the easing-stone^ T 
that his compatriot had erred to a very much largv I 
extent than the original builders. 

As it was, however, all the Academician authors of the I 
great Napoleonic compilation were delighted with thel 
physical and historical proof which the Pyramid seemed* 
to give them, when compared with their own modem ' 
French observations of stars, " That the azimuthaL 
direction of the earth's axis had not sensibly altered, 
relatively to the sides of the Great PjTTimid's base, i 
during probably 4,000 years." I 

PoBsibilitij ofAzimuthal Change in the Ci-uet ofVte I 
Eurlh. I 

Now some action of this kind, one way or the other, I 
has long been a mooted q^uestion among astronomers, I 
though chiefly for its bearing ou geography, gener^ ■ 
physics, and geology. In its nature, therefore, it muatfl 
be kept entirely distinct from the more perfectly astro-4 
nomical phenomenon, and which few but astronomei^B 
care at all about — viz., the direction of the earth's axIa-1 
in space, moving with it the whole substance of th^J 
, earth at the saine time ; and whereiu the precession ^U 


Uie equinoxes comes to the surface, with its slow but 
ceaselesB chronological changes from age to age in the 
apparent places of the stars usually supposed most fixed. 
But in the rather geographical, and more especially sur- 
fitce-differential, light in which the problem was dis- 
cussed by the French mvanU of the Revolution, it had 
also been clearly seen long before, as a cj'nosure of study, 
by the penetrating genius of the English Dr. Hooka 

For it was this early, and ill-paid, but invaluable Secre- 
tary of the Royal Society of London, who, in his discourse 
on earthquakes, about the year 1677 A.D., remarks, 
"Whether the axis of the earth's rotation hath and doth 
continually, by a slow progression, vary its positioo uith 
respect to the parts of the earth ; and if so, how much 
and which way, which must vary both the meridian 
lines of places and also their particular latitudes ? 
that it had been very desirable, if &om some monu- 
ments or records in antiquity, somewhat could have 
been discovered of certainty and exactness ; that by 
comparing that or them with accurate observations now 
made, or to be made, somewhat of certainty of iufor- 
matjoD could have been procured." And he proceeds 
thus : " But I fear we shall find them all insufScient in 
accurateness to be any ways relied upon. However, if 
there can be found anything certain and accurately 
done, either as to the Exing of a meridian line on 
some stone building or structure now in being, or to 
the positive or certain latitude of any known place, 
though possibly these observations or constructions 
w^e mode without any regard or notion of such nn 
hypothesis ; yet some of them, compared with the 
presept state of things, might give much light to this 
inquiry. Upon this accoimt I perused Mr. Greaves' 
description of the Great I^-ramid in Egj'pt, that iH'ing 
labled to hare been built for an astronomical obser\-a- 
tory, as Ur. Greaves also takes notice. I perused his 


book, I say, hoping I should have found, among many 
other curious observations he there gives us concerning 
them, some observations perfectly made, to find whether 
it stands east, west, north, and south, or whether it 
varies from that respect of its sides to any other part 
or quarter of the world ; as likewise how much, and 
which way they now stand. But to my wonder, he 
being an astronomical professor, I do not find that he 
had any regard at all to the same, but seems to be 
wholly taken up with one inquiry, which was about 
the measure or bigness of the whole and its parts ; and 
the other matters mentioned are only by-the-bye and 
accidental, which shows how useful theories may be 
for the future to such as shall make observ^ations." 

Dr. Hooke, however — in mitigation of whose acerbity 
there is much to be said in excuse, for nature made 
him, so his biographer asserts, " short of stature, thin, 
and crooked '* — this real phenomenon, Dr. Hooke, ** who 
seldom retired to bed till two or three o'clock in the 
morning, and frequently pursued his studies during the 
whole night," would not have been so hard upon his 
predecessor in diflBcult times if he had known, and as 
we may be able by-and-by to set forth, what extra- 
ordinarily useful work it was that Professor Greaves 
zealously engaged in when at the Great Pyramid. The 
Doctor s diatribes should rather have been at Greaves' 
successors to-be, those who were to visit the Great 
Pyramid in easy times, and then and there do nothing, 
or mere mischief worse than nothing. Whence it re- 
mains still, to any good and enterprising traveller, to 
determine with full modern accuracy the astronomical 
azimuth of the Great Pyramid, both upon its fiducial 
socket marks, as defining the ends and directions of the 
sides of the base ; and, still more importantly, on its 
internal passages. 

These passages are worthy of all attention; and a 

Cm».T.] the great pyramid. 59 

iurther proof of the importance attached by the 
piimeTal builders to the strict " orientation " of the 
whole building, in each of its parts as well as its moss, 
is eminently showa by the apparently perfectly parallel 
position ivhich they preaer\-ed for the ozimuth of the 
first, or entering passage, with tho base sides on either 
hand ; and this, too, Qotwithstandiiig that (as Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson explains) there were structural or rather deeply 
politic reasons for their not placing tliat said entering 
aperture exactly in the middle of the northern aide in 
which it is found, but a considerable number of feot 
nearer towarda the cast than the west end thereof. 

Popular Itlcim of Antronomical Orientution. 

In page 26 of George R. Gliddon's "Otiaffigyptiaca," 
its acute author does indeed oppose any roterenco to 
astronomical skill, by suggesting that all this exactness 
of orieotatioa indicates, amongst the builders uf the " pre- 
aotiquity " day of the Great Pj-nimid, " an acquaintance 
with the laws of the magnet." Yet had that been all 
the founders were possessed of to guide them, thrir 
great and lasting work miglit have been in error by 
•3 much as twenty degrees, in place of only twenty 
minutes, or, perhaps, for less. 

Geoi;ge R. Gliddon is truly, on most Egj-ptologicsd 
topics, a well-read man, and hod nearly a lifetime 
of Egyptian experience to dilate on, as he docs, too, 
with eloquence ; hut, unfortunately, he shares the 
pseudo-scientific belief of a large part of the world in 
general — to wit, that more wisdom and science are 
manifested if you do a thing badly and im]ierf(H:tly by 
the indications -of electricity or magnetism, than well 
and accurately by plainly visible phenomena of me- 
chanios and astronomy. Uud he been aVAe m Oca 


[P*iiT X I 

case to show that %)'pt was perpetually and for ever I 
in a plague of darkness and eoclosure of mist, .meal 
would have been thankful for a magnetic needle, maugrsl 
all its excessive variations and trembling uncertainties, 1 
But when they had in that magnificent climate and I 
almost tropical position, the high climbing sun hy day I 
and the exact stars by night, what else did they want to 1 
get their astronomical alignment, and the direction df i 
the north, by means of? L 

At all events, in my own observations there in 18G6, « 
I was happy to throw magnetism and its rude point- f 
ings overboard, and employ exclusively an astrono- 
mical alt-azimuth instrument of very sohd construe- I 
tidn, and reading to seconds : in that way comparing 1 
the socket-defined sides of the base, and also the 1 
signal-defined axis of the entrance passage, with the 1 
azimuth of the pole-star at the time of its greatest l 
elongation west ; and afterwards reducing that by the j 
proper methods of calculation to the vertical of the ] 
pole itself 

And with what result? Though a tender-hearted ' 
antiquary has asked, "Was it not cruel to test any 
primeval work of 4,000 years ago by such exalted in- 
struments of precision as those of the Victorian age in 
which we live ? " 

Well, it might be attended with undestred resultB. 1 
if some of the most praised up works of the present ^ 
day should ever come to be tested by the improved 
instruments of precision of 4,000 years hence; but the 
only effect which the trial of my Playfair astronomical 
instrument from the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, had 
at the Great Pyramid, was, to reduce the alleged error I 
of its orientation from 19' 58" to 4' 30".^* 

CiuF. v.] THE GKEA T PYRAMID. 6 1 

Further Teat by Latitude. 

In so far, then, this last and latest result of direct 
observation declares with high probability that any 
large relative change between the earth's axis and a 
line on its crust, such as Dr. Hooke and the French 
Academicians speculated on, must, if anything of it 
exist at all, be confined within very narrow limits 

This conclusion has its assigned reason here and thus 
for, solely from observations of angular direction on the 
surface of the earth ; and without any very distinct proof 
being touched on yet, that though we find the Pyramid's 
sides at present nearly accordant in angle with the 
cardinal points, they were intended to be so placed by 
the primeval builder for his own day. 

But indication will be afforded ])resently respecting 
another test of nearly the same thing, by distance on 
the sur&ce ; or that the architect did propose to place 
the Great Pyramid in the astronomical latitude of SO"" 
north, whether practical or theoretical ; while my own 
observations in 1865 have proved that it stands in the 
pBrallel of 29** 58' 51'. 

A sensible defiedcation from SO'', it is true, but not 
all of it necessarily error ; for if the original designer had 
wished that men should see with their bodily, rather 
than their mental, eyes, the {>olo of the sky, from the 
foot of the Great Pyramid, at an altitude before them of 
30^ he would have had to take account of the refrac- 
tion of the atmosphere ; and that would have iieoossi- 
tated the building standing not in SO'', but in 20^58' 22". 
Whence we are entitled to say, that the latitude of the 
Great I^rramid is actually by observation between the 
two very near limits assignable, but not to be discrimi- 
nated between, by theory as it is at present 


Testimonyy from the Great Pyramid^s Geographical 
Position, against some recent Earth Theorisers, 

In angular distance, then, from the equator, as well 
as in orientation of aspect, the land of Egypt, by the 
witness of the Great Pyramid, has not changed sensibly 
for all ordinary, practical men, in respect to the axis of 
the earth, for 4,000 years. 

What therefore can mean some of our observers ati 
home, observers too of the present day, who stand up for 
having themselves, during their own lifetimes, witnessed 
the sun once rise and set in an exceedingly diflTerent direc- 
tion by the naked eye from what it does now ? I have 
looked over the papers of two such enthusiasts recently 
(one in England and the other in Scotland), but with- 
out being able to convince them of their self-decep- 

Again, in the Rev. Bourchier Wrey Savile's work, 
*'The Truth of the Bible," published in 1871, that 
usually very learned and painstaking author (and much 
to be commended in some subjects) implies, on page 76, 
that the direction of the sun at the summer solstice is 
now, at Stonehenge, no less than twelve degrees different 
from what it was at the time of ^he erection of that 
monument, which is probably not more than half 
as old as the Great Pyramid. And he quotes freely 
from, as well as on his own part confirms, a mad-like 
man now dead, one Mr. Evan Hopkins, in asserting 
" that the superficial film of our globe is moving from 
south to north in a spiral path, at the rate of seven 
furlongs in longitude west, and three furlongs in 
latitude north, every year; whence the presently 
southern part of England must have been under a 
tropical climate only 5,500 years ago." 

This astounding assertion is supposed to be supported 

Ciup. v.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 63 

by a quotation from one of the Greenwich Observatory 
Reports in 1861, wherein Sir George B. Airy remarks 
that " the transit circle and collimators still present those 
appearances of agreement between themselves, and of 
change with respect to the stars, which seem explicable 
only on one of two suppositions — that the ground itself 
shifts with respect to the general earth, or that the 
axis of rotation changes its position." But I can ven- 
ture to be professionally confident that Sir G. B. Airy 
fljd not mean to support any such assertion as Mr. Evan 
Hopkins' and Mr. B. W. Savile*s, by that mere curiosity 
of transcendental refinement in one year's instrumental 
observation, which he was alluding to in one number 
of a serial document ; a something of possible change, 
too, which is so excessively small (an angle subtending 
perhaps the apparent thickness of a spider's line at the 
distance of fifty feet), that no one can be perfectly 
certain that it ever exists ; and which, if found at any 
given epoch, does not go on accumulating continually 
with the progress of time, so as at last to become patent 
to the common senses of all men. 

To confirm, too, this much more sober view of the 
nearly solid earth we live upon, the Great P}'ramid adds 
all its 01*11 most weighty testimony to that both of 
Greenwich and every public obser^'atory with good 
astronomical instruments throughout Europe, by declar- 
ing the world's surface to be remarkably constant to the 
cardinal directions ; if not indeed for ever, yet at least 
for a liar longer time than they, the modern observa- 
tories, can directly speak to. And thus it may come to 
pass at last, that there will yet be proved to be more of 
"the truth of the Bible" bound up with both the 
scientific mechanical definition, and the exactly ob- 
served constancy through long ages when so defineil, of 
astronomical directions and geographical positions, than 
has yet entered into most persons' modem philosophy. 

Trve Privievat Astronomical Orievtaium, 

Great Pyrmnid, opposed by all early idolatn 
structures elsewhere. 

And thus, in fact, the Great Pyramid, otherwise 
proved a non-idolatrous, as well as primeval, monument, 
set the true scientific rule in building, of orienting its 
sides to tho cardinal directions. This plan was fol- 
lowed also wherever that Pyramid's example, by ovarii 
shadowing grandeur, was felt to be compulsory, as 
evidently was in the adjacent parts of Lower I^ypt, — fl 
but nowhere else. 

At Thebes, for instance, for away in Upper Egypt,' 
and in Nubia further still, the temples and tombs are 
put down or founded at every possible azimutli, in 
almost every quarter of the compass ; and temples 
and tomb.s arc all of them undoubtedly idolatrous, and' 
speak lamentably to human theotechnic inventions. 

In Mesopotamia, again, the Chaldean temples, dedi- 
cated glaringly both to fiilse gotls, and all the Sabtean hosts 
of heaven, are not laid out at random like the Theban 
temples, but in another sort of opposition to tho Great 
Pyramid example ; for while their bases, though 
rectangular are not square, they are set forth with j.heir 
sides as fiir as possible from any cardinal point, or at 
an angle of 45° therefrom ; and steadily and per- 
sistently thereat from ono end of the Interammian 
country to the other. 

The Kev. Canon Rawllnson of Oxford has, indeed, 
endeavoured to maintain that it was a matter of indif- 
ference for the astronomical observations of those 
Chaldean buildings, whether they were oriented upon,' 
or at 45° away from, tho cardinal points — but he can 
be no a.stronomer, even as ifr. Fergusson has proved' 
him to have no sound practical views of architecture, 
though he may be the most profound of all academical! 



scholars. And when ve atutly the Great I^Tomid itself 
still further, important results follow to its prestige 
and geographic^ power upon earth from new develop- 
ments arising out of its north and south, with east and 
ireat, bearings, as well as from its regular figure. 

Geoffrapkical Aptitudes of the Great Pi/raraid. 

With the general's glance of a Napoleon Bonaparte 
himself, his Academician Havants in Ejopt, in 1790, 
jterceived how grand, trutlifiil, and effective a trigono- 
metrical surveying signal the pointed shajie of the 
(Jreat Pyramid gratuitously presented them with ; and 
thoy Dot only used it for that purjiose, as it loomed far 
and wide over the country, but ns a grander order uf 
signal also, to mark the zero ineridian of lonyiliide for 
all Egypt 

lu coming to this conclusion, they could hiu-Jly but 
have pprceived something of the ]icculiiir position of the 
Great F^Tsmid at the soiitht'm ii]iex of the Delta-land 
of EgjTt ; "id recognised that the vertical plane of the 
PjTamid's passages jiroduccd uortlm-ard, pa-ssed through 
the northernmost point of Egj'pt's Mcditcrianean coast, 
besides forming the countrj-'s central and uvmt com- 
manding meridian line; while the N.E. and N.W. dia- 
gonals of the building similarly produced, enclosed the 
Delta's either side in a symmetrical and wfll-lndanccd 
manner. But the first verj- particular puhliciit ion on 
thia branch of the subject was by Xlr. Ilonry Jlitdiell, 
Chief Hydrograplier to the United States Const S ir^ey. 

That gentleman, luring been sent in ISliS to ro|)on 
nn the progress of the Suez Canal, was much stnick 
with the regularity of curvature along the whole of 
Egypt's nortiem coast. To his mind, and by the light 
of his science, it was a splendid example on that veiy 
socount, of B growing and advancing coast-liue, dcvc- 


loping in successive curves iall struck one after the other 
from a certain central point of physical origination. 

And where was that physical centre of origin and 
formation ? 

With the curvature of the northern coast on a good 
map before him (see Fig. 1, Plate V.), Mr. Mitchell sought, 
with variations of direction and radius, until he had 
got all the prominent coast points to be evenly swept 
by his arc ; and then, looking to see where his centre 
was, found it upon the Great Pyramid : immediately 
deciding in his mind, *' that that monument stands in a 
more important physical situation than any other build- 
ing yet erected by man." 

On coming to refinements, Mr. Mitchell did indeed 
allow that his radii were not able to distinguish between 
the Great Pyramid and any of its near companions on 
the same hill-top. But; the Great Pyramid had already 
settled that differential matter for itself; for while it 
is absolutely the northernmost of all the pyramids (in 
spite of one apparent exception to be explained further 
on), it is the only one which comes at all close — and it 
comes very close — to the northern cliff of the Jeezeh 
hill, and thence looks out with commanding gaze over 
the sector, or open-fan, shaped land of Lower Egypt ; 
looking over it, too, from the land's very "centre of 
physical origin ;" or as from over the handle of the 
fan, outward to the far off sea-coast. All the other 
pyramids are away on the table-land to the south of 
the Great one, so that they lose that grand view from 
the front or northern edge ; and they appear there, 
behind, as in a manner the suite and following train 
only of the Great building ; that mysterious Great one 
who is the unquestioned owner there, and will not allow 
his servants to dispute his possession with him. 

So very close was the Great Pyramid placed to the 
northern brink of its hill, that Uie edges of the cliff 


might have broken off, under the terrible pressure, htui 
not the builders banked up there most firmly the iih- 
mense mounds of rubbish which came from their work ; 
and which Stmbo looked so particularly for 1800 years 
ago, but could not find. Here they were, however, and 
still are, utilised in enabling the Great Pyramid to stand 
on the very utmost verge of its commanding hill, 
within the limits of the two required latitudes, 30° and 
29' 58' 23', as well as over the centre of the land's 
physical and radial formation ; and at the same time 
on the sure and proverbially wise foundation of rock. 

Now Lower Egypt being, as already descnbed, of a 
sector shape, the building which stands at its centre 
must be, as Mr. Henry Mitchell has acutely remarked, 
«t one and the same time both at the border thereof, 
and in its nominal middle ; or, just as was that monu- 
ment, pure and undefiled in its religion though in an 
idolatrous land, alluded to by Isaiah ; the monument 
which was both " an altar to the Lord in the michit of 
Uie land of Eg>'pt, and a pillar at the border thereof;" 
but destined withal to become a witness in the latter 
days and before the consummation of all things, to the 
same Lord and to what He hath purposed upon mankind. 

Whether the Great Pyramid will eventually succeed 
in proving itself to be really the one and only monu- 
ment alluded to under those glorious terms or not, it 
has undoubtedly most unique claims for representing 
much that is in them, both in plain mechanical fact 
and broad chon^raphy ; while its cxceUing character- 
istics of situation by no means end there. For, pro- 
ceeding along the globe due north and due south of 
the Great I^nunid, it has been found by a good 
pbyncal geographer as well as engineer, William 
Petrie, that there is more earth and less sea in that 
meridian than in any other meridian all the world 
ronnid ; CMtsing, therefore, the Great Pyramid's mcTiilum 


to be just as essentially marked by nature across the 
w(5rld, as a prime meridian for all nations measuring 
their longitude from, as it is more minutely marked by 
art and man*s work for, the land of Egypt alone. 

Again, taking the distribution of land and sea in 
parallels of latitude, there is more land surface in the 
Great Pyramid's parallel of 30°, than in any other. 
And finally, on carefully summing up all the dry land 
habitable by man all the wide world over, the centre of 
the whole falls within the Great Pyramid's territory of 
Lower Egypt.* 

Of the Mental Accompaniments of these Several Facts. 

It is useless for objectors to go on complaining that 
the profane Egj^itians, the mere slaves of Pharaoh, did 
not know anything about the existence of America, 
Australia, New Zealand, or Japan, and therefore could 
not have made the above calculation rightly, for I have 
never accused those profane Egyptians of having had 
anything to do with the design of the Great Pyramid ; 
and have no intention of limiting my statements of 
what science may find in the measured facts of the 
building, merely to what Egyptological scholars tell us, 
from their questionable studies, that the vile animal- 
worshippers of old Egypt either did, or did not, know. 

The fact is there in the Great Pyramid, and in the 
world, for every one who likes to test on absolute 
grounds ; to try it for our own times first, and then to 
reduce it to the days of the Pyramid, if there are or 
were sensible changes in the distribution of sea and land 
on the whole, going on. 

But that would seem not to have been the case : 
and, indeed, for the special period of the truly human, 

* See my " Equal Sarface Projection," published in 1870 by Edmonston 
and Douglas, Edinburgh. See also Fig. 2 of Plate Y., in this book. 


or division into nation, time of the world (or since both 
the Deluge and the Dispersion), there is every reason to 
believe that the dry land surface spot which was central 
4,000 years ago is central still, and will continue to be 
so until the end of man's trial on earth. And if we be 
further enabled before long to illustsate that the directors 
of the building of the Great Pyramid were not natives 
of I^gypt, but came into Egypt out of a coimtry having 
a di£ferent latitude and longitude, and went back again 
to that country of theirs immediately after they had 
built the Great Pyramid ; and that there, in their own 
country, though no mean architects, yet they built no 
second pyramid, — ^will not that go far to indicate that, 
assisted by a higher power, they had been taught and liad 
confessed of early time, that there was only one proper 
and fiiUy appropriate spot all the wide world over 
whereon to found that most deeply significant structure 
they had received orders to erect on a certain plan, 
viz., the Great Pyramid ? 

But if the exterior of that unique building, in these 
days almost ruinous under the successive attacks of 
twenty nations, leads so abundantly, when carefully 
studied and scientifically measured, in spite of all those 
dilapidations, to ennobling views (the like of which too 
were never made out in all past time for any other 
building of the earth, not even for a single one of 
the other I^ramids of Egypt, which, all of them, err 
utterly in angle, size, and position), what may we not 
expect from the Great Pyramid's better-preserved 
interior i 

PABT 11. 






THERE is little enough of hollow interior to any of 
the Pyramids, as they are generally all but solid 
masses of masonry ; and yet what little there Is, has 
shown itself quite enough to raise up a radical distinc- 
tion of kind, as well as degree, between the Great 
Pyramid and every other. 

What the Andenta knew of the Interior of the Great 

The pn^Tess of human historical knowledge with re- 
gard to what constituted the hollow interior of the Great 
Pyramid, was both slow and peculiar. Had we now 
before us in one meridional section of the building all 
the ancient knowledge with regard to what it contained, 
it would amount to little more than this — that when 
the Great Pyramid stood on that hill-top in the 
primeval age of the world in solid masonry, with the 
secret of its nature upon it, clothed, too, complete on 
every tide vith its poUshed bevelled sheet of casing- 
stones, riung from a duly levelled area of rock-sur&ce 
in four grand triangular flanks up to a single pointed 
ttiiDiiu(,->4liat then it also contained (trending dot 


from the north and entering at a point ahout 49 feet 
above the ground on that side) an inclined descend- 
ing passage of very small bore, leading to a subter- 
ranean, excavated, rock chamber 100 feet vertically 
under the centre of the base of the whole built monu- 

This subterranean chamber had been heg'wth to be 
carved out in the heart of the rock with admirable 
skill. For the workmen, having cut their way down to 
the necessary depth by the passage, commenced with the 
ceiling, which they made exquisitely flat and smooth, 
though 46 feet long by 28 broad ; then sinking down 
the walls therefrom in vertical planes, there was every 
promise of their having presently, at that notable depth 
inside the limestone mountain, a complete rectangular 
chamber, whose walls, ceiling, and floor should all be 
.perfect, pattern planes. But when they had cut down- 
wards from the ceiling to a depth of about 4 feet at the 
west end, and 13 feet at the east end, they stopped in 
the very midst of their work. A small bored passage 
was pushed on into the rock a few feet further towards 
the south, and then that was also left unfinished ; and 
a similar abortive attempt, though downwards, was 
begun, but probably in modem times, in the broken 
rock of the uneven floor itself; the whole floor from 
one end of the chamber to the other being left thus 
a lamentable scene of confusion, verily (seeing that the 
whole light of day was reduced down there to a mere 
star-like point at the end of the long entrance passage), 
verily, "the stones of darkness and the shadow of 
death." (See Plate I. and Plate VIII.). 

This one item of its internal construction, moreover, 
there is good reason for believing, was oM that the 
Egyptians themselves knew of, from within a generation 
after the Great Pyramid had been built, to the latest 
times of their nation ; excepting only certain men who 

Ghap.YL] the great pyramid. 75 

broke into the building at the epoch of, or near to, the 
Persian invasion ; and for them see Part lY. 

That the Egyptians themselves as a people knew 
thus much, we may readily allow ; because they could 
hardly have known less of the interior than the 
Romans ; and there is proof, in the shape of good uncial 
letters marked in carbon, and recorded to have been 
seen by Signor Caviglia when he first recovered in 
modem times the re-entry to that part of the Pyramid, 
that fAey, the old Romans, were once inside the sub- 
terranean chamber. 

There appears also, it is asserted by some Egyptologists 
of rather a sanguine turn of mind, some small pro- 
bability that pyramids with this single characteristic — 
viz., a descending entrance passage and subterranean, 
or call it positively, a sepulchral, chamber, but of poor 
workmanship, were indigenous in Egypt before the 
erection of the Great Pyramid ; which in that case, 
therefore, began so fiEur in deference to some native ideas ; 
though, as will be seen presently, the Great Monument 
did not care to complete ihtyn,, nor carry out the either 
intended or pretended sepulchral chamber to such a 
condition of floor state, that any stone sarcophagus could 
have been decently, and in order, established there. 

In the undoubtedly subsequent second and third 
Jeezeh pyramids, on the contrary, the subterranean 
rooms ioere finished, floors and all, and sarcophagi 
introduced. Their architects, moreover, attempted to 
adorn those chambers with a large amount of com- 
plication ; but it was only useless and confusing com- 
plication, without any very sensible object ; unless 
when it was to allow a second king to make himself 
ft bnrial-chamber in the pyramid-cellar already occu- 
pied by ft predecessor ; and then it was bad Gra- 
dually, therefore, as the researches of Colonel Howard- 
Yyae have shown, on the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh. 


eighth, and ninth Jeezeh pyramids (all these being 
very small ones, let it be remembered) the native 
Egyptians dropped nearly everything else that they had 
tried, except the one single, partly descending and 
partly horizontal, passage, with a subterranean chamber 
for burial purposes ; and that they kept to, so long as 
they practised their petty pyramid building at all, most 
religiously. (See Plate VI.) 

Lepdu8 Law of Egyptian Pyramid Building. 

Still further, that the making of such descending 
passages with subterranean chambers, and using them 
for sepulture, is precisely what the Egyptians usually 
did when they were their own masters and the directors 
of their own works ; and that they did little more, except 
it was to decorate them with images of false gods, 
boasting inscriptions in hieroglyphic writing, and por- 
traits of themselves, is also testified to from quite 
another quarter. For all the Egyptologists of our age, 
French, English, German, and American, have hailed 
the advent, on their stage of time, of the so-caUed 
" Lepsius' Law of Egyptian Pyramid Building;" they 
universally declaring that it satisfies absolutely all the 
observed or known phenomena. And it may do so for 
every known case of any Egyptian pyramid, eoccept the 
Great Pyramid ; and there it explains nothing of what 
it chiefly consists in. 

Taking, however, the cases which it does apply to, 
viz., the profane Egyptian examples, this alleged " law " 
pronounces, that the sole object of any Pyramid was 
to form a royal tomb — subterranean as a matter of 
course — ^and that operations began by making an in- 
clined descending passage leading down into the rock, 
and in cutting out an underground chamber at the end 
of it. The scheme thus begun below, went on also 


growing above ground every year of the king's reign, 
by the placing there of a new heap or additional layer 
of building stones, and piling them layer above layer 
over a central, square-based nucleus upon the levelled 
ground, vertically above the subterranean apartment ; 
and it was finally (i.e., this superincumbent mass of 
masonry) finished off on that king's death by his suc- 
cessor, who deposited his predecessor's body embalmed 
and in a grand sarcophagus in the underground cham- 
ber, stopped up the passage leading to it, cased in the 
rude converging sides of the building with bevelled 
casing-stones so as to give it a smooth pyramidal form, 
and left it in fiict a finished Egj'ptian, and Pharaonic 
pyramid to all posterity : * and no mean realisation 
either of prevailing ideas among some early nations, of 

* In Dr. Leprius* Ijetter 7, l^Iarch, 18-13, that eminent E^'ptologist 
MT8 dietinctly enough with regard to the abovo thcor}', — *' I di8(>ovored the 
riddle of pyramidal constroction, on which I had been lons[ employod ; *' 
bot in the letterpresR attached to Frith's largo photouraphs of EgA-pt 
(1860 ?), by Mrs. Poole and R. S. Poole, the discovery is givnu catcgoricully 
to another person. As the pasitage is accompanied with a very clear 
dewription of the theory, there may bo advantage in giving it entire from 
this opposite side; as then proving beyond all doubt ho\c mnrh of the 
whole internal arrangement of the Great PjTamid, as noxr known and 
preaently to be described, the approved pyramidal theory of the most 
learned Eg^'ptologists really accounts for : — 

'*Tha principle of their (the ancient Kgyptians) pyramid construction 
waa. discovered by Mr. James Wild, the architect who accompanied the 
lYussian expedition. A rocky site was first chosen, and a space maiie 
smooth, except a slight eminence in the centre, to form a peg upon which 
the itructuro should be fixed. Within the rock, and usually liolow the 
level of the future base, a sepulchral chamber was oxcavuted. with a 
passage, inclining downwards, leading to it from the north. Upon the 
rock was first raised a moderate mats of masonry, of nearly a cubic form, 
but having its four sides inclined inwards ; upon this a similar mass was 
placed, and aronnd, other such masses, generally about half as wide. At 
this stage the edifice could bo completcAl by a small pyramidal structure 
being raised on the top, and the sides of the steps filled in, the whole 
being nltimately cased, and the entrance patisngo, which had of course 
been continued through the maaonry, securtly closed ; or else the work 
ronld be continued on the same principle. In this manner it was i>ossiblo 
for the building of a pyramid to occupy the lifetime of its founder 
witbont there being any risk of his leaving it incomplete (to any such 
degree or extent as would afford a valid excuse for his successor neglecting 
to pel fw III his Tery moderate part, of merely filling up the angles, and 
HBOottiing off generally).*' 


burying their monarchs mh montihia altis^ in impres- 
sive quiet, immovable cahn, and deep in the bosom of 
mother earth. 

Classic Antiquity on the Interior of the Great Pyramid. 

There has been some scholastic question of late years, 
whether Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny, and others of 'the 
ancients, or their immediate informants, were ever 
actually inside the Great Pyramid ; for sometimes it has 
been maintained that the edifice was inviolably sealed, and 
that what they mentioned was only on the reports of 
tradition ; while at other times it is averred that they 
must have seen something more accurately than through 
others eyes, in order to have described so graphically 
as they did ; describing, however, always a vast deal 
more about the exterior than the interior. The very 
utmost, indeed, that they had to say about the latter 
was touching a certain removable stone, and then a 
dai'k groping " usque ad'' or right away to, the far sub- 
terranean chamber where M. Caviglia in a.d. 1820, 
as already mentioned, found blackened Koman letters 
upon its roof;* and half the world has seen, since then, 
the unfinished, unquarried out floor ; or a room with an 
excellent ceiling and walls too, so far as they go, but no 
floor, if that be possible. 

To that point, then, and through that descending pas- 
sage also of the Great Pyramid, occasionally (and probably 
only at very long intervals) various nations did penetrate, 
aided by the removable block of stone. The machinery 
of that sliding block and the opportunity of sometimes 
working it, seemed to act as a safety-valve to the 
Pyramid-curiosity of early times, which was thus ad- 
mitted on rare occasions to see the interior of the 
greatest of all the Pyramids; and then, after frantic 

• Howard- Vyse's " PTramidfl," voL ii. p. 290. 


exertions, men saw and made acquaintance with — ^what ? 
Nothing hut a descending entrance passage and a sub- 
terranean chamber ; that chamber which ought to have 
been a sepulchral one according to both ordinary Egyp- 
tian ideas, and the " Lepsius' Law," but was not. Con- 
sistently too with the Lepsius theorj", it should have been 
the first thing finished about the whole mighty fabric, 
but yet it was never even pretended to be finished at all ; 
the ver}' chamber which ought to have contained sar- 
cophagus, mummy, paintings, and inscriptions, but which 
only really held the rock contents of the lower jmrt of 
the room, not yet cut out of the bowels of the mountain. 
In short, the classic nations knew nothing whatever 
about the real interior of the Great Pyramid's scientific 


Medieval Arabian Learning on the Intei^ior of the Great 


In the course of the dark ages, even what Greece and 
Rome once knew, was lost, besides the P}^ramid being 
assailed by driving storms of desert sand. Hence, when 
the Caliph al Mamoun, a Caliph with an iuquuing turn of 
mind, like his father Haroun al Raschid, of the ''^Vrabian 
Nights," but attending to higher things — (indeed, he was 
said by Gibbon to have been a prince of rare learning, "con- 
tinually exhorting his subjects in excelsior vein assidu- 
ously to peruse instructive writings, and who not only 
commanded the volumes of Grecian sages to be translated 
into Arabic, but could assist with pleasure and modesty 
at the assemblies and disputations of the learned") — 
when this British Association genius of his day then, 
ooming down from Bagdad to Cairo, desired to enter the 
Great Pyramid, A.D. 820, there was only a very indistinct 
rumour to guide him towards tr}'ing the northern, 
rather than any other, side. 


But Al MamouE, the then Prophet-deacended ruler 
of the Mohammedan world, was likewise flattered almost 
as a pod in the rhapsodies of his court poets. They, 
inventing some new pleasure for him every day, could 
only not give him the Great Pj-ramid itself. Emu- 
lating, however, on a basis of Coptic tradition derived 
Jrom the then innumerable Egyptian monasteries, the 
enchanted tales of Bagdad, they drew gorgeous pictures 
of the contents of the Pyramid'B interior ; as well as of 
the astounding history of that mighty and mysterious 
triangular masonic fact, so patent as to its exterior in the 
eyes of all Cairo, so recluse as to its interior against 
both the world and time. 

In describing these matters, most of the reciters 
seemed only intent on putting in everything of value 
they could possibly think of. All the treasures of 
"Slieddad Ben Ad," the great antfidiluvian king of the 
earth, with all bis medicines and all his sciences, they 
declared were tliere, told over and over again. Others, 
though, were positive that the founder-king was no other 
than Saurid Ibn Salliouk, a far greater one than the 
other ; and these last gave many more minute particulars : 
some of which are at least interesting to us in the 
present day, as proving that amongst the Egypto- Arabians 
of more than 1,000 years ago, the Jeezeh Pyramids, 
headed by the grand one, enjoyed a pre-eminence of 
fame vastly before all the other Pyramids of Egypt put 
together ; and that if any other is alluded to after the 
Great Pyramid (which has always been the notable and 
favourite one, and chiefly was known then as the East 
Pyramid), it is either the second one at Jeezeh, under 
the name of the West Pyramid ; or the third one, dis- 
tinguished as the Coloured Pyramid, in allusion to its 
red granite, compared with the white limestone casings 
of the other two ; which, moreover, from their more 
near, but by no means exact, equality of size, went fre- 


qaeDtly under the affectionate designation of "the 

But what seemed more to the purpose of Al Mamotin 
ftt the time, was the very exoot report of Ibn Abd 
Alkokm, as to w)iat was then stilt to be found in each 
uf these three Pyramids ; for this was what, according 
to that most detailed author, the primeval King Saurid 
had [lut into thein and sitfcly locked up ; though whf^re 
in the scanty hollow interior of any, or all, of the 
IVramids, ho could have found space for so much, is 
more than any one now knows. 

" In the Western Pj-ramid, thirty treasuries, filled 
with store of riehes and utensils, and with signatures 
made of precious stones, and with instruments of 
iron, and vessels of earth, and with arms which rust not, 
and with gla.'ut which might he bendctl and yet not 
broken, and with strange spells, and with several kinds 
of cUalxikirH (magical precious stones), single and double, 
and with deadly poisons, and with other things besides. 

" He made also in the East Pyramid divers celestial 
spheres and stars, and what they scvendly operate in 
their aspects, and the perfumes which are to l)e used to 
them, and the books which treat of these matters. 

"He put also into tlie Coloured Pynimiii the com- 
mentaries of the priests in chests of blnek marble, and 
with every priest a hook, in wliieh the won<lers of his 
profession, and of his actions, and of his nature were 
written ; and what was done in his time, and what is and 
what shall be firom the beginning of time to the end of it. 

" Ho placed in every Pvramiil a treasun;r ; the 
treasurer of the Westerly I'ymmiil was a statue of 
marble atone, standing upright with a lance, and iijxm 
his bead a serpent wrcathc<l. lie tliat eame near it, und 
stood still, the serpent hit him of one t%ide, und wreath- 
ing round about his throat, and killing him, returned to 
hia place. He made the treasurer of the East Pyramid 


aa idol of black agate, his eyes open asd shining, 
sitting on a throne with a hmce ; when any looked 
upon him, he heard on one side of him a voice which 
look away his sense, so that he fell prostrate upon his 
face, and ceased not, till he died. 

" He made the treasurer of the Coloured Pyramid 
s statue of stone, called alhui, sitting ; he which looked 
towards it was drawn by the statue, till he stuck to it, 
and could not be separated from it till such time as he 

Some of these features were certainly not encouraging; 
but then they were qualified by other tale-reciters, 
who described " three marble columns in the Great 
Pyramid, supporting the images of three birds in flames 
of fire of precious stones beyond all value and all 
number. Upon the first column was the figure of a 
dove, formed of a beautiful and priceless green stone ; 
upon the second, that of a hawk, of yellow stone ; and 
upon the third, the image of a cock, of red stone, 
whose eyes enlightened all .the place. Upon moving 
the hawk, a gigantic door which was opposite, com- 
posed of great marble slabs, beautifully put together, 
and inscribed with unknown characters in letters of 
gold, was raised ; and the same sur[>rising connection 
existed between the other images and their doors." 

Exciting wonders, of course, appeared beyond those 
strange portals ; but what need it* to disentomb these 
Arabian romances further ? In Egypt they bcHeve pretty 
seriously in enchantments and Jinn or Genii of marvel- 
lous proportions still ; how much more then in the days 
of the son of Haroun al Rascbid, and when the Great 
Pyramid was a mystery of old, fast sealed ! To ascer- 
tain, therefore, what really existed inside it tlien, was 
evidently a very definite and promising sort of labour ; 
and why should ivit the young Caliph Al Mamouu 
undertake it ? 


Qdiph Al Mamoun attaclca Ote XortJiem Flavk of the 
Great Pyramid. 

He did so, and directe<l his Mohammedan workmca 
to b^n at the middle of the northern side ; precisely, 
Eays Sir Gardner Wilkinson, as the foundem of the 
Great I^ramid hud foreseen, when they placed the en- 
trance, not in the middle of that side, hut twenty-four 
feet away to the east. Hard work, therefore, was it to 
tliese masons, quarrying with the crude instruments of 
that barbarous time, into stone work as solid almost, at 
that place, as the side of a hill. 

They soon indeed began to cry out, " Open tliat won- 
derful I^ramid ! It could not jiOKsibly be done !" But 
the Caliph only replied, " I will have it most certainly 
Aoda" So his followers iwrforcc hiid to quarry on un- 
oeaungly by night and by ilay. Weeks after weckn, and 
months too, were consumed in these toilsome exertions ; 
the progress, however, though slow, was so persevering 
that they had penetrated at length to no less than one 
hundred feet in depth irom the entrance. But by 
that time becoming thoroughly exhausted, and hc- 
ginning again to despair of the hard and hitherto fruit- 
less labour, some of them ventured to remember cer- 
tain improving tales of an old king, who hnd found on 
a calculation, that oil the wealth of £gypt in his time 
would not enable him to destroy one of the Pyramids. 
Hiese roununring disciples of the Arabian projih^t were 
thus almost becoming ojicnly rebellious, when one day, 
in the midst of their various counsel, they heard a 
great shme evidently fall in some hollow space, within 
no more than a few feet from them ! 

In the fidl of that jiarlicular stune there almost 
teems to hare been an accident that was mure tliaii an 

EDeigetically they instantly pushed on in the direc- 


tion of the strange noise ; hammers, and fire, and 
vinegar being employed again and again, until, breaking 
through a wall surface, they burst into the hollow way, 
" exceeding dark, dreadful to look at, and difficult to 
pass," they said at first, where the sound had occurred. 
It was the same hollow way, or properly the Pyramid's 
entrance passage, where the Romans of old, and if they, 
also Greeks, Persians, and Egyptians, must have passed 
up and down in their visits to the subterranean chamber 
and its unfinished, unquarried out, floor. Tame and 
simple used that entrance passage to appear to those 
ancients, but now it stood before another race, and 
another religion, with its chief leading secret, for the 
first time since its foundation, nakedly exposed. A 
large angular-fitting stone that had made for ages a 
smooth and polished portion of the ceiling of the inclined 
and narrow passage, quite undistinguishable from any 
other part of the whole course, had now dropped on to 
the floor before their eyes, and revealed that there was, 
at and in that point of the ceiling, another passage, 
clearly ascending towards the south, out of this descend- 
ing one ! (See Plate VIII.) 

But that ascending passage was closed, for all that, 
by a granite portcullis, formed by a series of huge 
granite plugs of square wedge-like shape dropped in, 
or rather slided down and jammed immovably, from 
above. To break them in pieces within the confined 
entraifce passage space, and pull out the fragments there, 
was entirely out of the question ; so the grim crew of 
Saracen Mussulmans broke away sideways or round about 
to the west through the smaller masonry, and so up 
again (by a huge chasm still to be seen) to the new 
ascending passage, at a point past the terrific hardness of 
its lower granite obstruction. Tliey did up there, or at 
an elevation above and position beyond the portcullis, 
find the filling material of the ascending passage only 


limestone ; so lualung themselves a very great hole in 
the masonry alongside, they there wielded their tools 
with energy on the long fiiir blocks which filled that 
poRsage-n'nr. But as fast as they broke up and pulled 
out the pieces of one of the blocks in this strange 
ascending passage, other blocks above it, also of a 
bore just to fill its full dimen^ious, slidcd down from 
above, and stilt what should be the jmssage for 
human locomotion was solid stone filling. No help, 
however, for the workmen. Tlie Commander of the 
Faithful ia present, and insists that, whatever the number 
of stone plugs still to come dowi from llio mysterious 
reser^'oir, Ins men slmll hammer an<l hammer them, 
r>ue after the other, and bit by bit to little pieces, until 
they do at last come to the eud of them. So the 
people tiro, but the work goes on ; and at last the 
ascending passage bcgiiimiig Ju^^t above the grtiiiite 
portcullis, is announced to be fn-e from obstruction and 
ready for essay. Then, by Allah, they sliotited, the 
treasures of the Great Pyramid, sealed up fn>ra tlic 
fabulous times of thr mighty Ibn Sulhouk, and iind':- 
secraU'd, as it was long siijiposod, by mortal eye during 
three thousand years, lay full in their grasp l»'fore tlicm. 
On they rushed, that beanled crt-w, thirsting for the 
pro::ii.jcd wealth. I'p no less than 111) feet of the 
Ktct'p incline, crouched hands and knees and ehin 
together, through a jias-xage of royally-iM.lishfd lime- 
stone, hut only 47 im'lies in hi-ight and 41 in bn<mltli, 
they had painfully to crawl, with their torthes burning 
low. Tlien suddenly they emerge into a long tall gsillery, 
of seven times the pa.ssage height, but all black as night ; 
still ascending though at the strange ste(>p angle, and 
reaching away farther and still ntore far into the veiy 
inmost heart of darkness of this imprisoning mountain 
<rf stone. In front of them, at first entering here, and 
on the level, see another low jussage ; on their right 


hand (see Plate XIII.) a black, ominous-looking well's 
mouth, more than 140 feet deep, atid not reaching water 
but only lower darkness even then ; while onwards and 
above them, a continuation of the glorious gallery or 
hall of seven times, leading them up to the possession 
of all the treasures of the great ones of the antediluvian 
earth. Narrow, certainly, was the way — only 6 feet 
broad anywhere, and contracted to 3 feet at the floor 
— but 28 feet high, or almost above the power of their 
smoky lights to illuminate ; and of polished, glistering, 
marble-like, cyclopean stone throughout. (See Plates 
VIIL, XL, and XII.) 

That must surely be the high-road to fortune and 
wealth. Up and up its long ascending floor-line, ascend- 
ing at an angle of 26°, these determined marauders, with 
their lurid fire-lights, had to push their dangerous and 
slippery way for 150 feet more ; then an obstructing 
three-foot step ^o climb over ; next a low doorway to bow 
their heads beneath ; then a hanging portcullis to pass, 
almost to creep under, most submissively ; then another 
low doorway in awful blocks of frowning red granite 
both on either side and above and below; but after that 
they leapt without further let or hindrance at once into 
the grand chamber, which was, and is still, the conclusion 
of everything forming the Great Pyramid's interior ; the 
chamber to which, and for which, and towards which, 
according to every subsequent writer, in whatever other 
theoretical point he may differ from his fellows, the 
whole Great Pyramid was built. (See Plate XL) 

And what find they there, those maddened Muslim 
in Caliph Al Mamoun's train ? A right noble apart- 
ment, now called the King's Chamber, 3^ feet long, 17 
broad, and 19 high, of polished red granite throughout, 
both walls, floor, and ceiling ; in blocks squared and 
true, and put together with such exquisite skill that the 
joints are barely discernible to the closest inspection. 


Av, av, no doubt ft well-built room, and a handsome 
one too ; but what does it contain ? What is the trea- 
sure ? The treasure ! ves indeed, where are the silver 
and the gold, the jewels, medicines, and arms ? These 
fanatics look wildly around them, but can see nothinjr, 
not a single dirhem anywhere. They trim their torches, 
and cany them again and again to every part of that 
red-walled, flinty hall, but without any better success. 
Nought but pure, polished red granite, in mighty slabs, 
looks upon them from every side. The room is clean, 
garnished too, as it were ; and, according to the idt^as 
of its founders, complete and perfectly ready for its 
visitors, so long expected, so long delayed. But tin* 
gross minds who occupy it now, find it all barren ; and 
declare that there is nothing whatever for them, in the 
whole extent of the apartment from one end to another ; 
nothing except an empty tftone ched without a I'nI. 

Tlie Caliph Al Mamoun was thunderstruck. He 
had arrived at the very ultimate part of the Great 
Pyramid he liad so long desired to take possession of ; 
and had now, on carrying it by storm, found absolutely 
nothing that he could make any use of, or saw any valuta 
in. So being signally defeated, though a Connnander 
of the Faithful, his people begjui muttering agjiinst 
him ; and to exclaim, too, in most virtuous phrases 
of religious repentance upon both their own waste of 
time, and the treason and treacherv of some one. 

But Al Mamoun was a Caliph of the able day of 
Eastern rulers ; so ho had a large sum of nit^nev 
secretly brought from his treasury and buried by night 
in a certain spot Next day he caused the men to dig 
precisely there, and l>ehold ! although tiny were only 
digging in the Pyramid masonry just as tht-y had 
been doing during so many previous days, yet on this 
day they found a treasure of gold ; '' and the Caliph or- 
d^^ it to be counted, and lo ! it was the exact sum 


that had been incurred in the works, neither more nor 
less. And the Caliph was astonished, and said he could 
not understand how the kings of the Pyramid of old, 
before the Deluge, could have known exactly how much 
money he would have expended in his undertaking, 
and he was lost in surprise." But as the workmen got 
paid for their labour, and cared not whose gold they 
were paid with so long as they did get their wage, they 
ceased their complaints. While as for the Caliph, he 
returned to his city home, musing on the wonderful 
events that had happened ; and both the King's Chamber 
and the " granite chest without a lid " were troubled 
by him no more. 

The poets of El Kahireh did indeed tune their lutes 
once again, and celebrate their learned patron's discoveries 
in that lidlcss box of granite. According to some of 
them, a dead man with a breast-plate of gold, and an 
emerald vase a foot in diameter, and ** a carbuncle which 
shone with a light like the light of day, and a sword of 
inestimable value and 7 spans long, with a coat of mail 
1 2 spans in leiigth " (all of them very unlike an Egyp- . 
tian mummy of the usual type), rewarded his exertions ; 
though, according to others, the chest was really 
crammed to the brim with coined gold " in very large 
pieces ; " while on the cover, which others again main- 
tained was not there then and is certainly not to be 
seen now, was written in Arabic characters, "Abou 
Amad built this Pyramid in 1,000 days." But nothing 
further of importance was actually done in a cause 
which men began now to deem, in spite of their poets, 
to be absolutely worthless, and in a region more pro- 
fitless to all mere sensualists than the desert itself. 
The way of approach, however, once opened by Al 
Mamoun, remained then free to all ; and " men did 
enter it," says one of the honestest chroniclers of that 
day, " for many years, and descended by the slippery 

Cmat. VL] the great pyramid. 89 

passage \rhich is in it ; " but with no other result than 
this, "that some of them came out safe and others 

Recuition after the Excitement. 

A still more edifying account, in a moral and cor- 
rectional point of view, was attempted by one " Masondi 
in the Akbar-Ezzeman," writing, one would think, for 
children of tender years; for this is the burden of his tale. 

" Certain explorers who had formed a i)arty," said he, 
"discovered in the lowest part of the Great PjTamid 
a square chamber, wherein was a vase containing a 
quantity of fluid of an unknown quality. The walls 
of the chamber were composed of small square stones 
of beautiful colours, and a person having put one of 
these stones into his mouth, was suddenly seiz(Ml with 
a pain in his ears, which •continu«*d until he had re- 
placed it. They also discoven*d in a large hall a 
quantity of golden coins put up in columns, uvery 
piece of which was of the weight of 1,000 dinars. 
Thev tried to take the monev, but were not able to 
move it In another place they found the image of 
a sheikh, made of green stone, sitting upon a sola, and 
wrai){)ed up in a garment. Before him wtre statu<»s 
of little boys, whom he was occupied in instructing. 
The discoverers tried to take up one of these tigures, 
but they were not able to move it. Continuing their 
researches, they came to a female idol of whiter stone, 
with a covering on her head, and lions of stone on 
each side attempting to devour her ; on s^i'eing which 
thev were so immensely frii^htened, that tliev took to 
flight. This hap[>ene<I," the e<lucational sage Masondi 
is particular to record, in order to clinch its date, *• in 
the time of Yerid Ben Abdullah ; though who he was. 
is a problem." 

Another writer aims at the Caliph himself, who is 


described in the third person, as " one who employed 
three years, and considerable sums, in endeavouring 
to enter the Pyramid, and who found little or no 
treasure ; but saw an inscription in letters of gold on 
the side of the chamber, declaring that " the impious 
violator of the tomb should experience, as his sole 
reward, the regret of having committed a sacrilegious 
action without any successful result." While, finally, a 
surveying British general officer of the Royal Engineers, 
determined to bend the bow the other way, freely an- 
nounces in 1869 that the king's body (that is, Cheops'), 
after a repose of 2,960 years, was thrown out of its 
tomb by Al Mamoun, and " treated with grossest indig- 
nities by the rabble of the streets of Cairo." 

But to return to something like the sober chronicles 
of the period, it was years after the Caliph's assault on 
the inside of the Pjrramid,»that there began that de- 
spoiling of its outside which was carried on by many 
generations of Cairenes systematically, until all the 
white and polished blocks of the casing (except the 
two which Colonel Howard- Vyse was to bring to 
light 1,000 years afterwards) had been removed 
for the building of new Cairo ; and the grand old 
primeval inscription on the outside of the Pyramid, 
** engraved," somewhere about the days of Job, " with 
an iron pen and lead in the rock for ever," — what 
became of it : and what would it have told if translated 
by a more able linguist and impartial judge, than the 
idolatrous Egj^ptian priest who put off Herodotus with 
an idle jest ? 

The, European MiTid enters into the Question, 

Centuries passed by, and then modem European 
travellers began to look in at the Great Pjrramid. The 
Eastern day-dream of wealth had departed, but that 
empty stone chest still offered itself there in the interior 


for explan&tion. Why wfts it in such a place of honour ? 
"Why was the whole Pyramid arranged in subservience 
to it ? Why was it so unpretentling and plain ? Why 
had its lid been forgotten ? Wiy was the whole thing 
empty ? ViYiy was it utterly without inscrii>tion ? 

Gradually the notion grew that it might be a sarco- 
phagus ; that it was a sarcojihagus ; and that it had 
been intended for " that Pharaoh who drove the Israel- 
ites out of Egypt ; and who, in the end, leaving his 
carcase in the Red Sea, never had the opportunity of 
being deposited in his own tomb." 

But this idea was effectually quashed, for, amongst 
other reasons, this cogent one, — tliat tbc Groat I'j-ramid 
was not only built, but had been sealed up too in all its 
more special portions, long before the birth even of that 
Pharaoh. Kay, before the birth of Isaac and Jat-ol) as 
well ; which disposes likewise of the attimjit to call the 
Great ^Taniid " the tomb of Joseph," whose mortal 
remains being carried away by the Israelit«« in their 
Exodus, left the vacancy we now .see in the coB'er or 
stone box. 

Then wrote some, " here was buried King Clii'ojw, or 
Chemmis, but his body hath been roiiiove<l hence." 
Whereupon Professor Greaves ifointiHl out " that I>io- 
dorus hath left, above 1,600 years since, a memor- 
able passage concerning (."henunis, the builder of the 
Great Pyramid, and Cephren, the founder of tlie work 
adjoining : " Although," saith he, " these kitigs intended 
these for their sepulchres, yet it hapjiened tliat neither 
of them were buried there. For the peo]ile being 
exasperated against them by reason of the toilsoineness 
of these works, and for their cruelty and ojipn-ssion, 
threatened to tear in pieces their ilead bodies, and with 
ignominy to throw them out of their sepulchn-s. Where- 
upon both of them, dying, commandi^l their friends *** 
boif them in an obscurv place." 


And again, other scholars brought up the very clear 
account of Herodotus, that King Cheops was not buried 
in the Great Pyramid building above, because he was 
buried in a totally diflferent place ; viz., " in a subter- 
ranean region on an island always surrounded by the 
waters of the Nile." And if that necessarily and 
hydraulically means a level into which the Nile water 
could always flow, it must have been at a depth of 
more than fifty feet below the very bottom of even the 
unfinished subterranean chamber carved deep in the 
rock underneath the Great Pyramid, and not in the 
direction of the grand, upper, built room with its empty 
stone chest discovered by Al Mamoun in the sub-aerial 
masonry of the building. 

The Tovibie Theory. 

So in later years, all the single sarcophagus propo- 
sitions for the benefit of the empty stone chest having 
failed, they have been merged into a sort of generid 
sarcophagus theory, that some one must have been 
buried there. And this notion finds much favour with 
the hierologists and Egyptologists, as a school ; for these 
gentlemen will insist on keeping up a hold over the 
Great Pyramid, as being a valuable part of their art, and 
a grand chariot to drive withal before the wondering 
gaze of mankind. They allow, that in no other pyramid 
is the sarcophagus — as they boldly call the stone 
chest, or granite box, or porphyry coffer (though it is not 
porphyry either) of other authors — contained high up in 
the body of the Pyramid, far above the surface of the 
ground outside ; that in no other case is it perfectly 
devoid of adornment or inscription ; that in no other 
case has the lid so strangely vanished ; in no other case 
are the neighbouring walls and passages of the Pyramid 
80 devoid of hieratic and every other emblem ; in fiact, 

Ciur. VL] T£f£ CHEAT PYRAMID. 93 

they allow that the red granite coffer, with all that part 
of the INramid's cbamh^ and asceuding passages wliere 
it is fouad, and which opened itself so strangely to 
the eyes of the Arabians after 3,000 years of con- 
cealment, is entirely unique and peculiar to the Great 
Pyramid. The coffer and its chamber, the timnd 
ChUIory and the passages leading to it, form indeed a 
sort of machinery which is altogether in addition to 
what the other pyramids [xissess ; while wliat they have, 
the Great Pyramid has also, though it iicvtT completed 
and used it ; viz., the subteminean chamber and descend- 
ing passage intended to be— -sepulchral-notion inspiring, 
or sepulchral, if you will, but never finished — though 
left enterable at any time through all anti<piity. 

Observe also with the allege<l " sarc<iph!igus," in the 
KvR^a Chamber (for so is that npartmout now most 
generally, though perhaps erroneously, tcnntd), that 
. there was no ancient attempt to build tbo vessel up and 
about in solid masonry, in the most usual manner for 
securing a dead body inviolate. On tho contrarj', there 
vere magnificently built white stone passages of a most 
lasting description, and in a different material to the 
lest of the fabric, as well as fit for continued use 
through long ages, Icmling straight up to siioh sarco- 
phagus from the verj' entrance itself ; while, more notably, 
the shapely King's (Jhaniber was inlendwl to Ix* vnitHtitfil 
in the most admirable manner by the " air elmniiels " 
discovered by Colonel Howard-Vysc ; evidently (as the 
actual fact idmost enables us to say with security) in 
order that men might como there from time to time, 
and look on, and deal with, that oi>en gniuite chest, 
Mul lire aod not dia 

But how is it known, or can it be proved, that there 
ire not similar secret chambers in the other pyramids 

Something may be done in this way ; firdly, with 

the example of the Great PjT«miil to go by, diirinj 
1,000 years, the other pjTamids have been abimdaDtlj 
examined, aud industriously probed for like featui 
regardless of expeuse, but without success. In thai 
second place, some of the others have become dilapi- 
dated to an extent thai should show such chambers if 
they were there ; and in the third place, whereas the 
third Pyramid of Jeezeh has been admired by some,! 
authors* as the third and most perfect work of thft 1 
true Egyptian pyramid builders, where every cxcellencs T 
of tlieir system was introduced, that very pyramid i 
bored centrally and vertically through by Colonel 
Howard-Vyse without detecting anything but solid I 
masonry until its subterraneans were finally reached ; 
and then the scene partook decided]}' of Egypt the ] 
profane, with a richly ornamented sarcophagus and an j 
idolatrous dedication in ]tlizraite hieroglyphics on tlie 1 
coffin board. 

What then was the purpose of all that upper system 
in the Groat Pyramid, above its one eutmuce pa: 
which descends ultimately to the lower, or underground j 
cliamber ? Why too was not that unique upper system I 
of aub-aetial chambers, Grand Gallery, and ascending A 
passages made easy of access to Egyjitians, Persians, J 
Greeks, and Ilomans in their time ; or rather, why waa ] 
it 80 entirely and scrupulously concealed from every one ] 
of them tlirough all their long historical day ? 

Hieroglyphics, and their modem Egyptologist inter- 
preters, are plainly at fault here ; for, always excepting 
the quarry-marks in strokes of red paint on the un- 
finished stones in the black hollows of construction, there 
are no hieroglyphics to translate upon either the granite 
coffer, the chamber which contains it, or even the whole 
of the Great PjTamid. Nor has anything, in all hicror 
glyphic literature throughout all Egj'pt, ever been i' 
■ H. C. Agnew, " LetUrs on tlio ryiuniiiLi," 1838. 


covered throwing the smallest light on, or displaying 
the most distant knowlet^ of, the ascending interior of 
this one, most unique, of all the pyramids. 

The Exclusively Tonyhic Theory receives a Stiake. 

Meanwhile, some few good men and true in scientific 
researches — witness M. Jomnrd in the celebrated " De- 
scription de ri^ypte," and Sir Gardner Wilkinson in his 
own works — have hegun to express occasional doubts as 
to whether any dead body of a king or other mortal 
man ever was deposited in the strangcly-shapcd vessel 
of the Kiag's Chamber. 

The actual words of that most philosophic Eg)'pto- 
logist. Sir 0. Wilkinson, are: "The authority of Arab 
writers is not always to he relied on ; and it may be 
doubted whether the body of the king was really 
deposited in the sarcophagus ;" i.e., of the Great 
^rnunid ; and the remark, so far, is unassailable. But 
when he goes on to say, " I do not presume to explain 
the real object for which the pyramids were built, hut 
fee\ persuaded that they Ber\-ej for tombs, and were 
also intended for astronomical purposes," why then it 
is plain that he is mixing up two vcr}' different things, 
viz., the one Greot, pure and nnti-Egj'ptian PjTamid, 
with any number of other pyramids truly and absolutely 
Egyjrtian and Pharaonic. 

Another Egyptologist, of less mature years, but loud 
in talk, rashes in thus heedlessly where his better, 
with reason, had feared to tread, declaring, "The 
{>}*nmids were in all c&ses tombs, and nothing niort'. 
Tliat they were places of sepulture is onungh, to any 
one acquainted with the character of the ancient 
Egyptians, to prove that they hiul no other uw ; but 
were it not so, our knowledge of their structure would 
afford oondusive evidence." And then follows that 


author's knowledge of their structure, and it leaves out, 
neatly aud completely, though painted by his own 
adtniriog self, all that is peculiar to the Great Fyntinid. 

Now it was precisely when another, viz. M. Jomanl, 
was studying that grand phenomenon's peculiar features, 
and comparing them day after day with the ordinary 
forms of old Egyptian pyramids, that he, discussing 
the matter at leisure with the other members of the 
French Academy then in Egypt, began shrewdly to 
suspect that the object of both the coffer itself, and the ' 
place it was in, " might be entirely and totally dif- 
ferent " from either the treasure-theory of the Elost, or 
aepulfhral, i.e. Icmibic, theory of Western minds : and 
would probably prove, if correctly understood, to he 
something gifted with a very high value indeed for 
natiuus who wore fivr advanced in civilisation and in- 
tellectuality. He oven fancied that it might have some- 
thing to do with a standard measure of length, and 
believed at one time that he had detected an analogy 
to the then new French mMre on one part of the coffer. 

Something of a metrological kind had also been 
speculated on by Sir Isaac Newton more than a century 
earlier ; and though sufficiently accurate measures at 
last failed him, yet he did succeed in getting out, so 
far as he had foundations to go on at all, a number of 
instances indicating with much probability that certain 
harmonious proportions of a fixed measure of length 
were generally adhered to in the formation of many of 
the Pyramid's passages and chambers. 

Yet, notwithstanding this good beginning, little more 
was subsequently tried by any one else in the same 
direction. The crowd in society still belonged to either 
the treasure, or the tombic, school ; and both parties 
were equally offended at the poverty of the contents of 
the chamber in general, and the lidleas granite chest in 
particular. * 

Craw. VI.] TIf£ GREAT PYRAMID. 97 

Each had expected riches after their own heart's desire ; 
tmil instead of them, merely found this plain stone hox, 
made indeed, they allowed, with exquisite geometric 
truth, rectangular within aud without, highly polished, 
and of a fine hell-metal consistency, in a sort of hard, 
compact, faultless, syenitic granite ; hut then it was 
empty, they said, and the lid was gona So they were 
all grievously offended at it, and are so still : one man, 
ns an example of the civilised, wcaltliy, and fducntcd 
modem Europeans, hits the coffer a bang with a big 
hammer, merely to hear over again what fiftj- persons 
had recorded before him, viz., "that it rings like a 
l)eU on being struck ;" another actually brcsiks off a 
portion for a " specimen ; " another tries to do tlie 
name and cannot, though he tries with all his might ; 
and though the Anglo-Iudian soldiers under Oi'neral Sir 
David Biiird succeeded only too wolL* While, finally, 
l)r. Lepsius, whom Gliddon states with jiridc, " has been 
justly termed by the great Irftrounc, ihn hojie of 
Egyptian study" planted a young palm-tree in the 
hollow of the ancient coffer, to act as a Oi'nuan 
(.TuTStmas-tree ; a gracious tree, on ivhost- bnuichi's 
he should hang some baubles which he had 1)oii<;ht 
in Cairo, as presents for himself and Iiis IVnssian 
friends ; whom he fondly calls "children of tin- wiUlnr- 
ness," on the strength of having been resident for a 
few weeks in the comfortable parts of I^wer Kgypt, 

John Taylor's Theory. 
In the midst of such^cnes, illustrating, unfortu- 
nately, what is actually going on among the Egj-pto- 
logisttt in the nineteenth century, conies out thu late 
John Taylor with the result of his long researches ; and 
■uggesta that, " The coffer in the King's (.'handler of 

• "DMO^tioa de rEgTpt«;"and Dr. Clurke in hit Trsvtli; lot 
Ud aiMMt tbea by Colooel Howaid-Vfmi. 


the Great Pyramid was intended to be a standard 
measure of capacity and weight fit for all nations; and 
certain nations did originally receive their weights and 
measures from thence ; so that those of them who 
still preserve, more or less successfully, with their lan- 
guage and history their hereditary weights and measures, 
may yet trace their pre-historic connection substantially 
with that one primeval, standard, metrological centre, 
the Great Pjrramid." 

Take, for instance, our own case. When the British 
farmer measures the wheat which the bounty of Pro- 
vidence has afforded him as the increase of his land, 
in what terms does he measure it ? In quarters. 

Quarters ! Quarters of what ? 

The poor farmer does not know ; for there is no 
capacity measure now on the Statute-book above the 
quarter ; but, from old custom, he calls his largest 
corn measure a quarter. 

Whereupon John Taylor adds in effect : "The quarter 
corn measures of the British farmer are fourth parts or 
quarters of the contents of the coffer in the King's 
Chamber of tlie Great Pyramid ; and the same Pyra- 
mid's name, instead of being descended from TrjJp, fire, 
may rather have been derived from ttw^o?, wheat, and 
fxerpovy measure ; signifying a ' measure of wheat.' 
To establish the ground-work of an international 
standard to that end, though not at that time to 
publish it generally, would seem to have been a leading 
purpose of the Great Pyramid ages ago ; and the true 
value, in size, of its particular measure, has not sen- 
sibly deteriorated during all the varied revolutions of 
society in the last 4.040 years !" 

This is a statement requiring full examination. 




rpHE first part of the problem now immediately before 
-*■ U9 should be botli short and sim]ile ; for it is, 
merely to determine the cubical contents of the vessel 
known successively or variously as " the sarcopliiigus, 
the empty box, the lidless stone ehtjst," or mure jjhilo- 
sophically and safely, so as not to entsinylo oui-selves 
with any theory, " the coffer " in the King's Chamber 
of the Great Pyramid ; " the only and ono tiling." says 
that quaint old travelk'r, G. Sandys, "which this huge 
mass containeth within IiJs daiksonte entniils."* 

Beported of a plain reotan^ilar fij^iire within and 
widiout, carved out of a siuylo block ; of moderate size 
therefore for a man to examine and survey, and acces- 
siblo on every side, what should prcscut so easy au ad- 
measurement for any educated man to make, as this 
coffer of the Great Pyramid \ How often, too, has 
it not beea admeasured, and by some of the most 
leaned academicians of Eurojie ? even as tlwufjli they 
all held firmly that it had been originally de^igmd 
aud constructed only for that one end, pur2)ose, and 

From Colonel Howard-Vysc's important work are 
drawn forth and arranged, in the following table, the 

* OtOigB Sutdfi' "A lULilioii of « Joanu}- began a.d. I6I0." 



[Pabt n. 

chief measures which have been taken between 1650 
and 1840 A.D., some of the principal authors being con- 
sulted in their original writings. Their measures, generally 
given in feet, or feet and inches, or mfetres,* are all here 

Modern Measubes of the G&eat Ptbamid-Coffbh xrp to a.d. 1864. 






Material M 




Lngth.' Brdth. 








BeUomni . 


Black marble . 



■ •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

P. Alpinus 


Black marble . 




• •• 

• •• 

• •• 






• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

De Villamont . 


Black marble . 


• • > 


• •• 

• •• 

• • • 

Professor Orcaves . 

1638 Thebaic marble 




77-856 26-616', 


De Monconys . 





• « • 

• • a 

« ■ • 

M. Thevenot . 

1656 Hard porphyry 






• •• 

M. Lebnin 





• •• 

• •• 

• • • 

M. Maillet . . 

1692 Granite 




• •• 

• •• 

• ■• 

De Careri . 

1693 Marble 




■ • • 

• • • 

• • • 


1699 , IJke porphyry 






• •• 

E^ont . 

1709 Thebaic marble 


• •• 



• •• 

• > • 

Pere Sicard 

1715 : Granite 




B • • 

• •• 

• • • 

Dr. Shaw . 






72- t 

24- T 

• • • 

Dr. Perry . 






• •• 

• •• 

• • • 

M. Dcnon . . 






• •• 

• •• 

• • ■ 

M. Jomard and Egr. 

Pr. Ac. 






77-836 96*694 


Dr. Clarke 

1801 ' Granite 




• • • 

• «• 

• • • 

Mr. Hamilton . 









Dr. Whitman . 








Dr. Wilson 




• • • 




M. Caviglia 
Dr. Richardson 







■ • • 


Bed Granite 




• •• 

• • • 

• •• 

Sir Gard. Willcinson 


Bed Granite 




• • • 

• • • 

CoL Howard-Vyse . 








NJB. — ^A note of interrogation after any of the inttrioT measnres, indicates that they 
hare been obtained by applying to the exterior measures the " thickness " as given by 
the observer ; such tniokneBW being supposed to apply to the sides, and not to the 

set down in inches, to give a clearer view of the progress 
of knowledge in this particular matter. And now, our 
only bounds to exactness will be, the capability of these 
educated men of Europe, to apply accurate measure to a 

* The feet of all anthon, when not otherwise particnlarused, haye been 
here assumed as English feet, and in some cases may require a correction 
on that account, but not to any extent sufficient to explain the chief 
anomalies observed. 

C«*». vn.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. loi 

regularly formed and exquisitely prepared specimen of 
aniuent mechamcal art. 

Refiectwna tm the Numhera as measured. 

Look at them, then. Surely the list is not a little 
appalling. Aq ordinary carpenter amongst us talks of 
sixteenths of an inch quite fluently, and sometimes 
undertakes to make a special piece of cabinet work " fit 
to half a sixteenth : " but our learned travellers commit 
errors of many whole inches ; and this when they are 
measuring the one and only internal art-object which 
the Great ^ramid contains, and on which indeed its 
whole structure focusses and concentrates itself ; a 
building too where no less than forty centuries nre be- 
holding their proceedings, just as they are said to liave 
done with admiration those of the French soldiers in 
1799 ;• but are also, in these now quiet times, wcigh- 
it^ rich travellers, learned philosophers, and modem 
education in the balance of truth together. 

My own part here must be very moderate ; for I am 
k would-be measurer too, never perfectly exact. Yet 
even I have to say, after the most favourable considera- 
tion possible, that out of the twenty-five quoted authors 
no less than twenty-two must be dischai^'ed summarily 
as quite incompetent, whatever their mental attainments 
otherwise, to talk before the world about either size or 
proportion in any important practical matter. These 
rejected ones have also been, to so lamentable an extent, 
uniformly persevering in the error of only applying 
their measures directly to the exterior of the coffer, 
when the interior is the really valuable feature for 
theory and use (and is the more lasting fact of the 
two, u a measure, because protected from injuiy by 


the very existence of the exterior), that one is com- 
pelled at last to doubt these men's very principles of 
proceeding as well as every practical outcome of their 
measuring skill 

Professor Greaves in 1638, the French academicians 
in 1799, and Colonel Howard- Vyse in 1837, are there- 
fore the only three names that deserve to live, as coflfer 
measurers, in the course of 250 years of legions of 
visitors. Of these three parties thus provisionally 
accepted, the foremost position might have been expected 
for the academicians of Paris. Professor Greaves lived 
before the day of European science proper, and when 
Ptolemy's works, with sundry Arabian authors, were 
almost the only books thought worthy of study after the 
classical writers of Greece and Rome, and one or two of 
re-arising Italy ; and simply because there were so very 
few others. While Colonel Howard- Vyse did not lay 
himself out for very refined measurements, but rather 
went through what he felt himself obliged to undertake 
in that direction, in the same fearless, thorough-gping, 
and artless manner in which the Duke of Wellington was 
accustomed to review a picture exhibition in London ; 
beginning with No. 1 in the catalogue, and going 
through with the whole of them conscientiously to the 
very last on the list. 

The Colonel's measures, therefore, are respectable and 
solidly trustworthy with regard to large quantities, but 
not much more. 

With the French academicians it is quite another 
thing ; they were the men, and the successors of the 
men, who had been for generations measuring arcs of 
the meridian, and exhausting all the refinements of 
microscopic bisections and levers of contact in determin- 
ing the precise length of standard scales. Their mea- 
sures, therefore, ought to be true to the thousandth, 
and even the ten-thousandth part of an inch : and 


perliaps they are so in ^ving the length and breadth of 
the coffer ; but, alas ! in their statements of the depth, 
both inside and out, there seems to have been some 
incomprehensible mistake committed, amounting to 
nearly three whole inches, 

I have looked up the original authorities in the 
" Description de I'Egypte," have reduced the metre to 
inches from several different copies, but cannot come to 
any other conclusion thnn that this vital portion of the 
Acndemy's work is hugely erroneous. Their length 
and br^dth numbers are not fur from a mean of good 
modem observers ; but those for the depth arc outside 
all other good men, in the most improbable manner to 
be true. I have written to the Perpetual Secretary of 
the Academy in Paris upon the subject, but have got no 
answer ; and all my attempts to prevail on friends to 
seek admission to the original documents of the Egj'p- 
tian expedition, if still in existence, have failed. 

Under such circumstances, I have been compelled to 
discharge the French Academy also, from the list of 
fiiUy trustworthy competitors for usefulness and feme in 
Pyramid coffer metrology. Only two names, therefore, 
are left — Howard-Vyse, who has been alrea<ly charac- 
terised, and Greaves, in whom we liave most fortunately 
a host indeed. 

0/ Profenor Greavea, the Oxfoixl Anlronomer in 1G37. 

He lived, no doubt, before the full birth of Euroi>ean 
iicience, but on the edge of an horizon whlcli i.s eventful 
in scientific history. Immediately liehind liiin were, if 
not the dark ages, the scholastic periods of profitless 
verbal disquisitions ; and in front, to bo revealed after 
his death, were the germs of the mechanical and natural 
philosophy which have since then changed the face of 
the worid. There is no better a life-point that can h 


taken than Greaves', whereby to judge what Europe has 
gained by the exercise of civil and religious liberty, 
coupled with the study of nature direct, through two and 
a half centuries of unrestricted opportunity. When as 
much more time has passed over the world, as now 
separates us from Greaves* age, then — say many of the 
safest interpreters of the sacred prophecies — ^a further 
Divine step in the development of the Christian dispen- 
sation will have commenced. 

But of Greaves himself, it was somewhat strange, 
though not inexplicable,^ that he should make the 

* He relates his ideas, to a certain extent, thus in the *' Pyramido- 
graphia : " — 

*• These proportions of the chamber, and those which follow of the 
length and breadth of the hollow part of the tomb, were taken by me 
with as much exactness as it was possible to do ; which I did so much the 
more diligently, as judging this to be the fittet>t place for fixing the 
measure tor posterity — a thing which hath been much desired by learned 
men ; but the manner how it might be exactly done hath been thought 
of by none. I am of opinion that, as this Pyramid hath stood 3,000 years 
almost " (this material under-estimate for what is nearer 4,000 years, 
arose from a mistaken theory of Professor Greaves for identifying 
HerodotuB*s name of the Jeczeh Pyramid-builders, Cheops, Chefren, and 
Myceriuus, with kings of Manetho's twentieth, in place of his fourth, 
dynasty), *'and is no whit decayed within, so it may continue many 
thousand years longer ; and, therefore, that after-times measuring the«ie 
placM by the assigned, may hereby find out the just dimensions of the 
English feet. Had seme of the ancient mathematicians thought of this 
way, these times would not have been so much perplexed in aiscovering 
the measures of the Hebrews, Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, and other 
nations." — Grkaves, vol. i. p. 126. 

At p. 346, in the conclusion of his '^Denarius " dissertation. Professor 
Greaves gives the following special instances of his measures, which 
should all be repeated at the earliest opportunity : — 

*i The first and most easterly of the three great Pyramids in Eg^t 
hath on the north side a square descent ; when you are entered a little 
past the mouth of it, there is a joint or line, made hy the meeting of two 
smooth and polished stones over your head, which are parallel to thoHe 
under your feet ; the breadth of that joint or line is 3*463 of the Englibh 
foot" == 41*556 Greaves' Enelish inches. 

'* Within the Pyramid, and about the midst of it, there is a f&ir room 
or chamber, the top of which is flat, and covered with nine massy stones ; 
in it there stands a hoUow tomb of one entire marble stone ; the length 
of the south side of this room, at the joint or line where the first and 
second rows of the stone meet, is 34*380 feet " = 412*560 G. £. inches. 

" The breadth of the west side of the same room, at the joint or line 
where the first And second row of stones meet, is 17*190 feet = 206*280 
G. E. inches. 


great exertion he did to visit the F}Tamid» in the 
Uongerous times of 1638 and 1639; and should, as 
some of his contemjioraries tauntingly observed, though 
he was a professor of astronomy, take so much more 
rare in providing himself with a hnear measuring-rod, 
than with any astronomical instruments proper. But 
the use which he made of that same measuring-rod 
("a ten-foot radius, most accurately divided into 
10,000 parts, besides some other instniments, for the 
fuller discovery of the truth "), when he had entered 
the PjTamid, and approached the granite coffer of the 
Kin^s Chamber, has something in it which is {>as8ing 
strange indeed. 

Almost eveiy other visitor, both before and since, 
ptud vastly more attention to the exterior than the 
ioterior of the cofffr. Why, then, did Professor 
Greaves, when engaged on the exterior, merely give 
it in feet and inches, as thus, — " the exterior 
Ruperficies of it contains in length seven feet three 
inches and a half, — in depth it is three feet three 
inches and three-quarters, and is the same in breadth " ? 
But when he comes to the interior, why does he imme- 
diately address himself to it, as to a matter requiring 
vastly more accuracy tlian all that he had been looking 
to before ? "Of tic hollow, therefore, within," the 
coffer — or, as he calls it, "the king's monument," — ho 
writes, " It is in length on the west side, six feet, and 
four hundred and eighty -eight parts of the English foot, 
divided into a thousand ports" (that is, 6 feet, and 
488 of 1,000 ports of a foot) ; " in breadth at the north 
end, two feet, and two hundred and eighteen parts of 
the foot divided into a thousand {>arts" (that is, 3 ft>ct 
and 218 of 1,000 parts of the English foot.) "Tlio 

*> Th* boUow, or ionar part of tha marbls tomb naar tho top, od Ui* 
w«t H<U of it, ii in length S-488 feet " = 77'8S6 Q. E. inches. 

"Hha bollov, or innsr pui of Ihe nuitble tomb nonr the top of it, cm 
tk Mtth dd^ ii in bmdih 3-218 feet " = 2fl'618 G. E. inehM. 


depth is 2 feet and 860 of 1,000 parts of the EngKsh 

And he defends his practice in this instance by 
adding : " In the reiteration of these numbers, if any 
shall be offended either with the novelty or tediousness 
of expressing them so often, I may justify myself by the 
example of Ulug Beg, nephew of Timurlane the Great 
(for so is his name, and not Tamerlane), and Emperor 
of the Moguls, or Tatars (whom we term amiss Tartars). 
For I find in his astronomical tables (the most accurate 
of any in the East), made about two hundred years 
since, the same course observed by him when he writes 
of the Grecian, Arabian, and Persian epochas, as also 
those of Cataia and Turkistan. He expresseth the 
numbers at large, as I have done ; then in figures, such 

as we call Arabian, , which manner I judge 

worthy of imitation, in all such numbers as are radical, 
and of more than ordinary use." 

Greaves and Vyaea Coffer Cajxwity Determinations. 

Exactly why, or fully wherefore, it was put into the 
heart of the mediseval Oxford Professor of Astronomy to 
consider, contrary to the usual ideas of other scientific 
visitors and admeasurers, the numbers for the interior of 
the coffer so extra-remarkably "radical and of more 
than ordinary use," we may come to form an opinion by- 
and-by ; but in the meantime we should accept the fact 
with thankfulness, as the very thing of all others which 
is directly to the point, where a measure of capacity is 
concerned.* Hence we have for the cubical contents of 

* To preserve that humility which is equally Decessary to insure ulti- 
mate success in the paths of scientific research, and in a certain narrower 
and more important way as well, it should he known to Professor GreaTes' 
countrymen that in his comparatively careless treatment of the ext$riwr 
of the coffer, he made an error of ahout one inch in the height, and some- 
what more in the length. 


the coffer in EngHsh inches, from Greaves' originitl 
i 1638 — 

77-Se6 X 2fi-<16 X 3*-330 - 71,118. 
And by Howard-Vyse's measures, also just as taken in 
1837 — 780 X 26 5 x 345 = 71,311. 

Sereral small correctioas may possibly be applicable to 
these mere numbers as rudely read off; but for the 
present we may provisionally accept for a first approxi- 
mation the simple mean of the above statements, or 
71,214 cubic inches, as the apparent capacity contents 
of the coffer of the King's Chamber, 

Wherefore now, what proportion does that number 
bear to the capacity of four modern English corn quar- 
ters, in terms of which British wheat is measured and 
Hold at this very hour ? 

Befening to the almanac for the Act of Parliament on 
the subject, we find in our copy a declaration, that the 
gill " is equal to 8*653 cubic inches ; " and then going 
through the continued multiplications for pints, quarts, 
Ac., up to four quarters, we have for that collective 
quantity, 70,983680 cubic inches. But in another 
oopy, one gallon is declared 277274 cubic inches ; 
which, beii^ similarly multiplied for bushels, quarters, 
and four quarters, yields 70,982144 English cubic 

Preferring, then, this latter quantity as having under- 
gone less multiplying than the other, the degree of 
agreement between a quarter British and a fourth part 
of the coffer, or granite box, and possible type of a corn- 
measure in the Great I^ramid, is at this present time as 
17.746 : 17,801. 

Quo^iftM o/(A« Coffvia "Quarter" Measure. 

A. sufficiently &ir amount of agreement is this, between 
the Uiii^ compared (viz., the Pyramid coffer on one 


side divided into four by not very modem m/witds^ and 
on the other, the old Anglo-Saxon corn-measure after 
being too often "adjusted" by Acts of Parliament, 
since those halcyon days of rest when Edgar "the 
peaceable " reigned over England at Winchester) ; suf- 
ficiently near, I repeat, to allow all friends of worthy old 
John Taylor to say that the Great Pyramid, with its 
coflfer of four corn-quarter capacity yet measurable, is 
in so far still capable of fulfilling ihe purpose of its 
ancient name, — ^under one form of interpretation at 
least : and if there be after all anything in any word or 
na^mje more worthy the attention of science, than 
ancient contemporary mechanical facts that may still be 
handled and measured before our eyes. 

To nations in a more or less primitive condition, the 
first application of capacity measures would, with little 
doubt, be in the exchange of com ; and through what- 
ever subsequent stage of power or luxury or refinement 
they may pass, the measuring of the staflf of life will 
probably still keep up a permanent importance over everj' 
other object of measuring or weighing, even though it 
be of drugs, or silver, or gold, — in perfect accordance 
so far with our Lord's Prayer, where the only material 
supplication is, " Give us day by day our daily bread,** 

Yet it is to be remarked, that if any given means for 
measuring com were devised by a very superior intelli- 
gence, they should eventually be found applicable also, 
so far as principles of accuracy go, to many of the more 
artificial and precise purposes to which the after pro- 
gress of mankind may introduce them, as well as to the 
mde original employ. 

Thus, the moon, with its frequently recurring varia- 
tions and phases, serves man in the savage, and did 
serve him in the primitive and patriarchal state, as a 
coarse method of chronicling time over a few months. 
In a more artificial and civilised condition, some of the 

Chaf. vn.] THE GREA T PYRAMID, 1 09 

larger cycles of lunations enable him to speak exactly 
of many years at a time, and approximate to some 
eclipses. In a further advanced condition, the moon's 
subsidiary features of movement enable the sailor 
in the midst of the broad surface of ocean, assisted 
by data from the astronomer and mathematician on 
shore, to measure his precise longitude. And amongst 
the ablest minds of the present day, the theory of those 
movements^ and the computation of their nature, forms 
an arena where every man may measure oflF his own 
intellectual height at the base of an infinite cliff which 
he may never hope to stand on the simimit of 

In exact proi)ortion, therefore, as man has become 
able to profit by God*s moon, which he, man, was 
originally told was merely intended to rule the night, so 
has the diWnely appointed luminarj- been found capable 
of more and more applications ; and whenever any 
difficulty has occurred, it has never been any want of 
perfect accuracy in the lunar machinery itself (for that 
really seems infinite), but merely in the i)ower of man 
to interpret the working of it. 

Is there, then, anything approaching to the same 
suggestive principle connected with John Taylor s idea 
of the " com measure " of the Great Pyramid ? 

There can be no harm in inquiring, as we proceed 
with our grand research ; and it will be the surest way 
too of guarding against any possibility of our having 
been misled thus far, by attending overmuch to some 
single fortuitous coincidence. 

Let us conclude this chapter, however, of rather old, 
and much improvable data about the coff(»r*s nxze, by a 
glance at the maieinal of this most interesting vessel. 

Granite, the true Material of the Coffer. 

A reference to the third column of our table on 
ptge 100, will show that travellers have assigned the 


coflfer to almost every mineral, from black marble to red 
granite, and porphyry of a colour which no one has 
ventured to name. The majority of modem authors 
are in favour of red granite. I was for a long time 
before going to Egypt inclined to porphyry, doubting 
if anything so \^ell known and distinctly marked as red 
granite would ever have been called black marble ; and 
having been further at that period so distinctly assured 
about the coflfer by a railway engineer who had been 
much in Egypt, that " it is undoubtedly porphjrry : " 
an assertion which he backed up by -describing some 
of the diflferences in character between the material of 
the coffer, as witnessed by himself, and the indubitable 
red granite walls of the chamber. 

This granite he traced to the quarries of Syene, 550 
miles up the river from the Pyramid ; for nearer than 
that, there is not a particle of granite rock on the banks 
of the Nile, or within many days' journey from them on 
either side : but there, at the cataracts of the Nile above 
Syene, it ^bounds ; and Syene was in fact a storehouse 
of granite (of the syenitic variety, but still eminently to 
be called granite rather than by any other mineral 
name equally understood by the public at large) for 
every dynasty that sat on the throne of Egypt subse- 
quently to the building of the Great Pyramid. 

Porphyry may not improbably be also found at Syene, 
amongst the veins and extravasations of granite and 
basalt which there abound : but the most celebrated 
Egyptian quarries of porphyry, both red and green, 
were much nearer the Red Sea than the Nile, or at 
and about the Gebel Dokkan and Mount Porphorytes ; 
therefore in much closer geographical proximity to, and, 
I>erhaps, geological connection with, the granite moun- 
tains of Sinai than the plutonic beds of Phila3 and 

Nevertheless, I having at last visited Egypt in 1864-5, 


after the publication of the first edition of this book, 
spent almost whole days and weeks in thisXing'sChamber 
(^ the Great Fyranitd, until all sense of novelty and 
needless mystery in small things had worn away ; 
and then decided, without the smallest liesitatiou, for 
the material of the coffer being syenitic granite ; ex- 
ceedingly like, but perhaps a little harder as well as 
darker than, the constructive blocks of the walls of the 
King's Cliamhcr containing it. 

Granite In the Dark, and Sevti-darl; Ages vovj giyne by. 

Modern measures of the coffer are still awaiting ns ; 
but first I will plead for a little more abont yi-nvUe, 
so necessary is it for every one to know intimately 
both where that minend is, and where it is not, in the 
Htnieturo of the Great Pj-raniid : besides also iiiidiT- 
staDding what is implied mechanically, and also, if 
possible, what was intended to be held symbiiliually, 
whenever the primeval arcliitect abandoiiol the us^! 
of the limestone he had at hand, and adujited the 
gmnite procured with utmost toil and expense frniii 
a distance ; whether it came from Syene, as modern 
^gyi>tologists usually determine, or from SSiiiai, as 
Professor Greaves would rather infer. 

Recent travellcra have indi.ed abimdaiitly detected tliL' 
cartouches or ovals of both King Clicops and KingClie- 
phrcu, or Shofu and Xou-Shofo, of the Jwzeh I'ynmiids, 
on certain quarried rocks in the Sinaitic peninsula, near 
Wadee Maghura ; but the " works " willi wliiih these 
inscriptions were connected are generilly suppo-ied to 
h»ve been copper mines and emerald pits ; and the follow- 
ing ori^al note by Professor Greaves, evidently written 
long before the day of niineralogj', may be useful for 
ft different purpose. The jwssHge runs as follows : — 
" I conceive it " (the material of the coffer) " to l>o of 
that sort of porphyry which Pluiy calls luucostictos, 


and describes thus : — ' Rubet porphyrites in e&dem 
^gypto, ex eo candidis intervenientibus punctis leu- 
costictos appellatur. Quantislibet molibus cfedeodis 
sufficiunt lapidicinie.' Of this kind of marble there 
was, and still are, an infinite quantity of columns in 
Egypt. But Venetian, a man very curious, who ac- 
companied me thither, imagined that this sort of 
marble came from Mount Sinai, where he had hved 
amongst the rocks, which he affirmed to be speckled 
with party colours of black and white and red, like 
this ; aud to confirm his assertion, he alleged that he 
had seen a great column left imperfect amongst the 
clitfs almost as big as that huge and admirable pillar 
standing to the south of Alexandria. Which opinion of 
his doth well correspond with the trsidition of Aristides, 
who reports that in Arabia there is a quarry of excellent 

Sad confusion here between granite and porphyry 
in the seventeenth century : while in the " unheroic 
eighteenth century " Anglo-Saxon ignorance of granite 
went on increasing. No fresh granite was then being 
M'orked anywhere direct from nature, and the monument.^ 
of antiquity composed of it were first suspected, and then 
alleged, to be factitious ; as thus stated by a Mediter- 
ranean traveller in 1702 : — "The column of Pompey 
at Alexandria. Some think it of a kind of marble, but 
others incline rather to believe that 'twas built of 
tnelted atone cast in moulds upon the place. The 
latter opinion seems most probable, for there is not 
the JeuHt piece of that stone to he found in any part of 
the world, and the pillar is so prodigiously big and high 
that it could hardly be erected without a miracle. I 
know 'tis alleged by those who believe the story of the 
Rhodian colossus, that the ancients had the advantage 
of admirable machines to raise such bulky pieces ; but 
I should reckon myself extremely obUged to those gen- 

our. VIL] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 1 1 j 

Uemen if they would show me any probable reason why, 
amon^ so great a variety of Egyptian monuments of 
antiquity, there is not one of marble; and by what 
nnaccoun table accident the stone called granite, which 
was then so common, is now grown so scarce that the 
most curioHH inquiries into the works of nature cannot 
find the least fragment of it that was not employed in 
ancient structores. 

" Ami even though I should suppose, with my 
adversaries, that the quarries out of which this stone 
was dug were by degrees so entirely exliaiisted tlmt 
there is not the least footstep of 'em left, and that 
Nature herself has lost so much of ancient vigour and 
fecundity that she is not able to produce now ones, 1 
iiJiy still be allowed to ask why granite was only used 
in obdisks or columns of a prodigious bigmiss ; for if 
it were really a sort of stone or marble, I see no reason- 
why we might not find small pieces of it, as well as of 
porphyry and other precious kinds of marble. 

" 'Hiese reflections, in my opinion, may serve to 
confinn the hypothesis of those who believe tliat all 
these Bdmirable monuments were actually cast in a 
mould ; and if they would take the pains to view this 
column attentively, they would soon he cxinvinct^il by 
the testimony of their own eyes that 'tis only a kintl of 
cement composed of sand and calcined stone, not unlike 
to mortar or lime, which grows hiird by degrees." 

Another century of modem civilisation rolird on, 
and then we find the celebrated traveller I>r. Clarke quite 
convinced that granite is a natural substance, and that 
hand specimens of it may be found by thost^ who will 
search from country to country through the world ; but 
yet so seldom met with, tliat he has all thi^ trouble in 
ezpluning to London society seventy years ago what com- 
mon rock material it is that ho is talking about : — " By 
GroBTes' ^lebfuck marble is to be understood that most 


beautiful variety of granite called by Italian lapidaries 
granito roaao (see 'Forbes' Travels,' p. 226, Londou, 
1776), which is composed essentially of feldspar, of 
quartz, and of mica. It is often called (hiental granite, 
and soinetimes Egyptian granite ; but it differs in no 
respect from Eutvpean granite, except that feldspar 
enters more largely as a constituent into the mass than 
is usual with the granite of Europe. The author has 
seen granite of the same kind, and of equal beauty, in 
fragments, upon the shores of the Hebrides, particularly 
at IcolmkilL" 

Sixty more years of modem civilisation passed away. 
Mactlonald at Aberdeen had by that time taught his 
countrymen how to work in polished granite, both red 
and grey, far and wide over Scotland. From tombstones 
to brooches, and from banks and insurance-ofHees to 
.kettle-holders and ear-rings, cut granite (poured forth 
since then without any stint both by the pale Queen of 
the North and her blushing sister of Peterhead) is now 
used on every side ; until all society, and the children 
too, talk as glibly in these our days about the once 
awfully mysterious tri-speckled stone, " as maids of 
thirteen do of pui)py-dogs." And yet the thing is not 
plain to all our educated gentlemen even yet. 

When, for instance, my wife and I were living 
through several months in a tomb of the eastern cliff 
of the Great Pyramid hill in 18C5, a Cambridge man, 
with a most respectable name in science, and a sage- 
looking, experienced, head of iron-grey hair, called upon 
us and remarked, to the lady too, who knows a great deal 
more about minerals than I do, " What a fine gi-anHe 
cavern you are living in." Granite, indeed ! poor man ! 
when the petrified nummulites were staring at him all 
the time out of the naught but limestone on every side I 
And other Yravellers within the last few years have con- 
fidently talked of having seen granite in the entrance 

Cjiaf. VIL] the GREA T PYRAMID. 1 1 5 

passage of the Great Pyramid, granite in the subter- 
ranean chamber, granite forming the casing-stone heaj3S 
outside, granite, in fiict, anywhere and everywhere, 
and basalt dykes in the Pyramid hill too, though in a 
country of pure nummulite limestone. 

They, however, being free and independent writers, 
cannot be easily interfered with ; but will my readers 
at least excuse me for insisting upon it, that for any 
would-be pjTamidlst scholar it is a most awful mistake 
to say granite, when he means limestone, or vice, verad ; 
and to see limestone, where the primeval architect went 
to infinite pains to place granite. To talk thus inter- 
changeably of the two is, indued, over and above saying 
the thing that is not in mineralogj', over and above too 
taking hard for soft, and soft for hard ; Neptunian for 
plutonian ; reiJetion with traces of organic existence for 
naught but crj'stals that never had a breath of life in 
them, — it is also on the part of such individual a 
depri\'ing himself of the only absolutely positive feature 
that he can, or should, si>eak to in all pyramid incpiry ; 
as thus : — 

Questions of angle, line, and measure of weight are 
all questions of degree of approximation only ; or of 
limits of approach to a something which may never be 
actually touched, or even defined. But if nuiiiniulitie 
limestone cannot l)e distinguished absolutely from red 
gnmite, without our being told authoritatively, by uni- 
versity scholars, that one of those substances glides so 
insensibly into the other, that no man can say with 
confidence where one begins and the other ends — the 
age for interpreting the long-secret interior of the Greiit 
P^mid has not yet arrived. 

But I will not consent to any such state of mind 
aflSicting the readers of this present edition of 187*> ; 
and would rather, with them, as one amiongst friends 
and equals and often betters, request their attention 


(before returning again to the coffer io ^e King's 
Cbamber) to a prevailii^ feature of the manner in 
which the Great Pyramid miikes its chief use of this 
rock, of so many colours and strange traditions, granite. 
There is granite in the Great Pyramid, and granite 
in various small pyramida ; yet so fiir from their being 
therefore alike, it is on that rery account, or by that 
very meana, that most difference may be detected both 
in their designs and even in the very minds of their 

Take the third pyramid as an example ; the world 
huled it as the " Coloured Pyramid;" coloured, forsooth, 
because its casing-stones more than half-way up were of 
red granite. That that little third pyramid was there- 
fore more expensive than the Great one, all its friends 
admit, and even boast of ; but what else did it gain 
thereby ? Lasting power, is the general idea ; because 
granite is so proverbially hard. But, alas ! granite, 
besides being hard, is also so very brittle on account 
chiefly of its tri-crystallization, and so largely expansible 
by heat, that undei- the influence of a hot sun by day and 
cold sky by night, it loosens and crushes minutely the 
materials of its own surface to little pieces, film by film, and 
age iifter age — until now, after 3,000 years, those hard 
granitic casing-stones of the third pjTamid are rounded 
into pudding shapes, which can Irnrdly indicate the 
angle they were originally bevelled to, within a hand^ 
of degrees. Yet the softer, and fair, white limestone 
which was chosen for the casing-stones of the Great 
Pyramid (a variety of Hmestone found in the Mokattam 
hill on the east side of the Nile), and which was begun 
to be exposed to the weather before the third pyramid 
or its builders were bom, has, joined to that softness, 
xo much tenacity, smallness of heat expansion, and 
strong tendency to varnish iteelf with a brownish iron 
oxide exudation, that It has in some instooces pre- 


served the original angle of the casing-stones within a 
minute of a degree, and their original surface within 
the hundredth of an inch. 

But becauae the Great Fyramid architect found lime- 
' stone to answer his purpose for casing-stones, did he 
therefore use it everywhere ? No, ccrtiinly not. Ho 
knew it to be too soft to keep its size and figure in 
places where men do tend to congregate ; and where 
strains and wear and tear may accumulate, and have to 
he strenuously resisted. In and towards the centre, 
therefore, of the whole mass of the Great Pj'ramid, 
where strains do increase and the treasure was sup- 
posed to be kept, and where Caliph Al Mamouns in 
one ^e, and raiddle-cla.>ts passengers from steamers in 
ttoother, rush in to see what they can get, — there Its 
architect began, and in a very special and marked 
Duimer, to use granite in place of limestone. And in that 
deep and solemn interior, where he did so use it, there was 
no sun to shine and heat up by day, no sky to radiate 
cold at night, as at the casing-stones of the third 
pyramid ; but only darkness and a uniform temperature 
from year to year, and century to century. 

Tha« was, therefore, no tendency in granite to sepa- 
rate its component crystals tliere ; but very great neces- 
sity for its hardness to resist the continual treading, 
hammers and mischief-working by the countless visitors 
of these latter days. For the granite portion of the Great 
Pyramid (excepting only the portcullis blocks nt the 
lower end of the first ascending passage) begins in the 
so-called ante-chamber apartment, through which those 
visitors must all pass, in order to reach that further and 
final King's Chamber wherein the employment of granite 
cubninateB : and wherein is to be seen standing loose 
and movable on the open, level, granite floor that 
pyramid coffer, or long and high granite box, which is 
lUIl awaidng our farther examination. 




TF we grant, temporarily, for argument's sake, that the 
-'- long rectangular box, lidless chest, or open granite 
coffer, in the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid was 
intended by the precise, measured, amount of its cubic 
contents to typify, as Mr. Taylor has suggested, a grand 
and universal standard of capacity measure — can any 
reason in nature or science be shown, why it should 
have been made of that particular size and no other ? 

In a later age the designer of such a vessel would 
have been hampered by custom or led by precedent ; 
but in the primeval day of the foundation of the Great 
Pyramid, who was there then to control its architect ; or 
from whom could that truly original genius have copied 
anything ; or what was there to prevent his making the 
coffer of any size he pleased ? 

Of Scientific References for Capcunty Measure. 

The affair of the wherefore of the coffer's precise size 
is indeed a question of questions, for there is no ready 
explanation lying on the surface ; and the subject, 
viewed as one of capacity and weight measure, is capable 
of such peculiar perfectionings and remarkable refine- 
ments, that we may have to dig extremely deep before 
discovering the real reason, if it is there. 

Chaf, Vin.] XHE GREA T PYRAMID. 1 1 9 

Not that modem nations have shown a very par- 
ticular care for the teachings of science, or extensive 
acquaintance with nature either, in ordering for them- 
selves the size of their several standards of capacity 
measure, having generally left this one standard to 
something like arbitrar}'' fancy ; and seeming even still 
to think the subject either a \iilgar and publican 
matter, or one ruled altogether by their own more 
scientific proceedings in linear measure. Thus, the 
late eminent Francis Baily, in his report on the 
standard scale of Great Britain,* says, after a magnificent 
introduction in favour of the imi)ortance of permanent 
standard measures, " such measures are usually divided 
into those of lenffth, capacity, and iveight ; but as the two 
latter may in all cases be deduced from the former, it 
will be necessary to consider only measures of length ;" 
and measures of length are accordingly the only ones 
which he cares to take notice of in that very large and 
learned paper. 

French Metrical Reference for Capacity Measure. 

Not very dissimilarly too, did the French philo- 
sophers act when establishing their metrical system ; 
for after having scorned — in the cause and for the 
sake of accuracy — to adopt a fJioH natural unit for 
linear reference, such as the second's pendulum, lest 
in applying it to long distances errors should creep 
in by continued multiplication ; and ha^ang insisted 
on taking there a long — that is, an earth large — 
natural unit, and obtaining, what they required in 
practice subsequently, by continued subdivision (in that 
manner producing their metre out of the measured 
meridional distance from pole to equator), they went 

* ** Boyftl AttroDomical Socioty*ii Memoirs,** vol. U. 


the very reverse way to work in obttdning their units 
of capacity and weight. 

To procure these upon parallels to their "linear" 
principles, they ought evidently for the one, to have 
subdivided the capacity of the shell of the earth ; and 
for the other, to have similarly divided the weight of 
all the matter, whatever it is, that fills or occupies 
that shell of the earth, and gives it on the whole that 
general mean specific gravity, which is better adapted 
than anything else known to man to be his grand 
cosmical unit for the physics of universal matter. But 
they attempted neither the one nor the other. 

They did not even employ their metre itself in the 
large, in this part of their metrology, and necessarily 
adopt thereby a good honest size for their capacity 
and weight standards — which they would then have 
been less extravagantly multiplying, in the common 
affairs of daily life ; but, as every one knows, they 
took the 1-1 0th part of the metre, cubed, for the 
capacity measure; and filled the 1-1 00th part of that 
with water for their ridiculous little unit of weight 
measure — ^a something so small that a poor country- 
man wishing to weigh his daily load therewith, can 
hardly either see or feel it : while the learned doctors 
themselves, in speaking of, and recommending, it as a 
universal standard of weight to the practiced world, 
have to break through all their artificial scheme of 
nomenclature ; and, while presenting their vnUre pure 
and simple, are obliged to multiply their grarrvme by 
1,000 ; introducing it indeed into the units place, but 
with the name of fcifogramme. Wherefore even now in 
Italy the metrological combat is between the old Roman 
foot and pound on one side, and on the other the 
modem French metre and AriZogramme ; shortened how- 
ever by the coimtry-people into " metre " and " kilo," 
to the still more inextricable confusion of the proprie- 


ties of a tdo learned, as irell as too narrow, attempt to 
coin new names. 

The French Academicians had, no doubt, a something 
in their little mite of a " gramme " which could he 
referred, through both the metre outrageously minified, 
a-nd vxder when in a curious condition verj' difScult to 
hit upon and keep it to — tv?.., its maximum density at 
a little above freezing — to that one element ; and not 
a very lai™e one, in the size of the whole earth. But 
if there was such extraordinary- mental satisfaction 
previously felt at the metre, a linear human measure, 
being a neat commensurable fraction of a linear 
length along a quadrant of the earth — and poor 
Englishmen have had this flaunted and flouted in their 
faces for fifty years past, until at last it has been pro- 
posed * to abolish the British hereditarj' measures in 
favour of the new French inventions, because tho 
fonner are so utterly unscientific, and the latter so 
perfectly replete with science — why should there not 
be mental satisfiiction abo, when a capacity measure in 
some way gives us a neat commensurable fraction of 
the capacity of the earth ; or at all events reminds us 
of its shape and capacity-giving power : and when a 
weight measure gives us a similar proportion of what 
is even more important in nature, and special to our 
terrestrial globe ; viz. the weight, or what goes prac- 
tically to make what is by persons in general called the 
weight, of the earth as a planet in space \ 

There may, indeed, bo some remarkable diflBculties 
in the way of accomplishing this reference ; for not 
only arc Uie arrays of numbers appalling, but there 
may be some logical doubt as to how to proceed in 
comparing a weight on the surface, against the weight of 
each eqofd portion of a sphere, whose oah attraction it is 
eoing «d(]r«u to Um Britiidi AMomtion, Newowtloi 


which gives all the appearance of weight, to anythiii 

laid upon it. The atl'air is difficult, and perhaps of a 
transcendental character : yet not more so than, accord- 
ing to many eminent men, with able malhematicians 
amongst their number, are various other scientific pro- 
blems already accomplished in the service of modem 
civilisation. In the meanwhile, too, the earth has a 
weight, or mass ; and not only so, but it is precisely the 
grand French metricaj school of mathematical astro- 
nomers, who care not a straw for the xnaHhU xize of sun, 
moon, or planets. They want only to know their mass as 
a term in an equation ; and then, having obtained that, 
they proceed in all their admirable calculations — where 
so few of us can hold pace with them — for the orbital 
movements of those planetary bodies under the influence 
of gravity, as though the mass were concentred, in the 
case of each separate sphere, into an infinitely small point 
at its centre. To them, the high-class French mathe- 
maticians, in sad truth it is almost an impertinence to 
be told by the telescope that the substance of a planet 
is expanded into a globe of such or such a size in miles ; 
or into one large and several small globes as attendant 
satellites. These great men want only to know the 
weight of the matter contained in each system, simple 
or compound, reduced to a point or points, together 
with certain distances asunder, and then they will set 
their equations in array, and compute you any length 
of orbital consequences. 

Why, then, did not those confessedly most acute 
and extraordinarily able men, when preparing a com- 
pletely new metrological system for France (and, as they 
hoped, for the world through France), give us some 
symbolizatioD or expression in harmonious coramen- 
Murabilitics of that which is astronomically far more 
important than a sjihere's linear measure, and is already 
a term in their immortal equations, viz. the weight or 
f the earth as a whole 7 _ 


Perhaps they did not think of it ; or if they did, 
perhaps they could DOt devise any means of accom- 
plishing it. Certainly they did not do it, nor has any 
one else amongst men done so, throughout all the 
historical period of science and the reign of the schools. 

Is it worth while, then, to examine the Great 
F^mid of 4,040 years ago, to ascertain if a practical 
solution was made and enshrined there in a material 
or substance undoubtedly <st€ jyovnTiiw, and older 
than Abraham, though only recently brought to the 
light of human life and thought ? 

Not altogether feir, perhaps, to expect it ; but some- 
how, from the unique and unprecedented character 
amoDgst human works which the whole of this gigantic 
mass of pure masonry of the Great P^Tamid, unvitiatcd 
by any idolatrous design, is taking, on being submitted 
to the searching examination of the science learning of 
modem times, we have begun to look for high things 
from every part of it. At present, however, we have 
merely to inquire why, for any reason whatever, was, 
or may have been, that smooth-sided and rectangular 
granite box, the coffer, made of the particular size, 
exclusive of shape, which we now find it to be ? 

John Taylor on the Origin of the Coffers Capacify Sise. 

On opening Mr. Taylor's valuable work* with refer- 
ence to this question, we may sec that he hn<l — and 
quite characteristically of so invaluable an author — 
expected that his reader would require some explanation 
of this matter. But after perusal, I regret to say that 
what he has written on the subject, being on the 
furthest confines of his researches and discoveries into 
the Pyramid mystery, has not, for me at least, his 
usual powere of satisfj'ing, if even he was content with 

* " Ths Qnat Pymnid," [>. 19fi. 


it himself He shows, for instance, that the cobe>root 
of the contents of the coffer is equal, veiy nearly, to 
the length of a certain ancient Egyptian double cubit 
in wood, found accidentally some yeara since, on pnllingf 
down an old temple at Kamak ; thence called the cubit 
of Karnak ; and believed now to have been one of 
the veritable mason's measures by which the profane 
buildings of that day were measured and set out 

Not, indeed, that Mr. Taylor would imply that that 
rod was either the original standard, or the Govem- 
ment copy thereof belonging to the Pharaoh of that day, 
or indeed any standard at all : or that a measure 
exactly equal to it was first used in, and therefore 
characteristically belonged to, the Pyramidically distant 
and most idolatrous city of Karnak. But without, so 
far as I can find, putting anything much more distinct 
than the above into its place, as the reason why the 
founders of the non-idolatrous Great Pyramid chose to 
make their coffer of its actual size in cubic contents, he 
goes off into a disquisition on its shape — an interesting 
disquisition also, but on a much less important question, 
if the subject really be one of a capacity standard 
and measure. 

Tliat the coffer should be oblong-rectangular in place 
of simply cubical, Mr. Taylor thinks a matter of sym- 
mpfrv .tiul convenience; expressly saying at page 197 
of his " threat Pyramid," — " But why, it may be asked, 
^\n^ not the coffer made at once in the shape of the 
cube of the Karnak cubit ? From its obvious unfit- 
ness, if it were of that shape and size, to serve as a 
model measure. The tamers of the standard would 
naturally have regard to the portabihty and convenient 
use of the wooden capacity measures which were to be 
founded on that model ; and if men of the present day 
would prefer the shape of a (rectangular) trough to 
that of a cube of such inconvenient dimensions, we 

Cw». Tni.] TBE GREAT PYRAMID. 115 

may give the foimdets of the Great I^ramid credit 
for BO much commoa sense as would lead them to 
the some conclusion. To all the inhabitants of the 
East the hA haiK was a &mitiar object, and in the 
ap[ff!opriatioa of its form to the purpose of a com 
meoaure, we see how it happened that this vessel 
received the name of culdayium, chaldt'oti, or lai'er. It 
was that which it had possessed from the earliest times, 
long probably before its emplojTnent as a com-measuTe 
had beea thought of" 

Joseph Jopling on the aanie. 

Next after studying Sir. Taylor's account, I chanced 
to &I1 in with a recently published pajxtr,* which pro- 
mised great things, and Ix-gan most admirably thus : — 
" In what is called the King's ChamtuT of the Great 
I^ramid of Egv'pt, there is a coffer of porjJiyrj- (granite 
really) commonly supposed to have been the sarcophagus 
of the royal builder. This coffer, however, does uot 
resemble an ordinarj- sarcophagus, and its form present-s 
nnmerous definite and j>cculi»r pro}K)rtions, so that it is 
impossible to conceive the structure to be aceiJeutal. 
Having found the proportions geometrically uccurate, 
the author of this [)aper believes tliat this coffer is 
a treasure-chest of science, and that its pru|>ortions 
deserve carcfnl observation and study." 

Then followed a theorj', based ou " squares inscribed, 
or to bo inscribed, in the circles of the Immau eye," us 
a Dearly iovariable natural reference of length iu man, 
from childhood to old age (conveniently Kmall for a 
popular unit, but very difficult, and highly dangerous 
to the subject either to take off with the points of a 
|)air of compasses, or to apply directly in practice] — 
and Bome very astonishing results were brought out, 
* Bj J«M^ JopUng, aicliiuct, io Um l^iturr ttcur, 1S93. 


in the play of arithmetical numerations, by themselves. 
But on adopting the given size of the unit, and the 
number of them stated to exist in the length, breadth, 
and depth of the coflfer according to. the geometrical 
formula, and comparing them with actual coflfer mea- 
sures — the results were far wider than most of those 
which we have already found it necessary to condemn, 
as not representing observations of the fiu3t. Mr. 
Joi)ling's arithmetic is indeed one thing, and the 
coffer in the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid 
quite another. 

Hekekyan Bey and M, Dufeu on the same. 

After this, a more remarkable volume came up for 
study; a book printed privately in 18G3, by *' Hekekyan 
Bey, C.E.,* of Constantinople, and formerly in the 
Egj^ptian service." It is entitled, on the " Chronology 
of the Siriadic Monuments,'' and contains a large plate 
of the sectional interior of the Great Pyramid (not ver}^ 
good), and an allusion to the coflfer, under the name of 
*' The King's Stmieylf deposited by the Arions in the 
sanctuary of the first Pyramid, as a record of their 
standard metric system.'' In so far as that the book 
shows an Eastern mind breaking through the tyrannical 
Western hypothesis of a burial sarcophagus and notJdng 
else, it is well ; but the method of deducing a value for 
the profane Nile cubit out of certain arbitrary propor- 

♦ The author enjoys the following favourable introduction in Mr. 
F. Sopwith's " Notes on Egypt," 1867 : — ** We next called on Hekekyan 
l^ey, who occupies a spacious and handsome bouse in the same locality, 
near the north-west comer of the Place Esbekeeh. Hekekyan Bey spent 
some thirteen years in England in early life, and thus acquired a perfect 
knowledge of the language and institutions of the country. I greatly 
enjoyed bis conversation, which embraced several subjects of national 
interest, and his general opinions and sentiments appeared to be those of 
an enlightened citizen of the world.'* 

t Early writers were particular in notifying that the coffer was cut out 
of a single block of stone ; but this present name is a more peculiar 
designation of it, and may indicate a tradition of its having something of 
a special hidden virtue, recalling the f&blod *' philosopher's stone." 


tions of both the outside anil inside measures of the said 
King's Stone, is clumsy in a scientific point of view ; 
overliud with masonic mysteries ; and discloses no better 
knowledge of the real dimensions of the coffer, than 
those taken by Greaves 240 years ago : measures thus 
reproduced in Egj-pt without any of those necessarj- 
subbequent corrections for the lengtli of their standard 
scale, or investigations of Greaves' large errors iu the 
granite box's outside elements of size, which have led 
long since to grave discussions at homo. Tlie author, 
in feet, tliough living, and flourishing too, in a wealthy 
social position in Cairo, with tlie Great Pyramid in 
view from the top of his house, knew nothing of tht; 
coffer by personal measure ; his ac<{iiaiutunce with it 
ii-as confined to the pages of an English book more 
than two centuries old ! 

In the course of the present year (1873) the ideas of 
Hckekyan Bey, in an extended sliajie, have been pub- 
lished to the world, as perfectly new to it, by II. Dufeu, 
member of the Egyptian Institute, and of the Society 
of Historical Studies in Paris. This work is distin- 
guished from its very title-page (where it sjieaks to 
" tlie four PjTamids of Joezeh ") by special igiionuice of 
pjTamid facts; and on page 231, wliero its author main- 
tains the hollow box of the cotfer to be merely a fonii 
given to the cubit of the Kilometer, he makes vne a 
partaker of Mr, Joining's numbers, though 1 have 
always eschewed them ; quotes Professor Greavi's as 
though he were a very modem authority ; aiul filially 
pretends to give a set of measures of his own. Pro- 
tends, I say advisedly, for when he puts down everj- 
elemcut of the eofter's size to the ton-thouwindth of an 
incli, he cannot be excused either for making several 
errors amounting to one and two whole inehes ;• or, 

* 8m QurffWy Jonmal of Sdtaa for October, 1873, pagM b\\ to 


much worse, for having failed to discover ruling and 
original features of the vessel itself^ of more importance 
than many inches, as will presently appear. 

Thz Freemaatyns on the aa/nie. 

Freemasonry also, notwithstanding its boastings of 
secret wisdom fit to scale the skies, seems to lead no 
nearer to a knowledge of the metrological objects and 
ideas of the coffer, than anything connected with the 
idolatrous religion of the ancient Egyptians ; and to 
all that side of the world, there has ever been an 
impenetrable darkness touching the real nature of the 
ultimate purj)oses aimed at by the symbolical, and we 
may almost say, professionally scientific, design of the 
Great Pyramid. 

Wrote a Grand Secretary of the Freemasons to me, 
from Cornwall, after my return from Egypt in 1865, 
** I am going to publish a book of our masons* marks, 
of all ages and countries ; and as we hear that you 
have been taking some wonderfiil photograi)hs of the 
King's Chamber in the Great Pyramid by the mag- 
nesium light, I write to know if any of these marks 
appeared upon either the walls or the coffer?" 

" Don't you know whether there are, or are not, any 
there?" I ought to have asked, in the interest of all 
the world outside the Lodges ; but in over-haste to give 
satisfaction to my correspondent, if possible, I merely 
inquired, — "What are Freemasons' marks?" 

He sent a number of them in a letter, adding that 
they were unfailing proofe, wherever they were found, 
of the ancient presence of the thrice-mysterious craft ; 
and that Mr. Layard, having had his attention once duly 
awakened to them, found them most numerously in the 
Assyrian buildings excavated by him in Mesopotamia. 

But I could only reply, that neither microscopic 


examitutioD of the glass photographs, nor cye-examiDa- 
tion of the vails of the Kin^s Chamber at the Great 
^ramid, would show one of those particular marks. 
llie Freemasoiis hod in so far, on their own showing, 
had no hand in nusing that sacred and pure building, 
whatever they had been doing in subsequent ages for 
idolatrous Assyrian kings and their fish-gods or any 

Yet the photographs showed other marks on the 
walls of the chamber clearly enough ; and amongst these 
there was one group in particular that ivovld appear most 
conspicuously in every view of the coffL-r. The walls of 
the King's Chamber which formed the background of 
each coEfer picture, being not only (Lirk, and red, but 
also far from the magnesium illuminating light, were 
generally almost absolute black in the pliotogniphs ; 
yet letters cut on these walls by hammer and chisel 
developed whitish lines of abraded and powdered crystals, 
which caught enough magnesium light to make them- 
selves visible in the photographs and appear even 
luminous ; and then too, they were seen mysteriously 
floatJDg in space beyond the coffer, when viewed in the 
stereoscope. It was just the sort of effect that Free- 
muons might perhaps have coveted for tlic glorifica- 
tion of tA«ii- marks, but it was all expended, in the 
principal instance here, on the mere ordinary Saxon 
letters, J. W., the initials of some recent visitor. 

So thert was a valuable fact ascertained by negation. 
There are no Freemasons' marks in the very part of the 
Qreat Pyramid where they might have been most 
expected, bad wandering mysticista been allowed any 
hand in the work ; while, even if the tritting little marlu 
■ent me by the Grand Secretary haA been found there, 
viio could have guaranteed that they were not put in 
long after the building of the monument, hkc tlioso 
letten J. W. ; by Bmne cousins of that genius, or by 


J. W. himself, or perhaps by a certain Tulgar Bussian- 
Gennan, near the begimung of the present century, 
whose name I will not repeat, because he painted the 
jaw-cracking word ou those exquisite walla of polished 
granite, in letters a foot high, with a tar-brush 1 

Had the secrets, therefore, of the Great Pyramid been 
inscribed in mere, little, cut-in writing on those chamber 
Willis by their ancient architect, — as inscription anti> 
quaries bo often lament was not done in the orthodox 
Greek and Roman fiishion, — wko would be able un- 
doubtedly to distinguish the ages of each inscription : 
and, if the original inscription had not been perhaps in 
subsequent ages altogether expunged, prove that it -wixs 
tlie original one ; that it was coeval with the building ; 
and that it must be accepted eventually by all mankind, 
even though its message entails consequences subverting 
most of the critical philosophy, or philosophical and 
historical criticism, of modem times ? 

Tim Ledge Anomaly of the Coffer. 
The Pyrami(hst scholar, however, most fortunately, is 
not called on to pin any faith on fleeting inscriptions ; 
trifling little things wliich many a man in any age may 
cut in, and many a man in any age may remove or per- 
vert, though none of them should be able either to build 
up, or to throw down and carry away the Great I^ramid. 
But when the same PjTamidist scliolar advances from 
grandest facts of masonry (mechanical, and of the 
Pyramid, not the " Free " falsely so called) to this coffer 
of the King's Chamber, a loose, almost portable vessel, 
and necessarily small, some starthng difficulties are 
met with. And yet eventually he may find, that well 
measured &cts joined to advanced theoretical science 
will enable him to prove satisfactorily to himself, in 
spite of all obstacles, for what purpose the ancient 
Architect made that vessel, and for what he did not. 


How astounded, for instance, was not I, on first 
visiting the coffer in January, 18G5, to find that, 
though sure enough, that remarkalile vessel was still in 
the King's Chamber — that no art thieves (whether Earls 
of Belmore or plebeian Belzonis) liad carried it oil' to 
sell to a distant museum — yet there was actually a 
ledge for a lid, cut out of, or iuto, the substance of the 
top of the sides, of what had been styled proverbially 
for ^fes the " lidless box, or open chest, of stone." 

Compared with this discovery, it was nothiug that tlie 
Teasel was chipped and chipped again on every possible 
edge ; that the south-eastern comer was broken away by 
fresh hammer fractures to an extent of eight or ten inches 
faort than it was in the days of Colonel Howard-Vyse. 
But that ledge cut out, when was that introduced ? 

In the first edition of this book, in 18(i4, I had 
ventured to publish a plate of the coffer ; and strove, in 
mere Uthography, to make it look as neat, trim, and 
aymmetrical a long and, both originally and intentiou- 
lUly a hdless, box as it is represented in the first-class 
line engravings on copper of the great French work on 
Eg^-pt which I copied ; and 110 critic or reviewer 
breathed a suspicion of there being any error ihcn. 
But as soon as I had gone a pilgrim to the Great Pyra- 
mid, I myself was the first to discover the consequences 
of having once put full trust in the Fri'iich Academy ! 
I had told the world in 1804, on the credit of that 
immortal Institute, that the cofi'er h;id no lodge for a 
Bd; but in 1867, I not only, as in duty bound, untold 
that, upon my own observations at the place, but left no 
sort of douH by descriptions, measurements, drawings, 
and photographs, that there was a ledge, and of such 
and such a shape and siza ' And ^vlien I further found 
that it had been marked on a ssiall scale in Perring's 
views of the Pyramids published in 1840, I announced 
that also, — and tiWn were the critics stem and unfor- 


giving upon me for what they colled " my " erroneous 
figure of 18G4 ; while they said not a word touching 
the grander plate from which that figure was copied 
with all aoknowledgment, or their own ignorance until 
iQBtructed hy my second publication. 

Yet it would form a very pretty piece of literary 
disputation, to argue out the dat^e of that ledge on the 
coEFer, from the earliest datum afforded by high modem 
scientific authority ; for that is the Egypto-French Aca- 
demy, of 1799, which represeuta no ledge as then exist- 
ing : or again, to try to arrive at a numerical expression 
of the limits of respect due to any dictum, of the French 
Aca<lemy in future, from the degree of divergence 
hetweeu what they published as their own testimony 
touching the appearance of the coffer at the beginning 
of this century, and what we may assure ourselves it 
must really have been then, &om what we find it to be 

The Frerwh observed Depth and Height Anomaly oI^H 

in the Coffer. ^B 

A thoroughgoing essayist would likewise append to 
the above subject a collateral glance at M. Jomord and his 
brother Academicians in Egyjit, for having further made 
both the inside depth and outside height of the cofler 
some three inches too great ; although generally pro- 
fessing to measure, and sometimes succeeding, to an 
accuracy of a hundredth of an inch. 

The testing of this "French depth" matter was one 
of the first cofier uieasurings that I made, on seeing the 
vessel in 1865; and the rude answer came out instantly, in 
whatever way the question was tried, " French Academy's 
measures of height and depth 3 inches too great;" 
and when, after some weeks' further acquaiutauce with 
j^e QoSsi, I took magnesium light and photographic 

C«i».vni.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 133 

apparatus into the darkneRH of the King's Clmniber, my 
meaauring-roda (specially prepared for tbe purpose at the 
advice of Mr. Joseph Sidobotliam, of Manchester), were 
photographed standing side by si*Io with the coffer, and 
showed some 3 inches less of Iieight and depth than 
the once supposed unquestionable moasurement of the 
taxii'nt* of France, then the intellectual ruler of nations. 

But might possibly the tops of the sides of the coflfer 
have been in a different state in 1799 to what they 
are at present ? Could tlioy have been then three 
iDches higher than their highest part is now ? and 
could nome one -since then have feloniously cut off three 
inches from the top of the coffer all round, anil have 
cut 171 the ledge for a lid at the same time ? 

Perring's views show that the action must have taken 
place, if at all, before 1S37 ; and from 1799 to 1837 
was not prolific in clever granite cutters anywhere, 
least of all too in Egypt ; and even if such iiit'n could 
have managed it outside the Pyramid with the ad- 
vantage there of plenty of time, air, space, and motion, 
could they have accomplished it inside the King's 
Chamber in darkness, heat, want of fresh air, and the 
banditti-like surveillance of an irrepressible rabble of 
free and independent PjTamitl Arabs ? 

Besides that, too, the limits of those 3 inches, or 2, 
or 4, open up a differential im|K>ssibility in the IVramid 
itself. The doorway of the King's Chamlier, 1 OO inches 
thick in solid, polished, unyielding granite (ceiling, tioor, 
and walls), is only 42 inches high, and 41-3 broaiL 
ITie coffer, therefore, of its present height, and without 
toy lid whatever on the top of it, being in tliat tidless 
state 41*27 inches high, can only just pass through, 
with the fraction of an inch to spare. But if it were of 
H. JomBrd's, and the Academy's, and French Govern- 
ment's ptihlished heigh t,-^viz., 4477 inches, — just 
fiuK7 1 Why, even if they were all to clap on together. 


on one and the same hawser, they could nerer poll the 
grand old rigid monolithic granite coffer through a 
solid granite doorway two and three-quarters indies less 
in height ! 

Confession of Error in the First Edition of thia Book, 
and attempt to a/mend it. 

But leaving the origin of such mistakes, and the dis- 
inclination in puhlic bodies to confess them afterwards, 
— to those 80 quaintly called by our early aavtaUa " the 
curious," I will wTite down with all penitence that there 
was serious coffer-error in my first edition <rf " Our In- 
heritance;" and will endeavour to make up to all whom I 
then unwittingly misled u[M)n literary information alone, 
by setting before my readers here what size, shape, and 
condition I found the coffer in, in 1865, and how the 
inquiry was conducted. The following is, therefore, an 
extract from my book, " Life and Work at the Great 
Pyramid," published in 18G7, and now revised, in order 
to introduce some later observations and corrections, 
by Dr. Grant, and Mr. Waj-nman Dixon, C.R 


Uauch 20—23,25, 186S. 

This vessel, the sole contents of the King's Chomher, and termed, 
krcording to variona writers, aUme box, gnnite chest, lidloes vessel, 
porphyry vase, black miirble Bttrcophagus, and coffer,— is composed, as to 
itsmnterial, of a darkish varioly of red, and possibly syenitic, granite. 
And there is no difficulty in seeing this ; for although the ancicat 
polished sides hare lon^ since acquired a deep chocolate hue, there are 
■uch numerous chips ^ittbctcd on all the edges in recent years, that the 
component crystals, quartz, mics, and felspar, may be seen even brilliantly. 

The vessel is chipped around, or along, every line and edge of bottom, 
sides, and top ; and at its south-esst comer, tbe extra accuEnulation of 
cbippings extends to a breaking away of nearly half its height from the 
top downwards. It is, moreover, tilted up at its south end, by a black 
jaaper pebble, about rS inch high (such pebbles are found abundantly 
on the desert hills ontside and vest of the Great Pyramid), recently 
pushed in nndemeath the soalh-vest comer. Tbe Tsnel is therefore in 
a itate of itrain, aggniTat«d b; the depth to which Uw vertical ndei hA%% 


1)eon liToken down u aboTO ; and gnnt care must ba takon ia outside 
meaanreB, not to bn milled b^ tho apace botween tome parU of the 
boUom and Uie floor. 

Ai for the under nirface of the bottom (specalated on bj some penona 
M containing a Iook inacription), I felt it, near the south end, with mj 
hand; and tried to lookundec it itlio, when a piece of magnesium wire wai 
hnming there, — without boin); sensible of any approach la hieroglyphics 
or engiaring. But as to the inside, or upp«r BUrfuce of the bottom, and 
also tho vertical ajdos of the vcaaol, both inside and outi — all the ancient 
nrfaccs there, are plainly enough poliahed smooth, and are without any 
eart'inK, inscription, design, or any intentional line or lines; they an 
also, all of them, aimple, plain, and flat (sensibly to common observation) ; 
excepting only tho top margin, which ia cut into in a manner implying 
that a aarcophuguB lid once fitted on, sliding iota its plnce from the west. 
Mid fixahle by tbree steady pins, entering trom tJie lid into holes oa that 

The watt lido of the colTer is therefore lowered all over its top surface, 
ncept at the north and south ends, by tho amount at depth of sui-h lodge 
mt-ont, or Vll inch ; and tho Other, or east, north, and south eidas ara, 
Vt ahoold be, lowered to the samn depth on thtir inn/r fdyrt, and to a dia- 
tanoe &om inside to out, of I*G3 inch. But the fulness of thia arr.inireineiit 
cannot ba seen now, beuauso in some places, both li'dgo and tup of aides 
•n broken away together; and in others, though much of tho inner 
base line of the ledge remaino, — thanks to its protected position, — the 
upper and true surface of the coficr's side has all been chipped away. 
Id fact, it is only over a short length the north-east oi-nvr of the 
eoSisr, that the qbippers have left any portion of its orii^iial lop edge. 
And % cast of that romor recently taken by Mr. Wuynman Oiion, 
■hows, a* compared with mr photograph (and also with tho frontispiece 
to Vol. I. of tay " Life and Work "), that a further portion of the side'a 
top-mrface, inileAd an awfully lai%e conclioidal-sbaped slice, has diaap- 
prsTf [1 ainee 1B05. 

The whole qnoation, therefore, of the full depth of the coBfor. rests on 
one -rvtf small portion of the north-east wall, so to spoak. of tho colfur ; 
a portion too which becomoa smaller and snmller every yaar thiit wa live. 

Only at that Dorth-east comer too, is thoro an opportunity »f meiiBuriiig 
the Tortical depth between the ancient lop Bur(,icc of a side, and the 
bottom surface of the Itdgr ; and it waa, by repealed meanure, found by 
ne =: from 1-6B to 1'70 and 1-7G; say means 1-72 inch. 

lie sides of the ledge depression appeared to mo to have been 
nrlioa), or without any dovetailing : and the horizontal base breadth of 
loch cnt-out, — measuring from within, to, or towards, Iho "without" of 
tlie coffer, — and restoring the aides to their original completeness before 
Uta chipping away of the edge*, — is, — 

On and tteu Western portion of Northern side = 1-65 

K Middle „ „ . = 1-63 

„ Eastern „ ,. . = 173 

„ Noithem part of Eaiteni side . = 1-55 

H Southern ,, „ . 0II iratti. 
B BaatomandWestem parts of Southern 

tido all bnktH. 

Ueaa = 163 in. 




Bat this appearance of the coffer's ledge haiing been THUmffmkw^ lia« 
been, since my yisit, snccessfiilly shown by Dr. Ghrant and Mr. W. 
Dixon to be a mistake. For although eyexywhere else all the OTear- 
han^gs of an acute ledge haye beisn bxoKen away to beyond the 
yertical, yet there is a smaL part left near the north-east comer, whioh 
speaks unmistakably to an acute-angled shape : not so acute as that of 
the sarcophagus of the Second Pyramid, but decidedly and intentionally 
on the acute side of rectangular. 

Along the western side are three fixing-pin boles, 1*2 deep, and 0*84 in 
diameter, save where they are broken larger, as is chiefly the case with 
the middle and southern one. The three holes haye their centres at the 
following distances from the north end; yiz., 16*0, 46*8, and 75*1 

It is inconceiyable how the French Academicians could haye piotored 
the coflfer, as they did, without representing anything of this ledge cat 
out ; unless they looked upon it as a comparatiyely modem attempt to 
convert the original pure coffer into a sarcophagus, and which they were 
therefore bound to overlook. 

OUTSIDE OF coffsk: its fioubb. 

The planes forming the four external vortical sides of the coffer, which 
have never yet been questioned by any other measurer, appeared to me to 
be far from true ; excepting the east one, whose errors are under 0*02, 
or perhaps 0*01 ; while the north, west, and south sides are so decidedly 
concave as to have central depressions of 0*3 and 0*5 inches ; or more 
particularly — 

At North side, central hollow or depression of coffer's 
side (measured from a horizontal straight-edge 
touching the side at either end, and in a horizontal 
plane), or the quantity of central deprMtion^ near 
bottom = 0*45 

Central deprettion near middle of height . . = 0*20 
„ top = 0*12 


At West .side, central depreaaion, near bottom 


= 0*26 in. 






At South side, central depreation, near bottom 

top . 

= 0*20 in. 




= 019 in. 

Again, when the straight-edge is applied vniieallff to the sides, — east 
side comes out true, but Uie others concave — 

On North side, the maxima of such vertical depression 
ord' = 0*20 and 0*28 

On West side, ef, at South end . . . . = 0*00 
„ <f , at North end . . . . = 0*20 

And on South side, d', at different distances from East 
to West = 008, 0*12, and 0*04 in. 




Aa oomen and edges of the coffer are bo much chippod, that the steel 
elawa I had had prepared for the BlidiDg-roda to adapt them from inside 
to ontaide measures, were found not long enough to span theso modem 
fractores and reach the original polished surfaces. A method was therefore 
adopted, of making up the sides of the coffer with straight-edgcH projecting 
beyond it at either end ; and then measuring hctween such straight-edges 
and on either side, or end, of the coffer. 


On East side, near bottom 

„ 10 inches under top 

„ above top 
On West side, near bottom . 

„ aboYO top 

„ near top 

Mean length 






• • 


• • 

• • 


• • 



• • 

• • 

The above mean, howeyer, represents only the mean leni^th of the edges 
of the two sides, not of the wholo coffer, on account of the concavity of 
the two external ends; wherefore, if wo desire to st^ite the mciin Icufj^th, 
for the mean of each end surface, we must subtract two-thirds«of the 
mean central concavity, as previously determined; i.e. =0-17 for the 
north end, and similarly 0-13 for the south end ; wherefore, then, the mean 
length for mean of each end of coffer = 89-71 British inches. 

= 89-02 Pj-ramid inches. 

N.B. — ^An anomaly in tho West side, near the bottom. 


At Korth end, near bottom . 

„ near top 

n over top 
At South end, near bottom . 

^ near top 

n overtop 

Correction for curvature of 
West side 

Hetn breadth of mean sides 

. 1st 

2nd 8rd 
Mcaijiurc. Mensore. 







39- 1 

• B 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• ■ 

• • 


• • 

• B 

• • 


• • • • 

CoMOaded hreadth 

« 38 65 British inches. 
== 38-61 Pyramid inches. 



[Pabt n. 


Height of coffer outside, eliminating the stone under bottom, and the 
sarcophagus ledge of 1*72 ; t.0. measuring from coffer-bottom to 
extreme ancient top of sides, it 

41 S 

At North end, eastern part of it = 
Same repeated . • . =z 

At North end, north-eastern part 


At other parts no top left. 

= 41-22 

Mean height = 

Correction in eapacity computations 
for a supposed hollow curvature of 
under side of bottom ; agreeably 
with three, out of the four, upright 
sides ; and also agreeably with the 
construction of the under sides of 
the casing-stones, which rest on 
their circumferences, on account of 
a slight hollowing away of their 
central areas ; say • 

Concluded capacity-computation 

41*27 British inches. 
41*23 Pyramid inches. 


41*17 British inches. 
41*13 Pyramid inches. 


For this purpose two vertical straight-edges higher than the sides were 
placed opposite each other, in contact with the inside and outside surfaces 
of any flank of the coffer, and the distance across was measured over the top 
edge of the coffer ; finding at successive parts of the coffer circumference, 
bearing from centre — 

South-south-west thickness 



South „ 

— • 


South-south-east „ 



East-south-east „ 



East „ 



East-north-east „ 



North-north-east „ 

1 ^— 


North „ 



North-north-west „ 



West-north-west „ 



West „ 



West-south-west „ 



Mean thicknes 

8 of ^ 



68 = 

6 99 B. in. 




The above meamiree were repeated on March 28th, and proyed sensibly 
tme for this method of measoiement over the top edge of the cofifer ; but 
if calipered lower down, it is probable that a different thickness would 
hare been found there. 


Bf difference of heights of two strai^ht-^gcs of equal length, applied, 
one inside and one outside, — the outside one being tiirther proppt d up 
where required by a third straight-edge, inserted under the bottom, — there 
waa found — 

Under South-west comer, thickness of bottom 
East side 
East-north- oast 
East-north-east again 
North end 









Mean thickness of bottom around the edges (the thick- 
ness of bottom in the centre cannot at present be 
satisfactorily or easily measured) . 











= 6-92 B. in. 


The inside surfaces of the coffer seem vcr>' true and flat over the greater 
part of their extent; but betray, on examination by straight-edges, a 
slight conyergence at the bottom,' towards the centre. 


(Correction -f- 0*13 added to all the readings for length of this Slider.) 

Distanee between Fast and 

West aides of the North and 

Sooth enda. 

Lerel at which obsenralions were taken. 


inches under 










dose to Eastern side • I 

At }d breadth from East 
Halfway between E. k, W. 
At jds breadth from East 
Close to West side . 

Hdm at each loTel 


S.-E. comer 












Mean of the whole, or the inside ) = 77-93 British inches. 
length of ooflhr • • ./= 77-85 Pyramid inches. 


As there is a ledge, on intention to put on a lid 
may or must be inferred ; but it is still to be proved 
whether a lid ever was put on, especially for sarcophagus 
purposes ; because, first, with a sarcophagus lid of the 
ordinary style and thickness fastened into that ledge, 
the coffer could not have passed through the closely- 
fitting doorway of the room; it would have been several 
inches too high. Second, a sarcophagus lid fieistened 
into that ledge would have betokened the accomplish- 
ment of the last rites to the dead; and they would have 
included among all Eastern nations, but more especially 
the profane Egyptians, the engraving the deceased's 
name, titles, deeds, and history on the coffer, both in- 
side and out ; but there is nothing of the kind there ; 
so the coffer remains still the smooth-sided, vacant, lid- 
less chest of old Al Mamoun Arab tale ; quite capable of 
having been made at any time into a sarcophagus ; but 
never so made or converted, whatever may have been 
the reason why or wherefore. 

Considering, however, the coffer's approximate shape, 
size, and situation, I am quite ready to allow it to be 
"a blind sarcophagus;" viz., a deceiving blind to the 
eyes of the profane Eg}^ptian workmen, as well as a 
symbol sarcophagus to others, reminding them of death, 
judgment, and eternity (as well taught by William 
Simpson, artist) ; but "without thereby interfering one 
iota with its further more exact objects and intentions. 

And what are they ? 

Only look at some of them, as the vessel tells them 
off itself in number and measure, and see features 
thereby which cannot be accidental ; features which 
have never been heard of in any other, or mere, sar- 
cophagus ; and which no Egyptologist, not even Lepsius 
himself, has ever made himself famous by publishing, 
as his " law of Egyptian sarcophagus construction." 

Taking the coffer measures, for instance, as of the 

Cur. Tin.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 143 

vhole vessel before the ledge was cut out, from the 
previous pages in pyiainid inches ; then — 

leoettu Bresdlh. Depth. Tolams. 
CofferintBTior= 77»dx ^670 X 3431 = 71,317' 
Cofferexterior = 6962 x 38'fil X 4113 = 142,316- 

that is, within the limits of accuracy of the modem 
measures, the volume of the exterior is double that of 
the interior ; and the simplest even relation between 
them is that of capacity. 

Agun, the mean thickness of the sides of the coflfer 
being assumed in pjTnmid inches 5052, and of tho 
bottom 6'86C, we have (from a formula first prepared 
by the ingenious Mr. Ucmy Ferigul) — 

Cofler's botlttm — 8962 x 3S'61 x C-RCG = 23,T£8- 

CoAir'l lidM =- 2 (S9'62 X 2e-70) X 34-31 X 5 9^2 '^ 47,60B- 

or again, we find a duplicity of the one quantity against 
the other; and the only apparent simjilo relation between 
the two, and of the sum of both, with the interior of 
the vessel, is that of capacity. 

If now then, we may justifiably say, that though the' 
coffer is probably what Jolm Taylor did not think it, 
.viz. a blind sarcophagus and a symbolical coffin, it is 
also most positively what he did consider it (though by 
means of mensuration proof which he never lived to 
see) — viz. a vessel at whoNe birth the requirements both 
of, and for, capacity measure presided and governed : 
— then in that case, what is its capacity ? 

Whai AaU we consider the Capacity of the Coffer 
proved to bet 

Kov, for the coffer's length and breadth elements ; 
we can quote plenty of measures, but depth is a weak 
pdnt; becaose, as already explained, everjr particle of 


the original top of the sides is cut or broken away^ except 
some little patches near the north-east comer. Those 
were in place in 1865, but who will guarantee that they 
are there still, when men wVil hammer that exquisite 
gift inherited from primeval time, merely in the ignorant 
notion of sending their friends at home a chip of 
" Cheops coffin " ! When the last of these small pieces 
of the ancient top, which I mapped so carefully in " life 
and Work," has disappeared (and Mr. Waynman Dixon's 
cast shows that some of them are already gone), then 
comes the deluge among future coffer measures; a 
veritable chaos of uncertainty as to depth, in the midst 
of which French academicians might put on their three 
additional inches again, and upset all the geometrical 
doublings and equalities which have just been obtained 
by means of our having still a trace of the true height. 
But at this point of the discussion there comes in a 
strange use of the ledge cut out, though it has hitherto 
been thought of only for a lid and nothing else. 

No lid has ever been seen by any historical indi- 
vidual, but every man of the present age may test the 
truth of the following mechanical adaptation ; viz., the 
ledge, though acute-angled, is cut out of such a base- 
breadth and depth that a frame made to fit it flush with 
the ancient top of the sides would, when let down in 
vertical plane, and diagonally inside the coffer, just 
form the diagonal of said coffer s interior, and the frame's 
height at that moment would exactly measure the 
coffer's depth. Hence the breadth of the ledge, con- 
tinued across the coffer from west to east, would 
continue to give us an outstanding test of the coffer s 
original depth, long after young cadets going out to 
India, and comfortable shopkeepers, on a " spree " fi*om 
Cairo, shall have knocked away every particle of the 
original top of the sides. 

In this case also, of course — just as it usually is in 


all matters of so-called exact measuring — no two liuman 
measures ever agree exactly ; and all that finite man 
can hope for is, to come within moderately close limits. 
So then must it be with the coffer's cubic contents. 

Taking the ledge breadth (from my " Anti(iuity of 
Intellectual Man," p. 300) as 34-282 Tyramid inches, 
then the cotiers cubic contents in cubic Pyramid 
inches : — 

(1) By interior length and breadth, and by depth from ledge- 
breadth = 71,258- 

(2J By interior of coffor, by nil direct measures . . .= 71,317* 
(8) By half the exterior volinno directly moasured . . , = 71,160* 
(4) By 811111 of bottom and Hides directly meusurod . . . =^ 71,'20C* 

Here then we have a vessel whose cubic contents are 
not only something excessively near to 71,250* cubic 
P}Tamid inches, but it was pretty evidently inti»nd«Hl to 
be both of tliat quantity within some minuti; fraction, 
and to carrva check and a witness tluTi'to down throuj'h 
all fair accidents, through all ages, to <listant time. While 
that precise quantity, and the care for that quantity, 
are so imjK>ssible for the Egyptologists to explain on 
any sareophagus theory of their own, pure and siuq>le — 
for it has never been sugge.sted by any one a priori, and 
is not found in any other sarcophagus fn)m one end of 
E^'pt to the other — that we must now strivt* to asorrtain, 
on methods new to Egyptology, what the (irrat Pyramid 
itself may have to add to this, its own i>ri»liminarv 
setting forth of " a symbolical sarcophagus, adapted to 
something further and higher connected with capacity 






rriHOUGH there be no inscriptions, yet is there much 
•*- teaching on the interior walls of the Great 
Pyramid ; and as the coffer, when taken merely by 
itself, has proved thus far, too hard a riddle for full 
interpretation, let us try the teaching of the walls which 
precede, as well as those which surround it. 

Ante-chumber Symbolisma. 

In order to enter the Great Pyramid's so-called 
King's Chamber, we have to pass through the " ante- 
chamber," very appropriately so called, because it is a 
little room which must be passed through before the 
King's Chamber can be entered or the coffer seen ; and 
in passing through it the attentive eye may note many 
more complicated forms there, than in any other part 
of the Great Pyramid. Amongst these notcmda are 
certain vertical Unes above the southern or further 

Previous travellers have contradicted each other so 
abundantly about the number of these lines, that I was 
rather surprised to perceive them instantly to be not only 
confined to the number four, but these distinct, regular, 
parallel, extending the whole way evenly from door-top 
to ceiling, and no less than 2*8 inches deep and 3*8 


inches broad each, with six-inch spaces between, and with 
similar six-inch spaces also between the outer side of 
each outermost line, and the bounding of the ante- 
room wall on that side. 

Hence the lines were subservient to the spaces, an(J 
the whole arrangement appeared to me, not so much a 
system of four lines, as an example of surface divided 
into^re portions or spaces. 

As the doorway is only 42 inches high, and the 
dividing lines are drawn do>\Ti to its (now broken) top, a 
man of ordinary height standing in the ante-room and 
looking southward (the direction he desires to go in 
order to reach the King s Cliamber), cannot fail to see 
this space divided into five. And when ho bows his 
head low, as he must do to pass under the southern 
doorway of 42 inches, he bends his head submissively 
under that symbol of division into five, and ahoidd re- 
member that five is the first and most characteristic of 
the Pyramid numbers. (Sec Plate X.) 

Travellers describe the Wall-courses of the Kimjs 


Not for nothing, therefore, was it, as the intelligent 
traveller may readily believe, that the architect of the 
Great PjTtunid desired to impress that division into 5 
upon his, the traveller s, mind, just the last thing before 
he should bow down previous to ])iLssing through the 
low, solid, doorway, 100 iiiclu.»s thick and 42 high ; and 
after that, rising up in the midst of the King s Chamber 
beyond, and seeing — what should he see ? 

According to that usually most corrt^ct of travolh^rs, 
Ph>fessor Greaves, he says of the King s ChandK-r that 
every one may see there " from the top of it descending 
to the bottom, there are but six ranges of stone, all 
which, being respectively sized to an equal height, very 


gracefully in one and the same altitude run round the 


Well, that is, not the accomplishment of a division 
into five, so let us try an older traveller, Sandys, in 
1610. Says he, "A right royal apartment, and so 
large that eight floors it, eight roofs it ; eight stones 
flagge the ends and sixteen the sides." Worse and 

Says Dr. Pocock in 1743, "Six tiers of stones of 
equal breadth compose the sides ; " which M. Fourmont, 
on the part of Bourbon France, confirms in 1766 by 
laying doAni that " the walls are composed of six equal 
ranges." The still more famous traveller. Dr. Clarke, 
makes Cambridge in 1801 support Oxford in 1639, 
by particularising that " there are only six ranges of 
stone from the floor to the roof ; " while, finally, that 
usually infallible author on Eg}''pt., Mr. Lane, with his 
relatives the Poolos, seem to set a seal for ever on the 
mistake by declaring, " Number of courses in the walls 
of the King s (liamber, six." 

What conhl have blinded all these men, and sent 
them following each other helpless dowTi one and the 
same too easy rut of simple, ridiculous, error? Dr. 
Richardson, in 1817, was more original, if error appa- 
rently there must be ; for he chose a new and hitherto 
untrod line of it for himself, sententiously writing of 
the room, " Lined all round with broad flat stones, 
smooth and highly polished, each stone ascending from 
the floor to the ceiling." But having once begun this 
new misdescription, he soon has followers ; and we find 
Lord Lindsay, in 1838, writing, " A noble apartment, 
cased with enormous slabs of granite 20 feet high " (or 
more than the whole height of the room) ; and Sir 
William R. Wilde and M. R. L A., in 1837, equally 
WTite down, as observed by themselves, "An oblong 
apartment, the sides of which are formed of enormous 

Cmaf.IX.] the great pyramid. 149 

blocks of granite reaching from the floor to the 

And yet, will it be credited, even by little children, 
that the walls of this chamber are divided into live hori- 
zontal courses, neither more nor less, ahnost four feet liigh 
each ; and tliat these courses are most easy to count, as 
they must have been undoubtedly most expensive for the 
architect to construct, because eacli course runs round and 
round the room at one and the same heiglit in gnuiite 
blocks 47 inclies high, difficult to get in large numbei-s 
so massive and uniform in any quarry ; and every course 
is the same height as every othiT, except the lowest, 
which is less thtm the others by nearly l-lOth part, if 
measured from the floor, but is the mmt heiglit if 
measured from the base of its own gnuiite e<)in})oiient 
blocks, which descend in the wall to beiicatli the floor s 
level* (See Plate XL) 

Tht Pyramid Xuniher of Wall-courseSy and of Stones 

in them. 

Neither was I the first jx^rson to find out that the 
courses in the walls of the King's Chamber wen* five 
only, for the same thing had be(»n noted by Lord Egmont 
in 1709, and Dr. Sliaw in 1721, and i)erhaps by some 
others earlier or later ; but no one previously to myself 
liad, so far as I am aware, either fought against odds 
for the correctness of his observation, or connected the 
number with both the tejiching of the architect in the 
ante-chamber, and the quinary character of the Pyramid's 
first arithmetic. 

Yet, quinarj' though it be for some i)uri»oses, it is 

* FuU particalan of my meaaures of ibid room in whole and piirt, and 
puta onparvd agninst wtiolo, are contained in my " Life Hnd work at 
th« Oraat Pyramid,** toI. ii. ; but are too Xonf; to introdui'O hero. 1 have 
given there alao the iramcidiately succeeding moaaurea of a young 
•ngineer, tent, I suspect, by a rich luan, to trip mc up if he could, but 
eonfinning my measuma bolU of number and size of cuumes and room. 


decimal for others, as shown here in almost juxta- 
position ; first, by the tenth part, nearly, taken oflF the 
height of the lower course, by the manner of intro- 
duction of the floor ; and then by the 10x10 number 
of stones, exactly, of which the walls of this beautiful 
chamber are apparently composed. This latter circum- 
stance was only recently announced, though on my 
publication of 1867, by Mr. Flinders Petrie; and does 
him all the more credit because, when I came to test 
the statement, there was one joint line, by mistake, too 
many in the middle course of the south wall in my 
engraved plate of the chamber, though the printed 
numbers were correct. Yet as the upper courses, though 
given by me, are on Mr. Inglis* observations alone — they 
should certainly be repeated, now that an unexpected 
importance has attached to them. 

Thje King's Chanriber and the Coffer are miUually Com- 
inienaurahle in Pyramid Numhera, 

Bit the tenth part, nearly, taken off the visible height 
of the lower granite course of the walls ; what was that 
for ? Its first effect was to make that course, within the 
fraction of an inch, the same height as the coffer ; and 
the second was, more exactly, to make the capacity, or 
cubic contents of that lowest course of the room, so 
decreased, equal to fifty times the cubic contents of the 
coffer, already shown to be 71,250* cubic Pyramid 
inches. Two separate sets of measured numbers in 
Pyramid inches for the length, breadth, and height, of 
that lowest course giving as follows, when divided by 
the Goffer*s contents, — 

41214 X 20609 X 41*9 8,568,899- 

= = 49-96 

71,250 71,260 



412 X 206 X 42 3,564,624* 

=z s= 6003 

71,269- 71,260- 

Hence, close as was the connection of the several 
p^rts of the coffer by the tie of capacity, equally close 
is the connection of the coffer with the adjusted course 
of the granite room in which it stands, and by capacity 
measure also. While, if the multii)le before was two, and 
is 50 now, is not 50 twice 25, or double the number of 
inches in the cubit of the Great Pyramid, the significant 

Comm^naui^bUitles between tlieKhif/s ClfnwJ>er and tlie 
Structural Mamnry Courses of the whole Pyra)iiid. 

Neither did the fives and the tens of this chnmber, on 
being examined, end here ; for having been greatly stnick 
outside the monument on contemplating the grandeur 
of the horizontal courses of masonry of which the whole 
Pyramid is built, I began next to study them by mi^asure. 
Not equal to each other are they in their successive 
heights ; but, whatever height or thickness of stones any 
one course is begun with, it is kept on at that thickness 
precisely, right through the whole Pyramid at that level ; 
though too the area of the horizontal section there may 
amount to many acres. 

To secure this result, in fact just as with the equal 
height of the granite courses in the King s Cliamber 
walls, but on a far larger scale, — it was plain that 
immense arrangements must have been instituted with 
the masons of many quarries ; and such arrangements 
imply method, mind, and above all, intention. Where- 
fore, having measured the thickness of ever)- com- 
ponent course of the Great P^'ramid, one day in April, 
1865, when ascending to the summit, and another day 


in descending, I compared and confirmed those figures 
with my own photographs oif the building placed under 
a compound microscoi>e ; and also with similar num- 
bers obtained from still more careful measures by the 
French Academicians in 1799 and 1800; and then 
began to sum up the courses' successive thicknesses to 
give the whole height of any particular number of 

On reaching in this manner the 50th course, lo ! 
the total height of that stratum, or 1,690 inches, gave 
the hypsometrical level of the floor of the King's 
Chamber as well as it has yet been ascertained directly 
by all the best authorities. So that the level of the 
50th course of the Pyramid, is the level also of that 
granite floor, whereon is resting the cofl'er, a vessel 
with commensurable capacity proportions between its 
inside and out, and walls and floor, in a room with 5 
courses, composed of 100 stones, and with a capacity 
proportion of 50 to the 5 th of tliQse courses. 

The dullest person in existence could hardly but see 
then, that the so-called, in the dark ages, King s Cham- 
ber, should rather have been called the of the 
standard of 50. Can we also say of 50 Pyramid inches 
employed in capacity measure ? 

But what is a length of 50 Pyramid inches in 
the eye of Nature, and how ought that length to be 
employed for scientific and general capacity-measure 
purposes ? 

Fifty Pyramid inches form the one ten-millionth of 
the earth's axU of rotation ; or decidedly the proper 
fraction to take for capacity measure, when we have 
already chosen one ten-millionth of the scTni^xis for 
linear measure. The reason being, that in measuring 
distances, say amongst the spheres of heaven, men mea- 
sure them from centre to centre, and therefore have 
only to take account of the nulii of each ; but in dealing 


yi-ith either their capacity or weiglit, we must take each 
sphere in its entirety, or from side to side, that is, by 
its diameter rather than radius. 

More Sipiiholical Hivts from the Ante-chanJjer, 

Such is the answer to the first pju-t of tlie question ; 
and a hint how to deal witli tlie second part nifiy he 
gathered from some of the liitlu^to incomprehensible 
things in the Utile ante-chamber to this our grandtr 
chamber. Little is the ante-chamber, when it measuns 
only 65*2 inches in utmost breadth from east to west, 
116'3 long from north to south, and 141) 4 high ; but 
it has a sort of granite wainscot on either side of it, 
full of detail ; and was to me so complicated and 
troublesome a matter as to occupy three days in 
measuring. (Sec Plate X.) 

On the east side, this wainscot is only 103 1 inches 
high, and is flat and level on the top ; but on the west 
side it is 111 "8 inches, and has three semi-cylindrical 
cross hollows of 9 inches radius, cut down into it, and 
also back through its whole thickness of 8*5 to 117 
inches to the wall. Each of those cylindrical hollows 
stands over against a broad, shallow, flat groove 2 10 
inches wide, running from top to bottom of the 
wainscot, with a pilaster-like separation betwet-n them ; 
and this groove part of the arrangement is precisely 
repeated on the east side, within its comjiass of height. 

These three grand, flat, vertical grooves, then, on either 
side of the narrow ante-chamber, have been pronounced 
long since by Egj-jitologists to be a vertically sliding 
portcullis system for the defence of the door of the 
King's Chamber. Tliere are no blocks now to slide up 
and down in these grooves, nor have such things ever 
been seen there : but the gentlemen jK>int triumphantly 
to a fourth groove, of a difterent order, existing to the 


north of all the others, indeed near the north b^mmng 
of the ftnte-chamhcr ; and with its portcullis block, they 
say, still suspended, and ready for work. 

The Qranite Leaf. 

Thnt alleged portcullis block, however, contains many 
peciiliitrities which modem Egj'ptologists have never 
explained ; and as it was first carefully described by 
Professor Greaves under the appellation of " the granite 
leaf," we had better keep to that name. 

Its groove, instead of being 2 1 ■ G Inches broad, like the 
others, is only 171 broad; and in place of being like 
tliem cut down to, and even several inches into, the 
floor, tenniuates 4-3'7 inches above that basal plane; 
so that the block, or rather blocks — for it is in two 
pieces, one above the other— stand on solid stone, and 
could not be immediately lowered to act as a port«ullis 
if any one desired. Nor would they make a good 
portcullis if they were to be forcibly pushed, or chiselled 
down in their vertical plane, seeing that there are 
21 inches free lateral space between the leaf and the 
north entering wall and doorway, where a man might 
worm himself in, on that iiice of it; and 57' inches 
above its utmost top, where several men might clamber 
over ; and where I myself sat on a ladder, day after 
day, with lamps and measuring-rods, but in respectful 
silence and absolute solitude, thinking over what it 
might mean. 

Tlie granite leaf is, therefore, even by the few data 
already given, a something which needs a vast deal 
more than a simple portcullis notion, to explain it. 
And so do likewise the three broader empty grooves to 
the south of it, remarkable with their semi-cylindrical 
hollows on the west side of the chamber. But it is 
not any, or every, other notion which will therefore be 
found to apply. 

Chap. IX.] THE GREA T PYRAMID, 1 5 5 

Thus a military knight and engineer-goncral had, in 
1869, published in more than positive terms a most 
questionable idea of the descending entrance-passage, 
together with the ascending passage and Grand Gallery 
of the Great Pyramid, being a pet plan of the ancient 
King Cheops for easily visiting his Kings Cliamber 
when in progress ; viz., by going down the first slope 
in a truck, whose impetus should be so remarkably 
economised by ropes and pulleys, as to draw him up 
the second slope to twice the vortical h(^ight he came 
down from ; and the gallant commander could scarcely 
be restrained from giving orders to the commissioned 
and non-commissioned officers on the Sinai survey to 
go over from there and fit up, or rather, as he con- 
sidered, restore, such a system of ropes and trucks 
inside the Great Pyramid ; and what for ? Why, to 
facilitate the legionary visits of modern travellers ; 
the very men who day by day, and year after year, 
break both the coffer and anvthini' and evervthin^ elsi? 
breakable with their needless and provoking hammers ; 
and become more and more rampagious the larger 
parties they are alloweil to accumulate ; " cutting such 
antics " there, " as make the angels we<»p/* 

In the course of last year, however, a civilian engineer, 
Mr. John Dixon — having returned from Egypt, where, 
with his brotlier Mr. Wavnman Dixon as resident 
engineer, he ha<l been building a bridge over thcj Nile, 
and successfully exploring at the Great P\Tamid also — 
kindly contributed several Pyramid drawings to the 
Omjihic in London. 

These drawings, or their descriptions, contained some 
allasions both to the granite leaf and the three semi- 
cylindrical hollows on the top of the wainscot of the 
western side of the ante-chamber. Tliis special infor- 
mation, apparently quite new to the military man, 
aeemed to set his ambitious soul in a blaze, for he 


immediately wrote off with enthusiasm to Mr. John 
Dixon about the truck system; and called presently 
with a model of it under his arm, asking " if he 
(Mr. J. D.) did not think that all those ante-chamber 
arrangements which he had pictured, were just intended 
to carry out his, the general officer's, ideas of Cheops' 
pet truck method of going without any exertion up 
and down the Grand Gallery. Was not too (he asked 
most triumphantly) — ^was not the granite leaf fixed 
across the ante-chamber for fastening the fixed ends 
of the ropes to ; and were not those semi-cylindrical 
hollows made on purpose to receive the pivots of the 
big horizontal rollers round which the turns of the 
running ropes must have passed ? " 

** No," said the civil engineer firmly, " certainly not : 
for your running ropes would fray themselves against 
the lower comers of the granite leaf ; the whole would 
bo a bad mechanical arrangement ; and then what 
would you do with the other end of your rollers, when 
there are no semi-cylindi'ical hollows to receive them 
on the east side ?" 

On hearing which last piece of absolute truth, the 
military engineer fell backwards as though he had been 
shot ; and was instantly rendered so utterly helpless, 
that had he been at that moment on the long slope of 
the Grand Gallery, or indeed of any of the inclined 
passages of the Great Pyramid, he would — instead of 
finding them, according to another of his theories, 
representations of " the angle of rest " and " repose," — 
he would, I say, have been involuntarily set sUding down 
at such a continually accelerated rate, that he would 
have gone, alas ! headlong to some awful degree of phy- 
sical smash at the bottom, piteous to contemplate. 

Others, however, passing and repassing frequently in 
1865 through the ante-chamber, on seeing those three 
grooves, have rather received the impression, in their 

Chap. IX.] THE GREAT PVR A MID. 157 

more quiet and studious minds, of the three dimensions 
necessary to express capacity-contents — the throe liol- 
low curves too, reminding them of the curved shell of 
the carth*s surface ; and the granite leaf with its double 
block (implying double power to its specific gravity) 
leading them aLso to think of the wirth's interior, or 
capacity, contents, which are, when taken in the whole, 
of almost exactly double the mean density, or specific 
gravity, of that granite. 

Earth's Mean Density approximately ivdicateiJ, hut 

requireAl more exactly. 

Here then, from ever}*^ side — from the cofter, the 
King's Cliamber, the Pyramid courses, and the ante- 
chamber trappings of stone — all the very, and most 
scientific, and suitable, items neeessiuy fur preparing 
earth reference caj)aeity and weight measures were 
gradually cropping up in ISGo a.d., before earnest and 
attentive study of the actual Pyrami<l faets, to a (iui«?t 
onlooker, measuring-rod in hand. Ihit no mere lin(»ar 
measuring-rod can supply the further radical id<'a re- 
quired for weight, 'flie something else called for in 
this instance, in order to be trut* to the grandeur of 
the beginning made in the Pyrami<l system for len«^'th, 
could be no other than the mean density of the whole 
world, and this quantity is not yet by any means so 
intimately understooil by ever}- one, that it would be 
generally and instantly recognised the monu^nt it should 
haply bo seen, under some symbolical figure or numerical 
equivalent, in the Great Pyramid. 

Although, too, the earth's mean density has been for 
long a subject of permanent interest throughout other 
most important and varied bmnches of natural ]>hilo- 
fiophy, besides astronomy, and not only in this country, 
but the whole world over, yet it has been practically, 
diligently, successfully, studied by hardly any other 



nation tLan ourselves ; and what we have <loi 
cause has been confined to very late times Indeed. 

Tlie first special move, silways excepting Sir 7 
Newton's most sagacious guess in the absence of ( 
experiment,* seems to have been nmde by Dr. Maske- 
lyne ; who wrote in 1772 aa follows to thu Royal Society 
of London, in the course of a paper uj^^ing tho propria! 
of making experiments to measure the precise i 
through which a pendulum might be drawn out of \ 
vertical, by the attraction of a mountain mass 

" It will he easily acknowledged," remarked he, " 
to find a sensible attraction of a hill irom undoubfl 
experiment, would be a matter of no small curiosi^ 
would greatly illustrate tho theory of gravity, and WM 
make the universal gravitation of matter, as it ' 
iwilpable to every person, and fit to convince those wnl 
will yield their assent to nothing but dowmright experi- 
ment. Nor would its use end here, for it would serve 
to give U3 a better idea of the total mass of the e 
and the proportional density of the matter near \ 
surface, compared with the mean density of the wIm 
earth. The residt of such an uncommon expeiimeulM 
which I should hope would prove successful- 
doubtless do honour to the nation where it was 
and the society which executed it." 

Mimntava, Detei'^niTtaiions of the Earth's Mean '. 

The effect of this representation was, that the a 
did undertake the exjjeriment ; Mount Schihallion, ' 

* Bir luoc's worda aie ;- — " tJnde cnm terra coDitnunis sajimna qn>m 
dnplognviunlt quamaquil, et panla interiua in foilinia quasi triplo vel 
qiiadru|ilo ant etrnm quintuplo gravior repemlur: vemmlte Nt quod 
copia nutteriee toliui \a tcna quasi quintuplo vel Kuluplo major ait quam 
■i tola ei aqui conBtaret." A nideJy ooneclupproach UiU to thedeoiit/ 
of the «1id1g eanh, Lnt b; menna of such a decided uvet-eslimata of 
Ibo Dteac dendty of the avurage niHtraials of " niiaea i>r qu&nie*," thai it 
did not aury inueh wnivuitMa w'rilx A. 


Perthshire, ScotLunL vji.4 -t^ir^rr-; t 'It x? -,- 
priate site; Dr. ILLskrlrat: '':»riii;f ir>ri,!:-.r— i - , Xii«i.- ~:i*r 
observations, and L»r. Hi^r.n '•; ^.-ur^i^r? -...t .••--.::.:.. 
which were nirfHjrteiL in 177'? '-* .*• '/.^ir ii- jLfin 
density of the wbji»j rarrK tx^ :z=: ^ 7 'liur . . ■.•.?:Lr.' 
of matter 4^ times Leavihrr "ijiri t ir -r 

This result rirh^rr 'iiirn.-:?: 2i«>r ji-.t-r. i- \..t -.izjt 
for "common ^toue. ' or "VAirL ■]:- - /.::i. :. ^iii.l • I'.n- 
sidered the majoriry i>t* ri-r -:irL ". :•«:.'. Vi. l:... vz 
to be onlv 24 tLmrr^ rii-: .:-l.-> .r ^'t*-r 

Thev l<xiked, thr:r*rrorr. -z.'*^ '/.'r f.r.. "*.':'!'.'- i '.,*-. 
Schihallion mounraiti r.-i--:' v!.'.i. "1:- li^iii -i^-.-; • l- 
a first approximari'jn. <:'/r..-M-r-t: -. .*r :' :'.r...:.'.r. 
stone;" and PW.tair. rL- Lll.. ...•i'. .'•:'' v.- .r 
Natural Philosophy, arrl ;iIl i:iir...-:i.-r r.-.-:.-: .:' r£. •"■... 
the fire geologi->r., di«:«:ijVrr'r«l ■v:r..ii.'^ li.,— -.. .r..- ,:' :•:..- 
trap ; whenc»* he ih':X.KTiii.\w-A *:/.•: L>:ur. •'.*-.*/. t. -. .-i .: .r 
the whole of the mi>imLiiiA z :;.i:--ril.-. -.. .»t :.:.::::: 2^4 
to 2*81. In projiortion.-. rtx... TLi'.h ■'.r..^i-'. .:. ':.-. .«.:«- 
eluded density of the wh-jie -rarh. i^j K*: 4? ^ : a"-.1. v.r.-: 
suspicions that it miufhr b^: -:'i:I m-jr^. 

In this surmise the corup'ivr-! 'avf^:: ::.:■.:'.•• •:!;/ 
right, for evt-r}' d^terminarii,ri rLit Li- K*-*:ri ri.-x'i : -;:.■.>: 
then, and bv ev^rv* ni^.th'^d. Lx-s iriViiri^r,; v ^iiv^ri 
greater results. Tlu; only rx['*:ririirtin '|»;iv: -iri.i-:ir, 
excepting some result.-^ of mthrr iiriniarui.^^.ah!'; rx^^u. 
in India, conn«.*et»^d with tli»; HimaLiya.-. w^s thiiC 
n*ported to the Royal Soi:i»-ty of Lonil^n in l^.*;*;, Ly 
Colonel Sir Hi*iir\' Jani»'s, in cliar''*-* <.»f the <_>riliian<:»j 
Survey. Ht» thert-in deseribinjr tlie obs«.rvations made 
by non-commissioned officers of the Royal Sappers and 
Miners, with their zenith sector, on and a^^ainst the hill 
of Arthur s Seat, near Edinburgh ; which observations 
yielded, when put through the necessiiry computations, 
as they were most splendidly, by Captain Ross Clarke, 
R.E., the number 5*316. 




nation tlian ourselves ; and wliat we have done in tbe 
cause has been confined to very late times indeed. 

Tlie first special move, always excepting Sir Isaac 
Newton's most sagadous guess in the absence of I 
experiment," seems to have been made by Dr. Mai 
lyne ; who wrote in 1772 as follows to the Royal Sociei 
of London, in the course of a paper urging the propria^ 
of making experiments to measure the precise an{^ 
through which a pendulum might he drawn out of t" 
vertical, by the attraction of a mountain mass. 

" It will be easily acknowledged," remarked he, " 
to find a sensible attraction of a hill from undouhtfl 
experiment, would be a matter of no small curio&icf a 
would greatly illustrate th« theory of gravity, and woul 
make the universal gravitation of matter, as it wei 
palpable to every person, and fit to convince those who 
will yield their assent to nothing but downright experi- 
ment. Nor would its uso end here, for it would serve 
to give us a better idea of the total mass of t 
and the proportional density of the matter near t 
surface, compared with the mean density of the who] 
earth. The result of such an uncommon experiment- 
which I should hope would prove successful- 
doubtless do honour to the nation where it was i 
and the society which executed it." 

Mounlain Deteiininations of the Earth's Mean 


The effect of this representation was, that the societj 
did undertake the experiment ; Mount Schihallion, in ~' 

* Sir Isnac'a words are ; — " I7rde cum tens comiriunis siiprema quaii 
duplognitiur ait qunni nqiiA, et paulo iDferiuB in iodinii qaaai tHpIo vel 
qiudru^'lo sut eliiun quintuplo gravior ropeiialni: ; VEnimile eat quod 
cupin material tolius in lem. quasi qnintupla vel aeitnplo major lit qaam 
ai lata ex squA couBturot." A rudely correct Hpproach tbis lo the deodCf 
of Ihe wliule eurlli, but by menni of >ucli n. decided OTer-eslimute of 
the mean density ot the average mniterials of " miuea or quBrriea," th&t it 
did aotoaixy much ooiwiiiUoiiwiQiit. ^^ 

Cbat.IX.] the great pyramid. 159 

Perthshire, Scotland, was selected as the most appro- 
priate site ; Dr. Maskelyne being iippointed to make the 
observations, and Dr. Huttoa to calculate the results : 
which were reported, in 1778, to be, that the mean 
density of the whole earth was ^ 4o ; that is, composed 
of matter 4^ times heavier than water. 

This result rather surprised most men at the time ; 
for " common stone," of which they had usually con- 
ffldered the majority of the earth to consist, was known 
to be only 2^ times the density of water. 

They looked, therefore, into the composition of the 
SchihnlUon mountain itself, which they had vaguely, as 
a first approximation, considered to be of " common 
stone ;" and Playfair, the Edinburgh Professor of 
Natural Philosophy, and an immense friend of Hutton, 
the fire geologist, discovered certain injections of dense 
trap ; whence ho detemiiued the mean specific gravity of 
the whole of the mountain's minerals to be from 2'(J4 
to 281. In proportions, too, which brought up the con- 
cluded density of the whole earth, to be 4 8; with some 
suspicions that it might be still more. 

In this siiFDUso the computers were undoubtedly 
right, for every determination that has been made since 
then; and by every method, has invariably given 
greater resultji. The only experiment quite similar, 
excepting some results of rather unmanageable extent 
ID Id dill, connected with the Himalayas, was tliat 
reportcil to the Royal Society of London in 1856, by 
ColoDol Sir Henry James, in charge of the Ordnance 
Survey. He therein describing the observations inado 
by non-commissioned oflicers of the Royal Sappers and 
Uiners, with their zenith sector, on and against the hill 
of Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh ; which observations 
yielded, when jiHt through the necessary coiuputjitioii!!, 
•a they were mast s]ilcndidly, by Captain Ross CVimV.*!, 
E.E., the nuinlwr o-3lG. 

nation than oursclycs ; and what we have done in t 
cause has been confined to very late times indeed. 

The first special move, always excepting Sir Isaac 
Newton's most sagacious guess in the absence of any 
experiment," seems to have been made by Dr. Maske- 
lyne ; who wrote in 1772 as follows to the Royal Society 
of London, in the course of a paper urging the propriety 
of malting experiments to measure the precise angle 
through which a pendulum might be drawn out of tlie 
vertical, by the attraction of a mountain mass. 

"It will be easily acknowledged," remarked he, "^ 
to find a sensible attraction of a bill from undoubt^ 
experiment, would be a matter of no small curiosity^ 
would greatly illustrate the theory of gravity, and would 
make the universal gravitation of matter, as it were, 
[ialpable to every person, and fit to convince those whoi* 
will yield their assent to nothing but downright ex] 
meiit. Nor would its use end here, for it would s 
to give us a better idea of the total mass of the earth', 
and the proportional density of the matter near the 
surface, compared with the mean density of the whole 
earth. The result of such an uncommon experiment — ■ ■ 
which I shoiJd hope would prave successful- 
doubtless do honour to the nation where it was i 
and the society which executed it." 

Moujttain DeterTninatwns uf Ike Earth's Mean 


The effect of this representation was, that the sodetl 
did undertake the experiment ; Mount Schihallion, f 

* sir Ibbbc'b words are : — " Utide cum terra Gommunie auprcmn qusn 
duplogmviur «it qiHtn HqiiS. et iiB.ulo inforius ia fodinii quasi triplo rsl 
qui»lru|4o But elinm quintuplo arr»vior reperiulur ; vcrsimile e«t quod 
copin materia^ toliiu in terro quiui quintuplo vcl aexlaplo mnjor lit qiiBin 
ai tola ex auuil conataret." A riideJy eorTOctipproarh tbisto thedenutjr 
at the hIioU' earih. hut bj means of such a dccidod ciTer-eatimate o( 
the meaa dimeit^ oS Ihe Bverage muteriala of " miaeE or quarriei," that it 
did aot euay touch oonTiolwn wiUi ik- 




jse whoi H 
Id setlrtlH 

o rturfV ^* 


Perthshire, Scotland, was selected as the most appro- 
priate site ; Dr. Maskelyne being appointed to make the 
ohservations, and Dr. Hutton to calculate the results : 
which were reported, in 1778, to be, that the mean 
density of the whole earth was ^ 4'5 ; that is, composed 
of matter 4^ times heavier than water. 

This result rather surprised most men at the time ; 
for "common stoue," of which they had usually con- 
ndered the majority of the earth to consist, was known 
to be only 2^ times the density of water. 

They looked, therefore, into the comtiosition of the 
Schihallion mountaiu itsolf, which they had vaguely, as 
a first approximation, considered to be of "common 
stone ;" and Playfalr, the Edinbui^h Profes.sor of 
Natural Philosophy, and an immense friend of Hutton, 
the fire geologist, discovered certain injections of dense 
trap ; whence ho deteniiiued the mean specific gravity of 
the whole of the mountain's minerals to be from 2t)4 
to 2'81. In proportions, too, which brought iij) the con- 
cluded density of the whole earth, to be 4 8; with some 
suspicions that it might be still more. 

In this surmise the computers were undoubtedly 
right, for every determination that 1ms been made since 
then; and by every method, lias invariably given 
greater results. Tlio only experiment quite similar, 
excepting some results of rather uiimatiagoable extent 
in India, connected with the Himakyus, was that 
reported to the Royal Society of London in 1856, by 
Colonel Sir Henry James, in charge of the Ordnance 
Survey. He therein describing the observations inado 
by non-commissioned officers of the llojid Sappers and 
Mineni, with their zenith sector, on and against the hill 
of Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh ; which obs(>r>-atioiis 
yielded, when put through the accessary computations, 
IS they wen! most splendidly, by Captain Ross Clurku, 
B.E., the number 5-31C. 



nation tlian ourselves ; and what we have done in tW 
cause haa been confined to very late times indeeiL 

Tho first special move, always excepting Sir Isaac 
Newtou'a most sagacious guess in the absence of any 
experiment,' seems to have been made by Dr. Maske- 
lyne ; who wrote in 1772 as follows to the Rojal Society 
of London, in the course of a paper urging the propriety 
of making experiments to measure the precise angle 
through which a pendulum might be draftTi out of the 
vertical, by the attraction of a mountain mass. 

" It will be easily acknowledged," remarked be, " that 
to find a sensible attraction of a hill &om undoubted 
experiintjnt, would be a matter of no small curiosity ; 
would greatly illustrate the theory of gravity, and would 
make the universal gravitation of matter, as it were, 
palpable to every person, and fit to convince those who 
will yield their assent to nothing but downright esperi- 
ment. Nor would its use end here, for it would 
to give ua a better idea of the total mass of the 
and the proportional density of the matter neM* 
surface, compared with the mean density of the 
earth. The result of such an uncommon experiment — 
which I should hope would prove successful- — would 
doubtless do honour to the nation where it was made, 
and the society which executed it." 

Mountai/n Detei-vilnations of the Eartk'a Mean 

The effect of this representation was, that the societ 
did undertake the expeiiment ; Mount Schihallion, 




• Sir Isnac'a words are: — "TJnde cum Una comniuiiia supremo quiui 
dupio gTftviur rit tjanm si]ii&, et jHtnlo iaferiug in fodinis quasi triplo T«l 
qiiBdru}<lo Hiit etiiim qaintuplo gravioT reperiatur ; TcTRiniilQ est qimd 
fopiu muloriai toliuH tQ t«Tr& quasi quintuple) rel sextuplo major lit qaan 
■[ tota ex NQuil coneLaret." A rudely cotrett approarb tliil to the dendty 
uf the wliole eurlh, but by meana of such a di^cided OTer-ealimat* oB 
(Ae raeaa doneity of the average malBriaU of " 
did not eury maehQotxiia]iaa.iii)ii.'A' 

Cmaf.IX.] the great pyramid. IS9 

Perthshire, Scotland, was selected as the most appro- 
priate site ; Dr. Maskelyne being nppoiufed to make the 
observations, and Dr. Huttou to calculate tlie results : 
which were reported, in 1778, to be, that the mean 
density of the whole earth was = 4o ; that Is, coinjKised 
of matter 4^ times heavier than water. 

This result rather surprised most men at the time ; 
for "common stoue," of which they had usually con- 
sidered the majority of the earth to consist, was known 
to be only 2i times the density of water. 

They looked, therefore, into the comjwsition of the 
Schihailion niountaiu itself, wliich they had vaguely, as 
a first appraximatioii, considered to be of " common 
stone ;" and Playfair, the Edinburgh Profi«sor of 
Natural Philosophy, and an inmieuse friend of Huttou, 
the fire geoli^st, discovered certain injections of dense 
trap ; whence ho detenuined the mean specific gi-.ivity of 
the whole of the mountain's minerals to be from 2()4 
to 2'81. In projiortions, too, which brought up the con- 
ctnded density of the whole earth, to be 4 8; with some 
suspicions that It might be still more. 

In this surmise the comiiuters were undoubtedly 
right, for every determination that has been made since 
then, and by every method, has invariably given 
greater results. Tlio only experiment quite similar, 
excepting some results of nitlivr unmanageitblo extent 
in India, connected with the Himalayas, wius that 
reported to the Royal Society of I.ondoii in 1S5(>, by 
Colonel Sir Henry James, in cliargc of the Ordnance 
Survey. He therein describing the observations inadu 
by non-commissionod officers of the Rojiil Sappers and 
Miners, with their zenith sector, on and against the bill 
of Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh ; which observations 
yielfled, when put througli tho neoes.'utry computations, 
as they wen- most splendidly, by Captain lloss Clarke, 
B.E., tlie number 5-31(;. 


nation than ourselves ; and what ve haye done in the 
cause has heen confined to very kte times indeed. 

The first special move, always excepting Sir Isaac 
Newtou's most sf^cious guess in the absence of any 
experiment," seems to have been made by Dr. Maske- 
lyne ; who wrote in 1772 as follows to the Royal Society 
of London, in the course of a paper urging the propriety 
of making experiments to measure the precise angle 
through which a pendulum might be drawn out of the 
vertical, by the attraction of a mountaiD mass. 

" It will be easily acknowledged," remarked he, " that 
to find a sensible attraction of a hill &om undoubted 
experiment, would be a matter of no small curiosity ; 
would greatly illustrate the theory of gravity, and would 
make the universal gravitation of matter, as it were, 
palpable to every person, and fit to convince those who 
will yield their assent to nothing but downright eiijeri- 
ment. Nor would its use end here, for it would serve 
to give us a better idea of the total mass of the earth, 
and the proportional density of the matter near the 
surfece, compared with the mean density of the whole 
earth. The result of such an uncommon experiment — 
which I should hope would prove successful — would 
doubtless do honour to the nation where it was made, 
and the society which executed it." 

MovMiavA Determinations of the Earth's Mean 

The effect of this representation was, that the society 
did undertake the experiment ; Mount Schihallion, in 

* Sir Ibsbc's vorda are: — -"TJrdo cum terra commaniB suprema quau 
diipio gTsviur ait qiiain aqitd, et paulo inferiua in fodioia qoasi tripio v«l 
quadru]ilo nut eliHm quintuplo (^arior reperialur ; Tcniniila eat quod 
copia niBt<TiH> toliiu in ttmi quasi quintuplo vel aeitnplo major (it quam 
■i tota ex nqiia conatarot." A rudely correct approach thi« to thedeniitf 
of the w)iiilo eanh, but by meanB of aach ft decided OTer-eatimate of 
the mean density of the average materials of "minea oTqaarriea," that it 
did not carry much conrictioD with it> 

Chap. IX.] THE GREA T PYRA MID. 1 59 

Perthshire, Scotland, was selected as the most appro- 
priate site ; Dr. Maskelyne being appointed to make the 
observations, and Dr. Button to calculate the results : 
which were reported, in 1778, to be, that the mean 
density of the whole earth was = 4 5 ; that is, composed 
of matter 4^ times heavier than water. 

Tliis result rather surprised most men at the time ; 
for " common stone," of which they had usually con- 
sidered the majority of the earth to consist, was known 
to be only 2^ times the density of water. 

They looked, therefore, into the composition of the 
Schihallion mountain itself, which they had va«fuely, as 
a first approximation, considtTcd to be of ** common 
stone ;" and Playfair, the Edinburgh Professor of 
Natural Philosophy, and an inmiense friend of Hut ton, 
the fire geologist, discovered certain injections of dens(i 
trap ; whence he determined the mean specific gravity of 
the whole of the mountains minenUs to be from 2 04 
to 2*81. In projiortions, too, which brought up the con- 
eluded density of the whole earth, to be 4 8; with some 
suspicions that it might be still more. 

In this surmise the computers were imdoubtedly 
right, for every determination that has been made since 
then; and by every method, lias invariably given 
greater results. Tlio only experiment quite similar, 
excepting some results of rather unmanagt^able extent 
in India, connected with the Himalayas, was that 
reported to the Royal Society of London in 1S5(), by 
Colonel Sir Henry James, in charge of the Ordnance 
Survey. He therein describing the observations made 
by non-commissioned officers of the Royal Sappers and 
Miners, with their zenith sector, on and against the hill 
of Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh ; which observations 
yielded, when put through the necessary computations, 
as they were most splendidly, by Captain Ross Clark 
R.K, the number 5'3IG. 


Another species of experiment, not &r removed in 
its nature from the above, was tried in 1826 by Mr,, 
now Sir George R Airy, Astronomer Royal, Dr. Whe- 
well, and the Rev. Richard Sheepshanks, by me&ns of 
pendulum observations, at the top and bottom of a 
deep mine in Cornwall ; but the method failed. Subse- 
quently, in 1855, the experiment was taken up again 
by Sir G. B. Airy and his Greenwich assistants, in a 
mine near Newcastle. They were reinforced by the then 
new invention of sympathetic electric control between 
clocks at the top and bottom of the mine, and had 
much better, though still unexpectedly lai;ge, results 
— the mean density of the earth coming out, 6563. 

Katuyal Fhilosophy niu7 Cl-ofH Dcteiinination of the 
Earth's Mean Density. 

Tlie subject being thus so excessively difficult to 
obtain a close numerical result upon, even by the best 
modem astronomy, good service was done to the world 
in the course of the last ccnturj-, when the Rev. John 
Mitchell projiosed a different and a direct manner of 
trying the same experiment, actually between the 
several parts of one and the same piece of apjiaratus. 
He died, indeed, before he himself could try his acute 
suggestion ; but it was taken up after his death by the 
celebrated Cavendish, and worked very successfully in 
1798, with a final result of 5'450. I say successfully, 
in sjiite of much unkind criticism which he underwent 
from those who were more mathematical and less 
chemicid than himself ; for he evidently made a great 
stride towanls the truth, improved the existing deter- 
mination of his day to a large proportional quantity, 
and no jiort of the increase which he gave it has had 
since to be removed. 

Nearly forty years after Cavendish's great work, his 

Cmap. TX.] the GREA T pyramid. 1 6 1 

experiment was repeated by Professor Reich, of Freyberg, 
in Saxony, with a result of 5*44 ; and then came the 
grander repetition by the late Francis Baily, representing 
therein the Royal Astronomical Society of Ix)ndon, and, 
in &ct, the British Government and the British nation. 

With exquisite care did that well-versed and metho- 
dical observer proceed to his task ; and the attention of 
every man of mathematical science in the country was 
directed towards his operations. Much, indtn^d, and 
more than any one then thought, was depending on 
his labours ; for without them the world's knowledge of 
the mean density of the earth, even up to this present 
time (1864), would not have been such as to warrant 
any interpretation of the Great PjTamid standards of 
weight and capacity. 

The well-known mechanical skill of Thomas Bramah 
was first employed in casting an inimenso cylinder of 
lead, pure and dense; and then in producing from it, 
by the most exact turning in the lathe, two faultless 
spheres, each 12*1026 inches in diameter, and 3 80 '4 6 9 
lbs. avoirdupois in weight. These were for the aitracthig 
balls, to which Mr. Simms added, with all an optician's 
skill, the smaller balls to be attracted, and the nic('tics 
of the " torsion suspension," by which the smallest 
attractive influence on tliem was to be made sensible. 

This apparatus was erected by ^Ir. Ikily in an 
isolated room in the garden of his mansion in Tavistock 
Place ; and observations were soon begun with even more 
than official regularity. 

But they did not prosper. 

Week idler week, and month after month, imceasing 
measures were recorded ; but only to show that some 
disturbing element was at work, overpoweruig the 
attraction of the larger on the smaller balls. 

l^liat could it be ? 

IVofessor Reich w^s applied to, and requested to state 


how he had contrived to get the much greater d^ree 
of accordance with each other that his published obser- 
vations showed. 

** Ah !" he explained, " he had had to reject a large 
number of measures for extravagant inconsistencies ; and 
he would not have had any presentable results at all, 
unless he had guarded against variations of temperature 
by putting the whole apparatus into a cellar, and only 
looking at it with a telescope through a small hole in 
the door." 

Then it was remembered that a very similar plan 
had been adopted by Cavendish ; who had furthermore 
left this note behind him for his successor's attention — 
**that even still, or after all the precautions which he 
did take, minute variations and small exchanges of 
temperature between the large and small balls were the 
chief obstacles to full accuracy." 

Mr. Baily therefore adopted yet further means to 
prevent sudden changes of temperature in his obser\dng 
room ; but as he could not prevent them absolutely, he 
profited by the advice of Professor J. D. Forbes, of 
Edinburgh, of placing gilded surfaces between the 
balls ; for, though gravitation will pass through any- 
thing whatever, radiant heat has extraordinary difficulty 
in piercing a surface of polished gold. 

Immediately that this plan was tried, the anomalies in 
the measures almost vanished ; and then began the most 
full and complete series of observations as to the effect of 
gravitation attraction from one set of artificial globes to 
another, that has ever been made upon the earth. 

The full story of them, and all the particulars of 
every numerical entry, and the whole of the steps of 
calculation, are to be found in the memoirs of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, and constitute one of the most 
interesting volumes^ of that important series ; besides 

* The fourteenth Tolupe. 

Cmap.IX.] the great pyramid. 163 

afifording a determination of the mean density of the 
earth, which will probably be looked on as standard for 
fifty years from its day, and charged with a probable 
error of only 0038. 

Th/t Probahh Error Statements in Modern Scientific 


Now what does that statement of probable error 

It should mean, in the above instimce, that the real 
quantity in nature must infallibly be confined some- 
where between the limits of 5G788 and oC712. But, 
in point of fact, unhappily, it does not mean anythinu^ 
of the kind. It is in reality, nothing but a way that 
the scientific men have got into, copied chiefly from the 
German anvants, of representing a something or other 
of a very confined and partial character connected with 
their observations. A somethin^:: which thov cannot 
exactly describe and do not altogi^ther understand, 
though they perfectly appreciate that it makes the said 
observations look a great deal better tlian they really 

Thus Baily's earth's mean density was announced as 

6-676, probable error ^ 00038 

The Ordnance Survey's Arthur s Seat experiment gave 
the same earth's mean density as 

6-316, probable error + 0-064 

And Sir George R Airy*s mine experiment declared, 
still the same earth's same mean density, to be, 

6*666, probable error ±0-018 

From which mutually conflicting data, it will be seen 
that modem science, whatever it says about its extreme 
floeniacy to ^ or less, cannot really be certain in this 


transeendentally difficult, but infinitely important, phy— 
siciil inquiry respecting the earth's mean density to 
nearer than about ^th of the whole quantity ; and that 
13 actually five times the amount of error that was 
recently (to the special scandal of the ladies and gentle- 
men of the Social Science Association when last in 
Edinburgh) afBicting all the modem world's knowledge 
of the sun's mean distance from the earth. 

If in that case, the old, old Pyramid sun-distanc6, 
though it would have been kicked against and put 
down with a high hand only fifteen years ago, has been 
justified by the very latest determinations made in 
astrouomy, — so we may hope, nay, even expect, tliat 
the Pyramid earth density will be likewise justified, 
when modem science improves her processes in that 
department also ; and shall attack once more the grand 
subjective problem of the earth, on the same stupeadons 
scale as that on which she is now attacking the chief 
objective one, at this moment, of all terrestrial science 
and all mankind, 

Earth's Density Number in the Great Py^-amid. 

Now the Pyramid earth density comes out moat 
simply, on the showing of the parts of the Pyramid 
itself, from the cubic contents of the coffer in Pyramid 
inches, divided by the 10th part of 50 inches cubed. 
Whence, trusting to my measures, it is : - — 71,250 
divided by 12,500 ; the quotient being 5-70 ; a result 
which modem science may confirm, but cannot over- 
throw at present, if she ever will 




Of Temperature Corrections, and how effected. 

Some further questions, however, this modem scienco 

ly asks o£ Pyi^nudisLs, m otilLei \A«s«ies^:aui.'%W 


Chaf.IX.] the great pyramid. 165 

and how, certain precautions, which she thinks necessary 
in all her own important work, were taken, and still 
remain effective, in those primeval operations of the so 
long sealed up interior of the Great Pyramid. 

For instance, if the coffer has to be considered as to 
its weight contents in water (and water filling is so fre- 
quently an operation connecting capacity and weight 
measures), strict attention is necessary to temperature, 
an element usually supposed to be only amenable to 
the thermometers of the last 200 years ; yet the 
smallest errors on the score of uncertainties of tempera- 
ture (and we may say almost the same for variations of 
barometric pressure), in the ancient work, would have 
introduced unnumbered perplexities. 

These perplexities, nevertheless, are far from being 
found in the Great P\Tamid's Coffer. Not because 
the Pyramid architect either had, or left boliind, any 
very superior mercurial thermometers ; but because he 
employed a method overriding thermometers, and be- 
ginning now to be found preferable even by the highest 
science of our own day, its multitudes of thennometers, 
and barometers too, of ever}' kind, notwithstanding. 

Thus the latest conclusions of the l>est geodesists, in 
conducting their modem standard-scale ex|>eriments, is 
expressed in the maxim, "have as little to do with 
vaT%ai\<yns of temperature as possible ;" for temperature 
is an insidious influence whose actions and re-actions 
men will hardly ever hear the last of, if once they let it 
begin to move, varj% or be higher in one place than in 
another, or at one time than another. We have seen 
too, already, how this feature went close to the annihila- 
tion of the Cavendish experiment and its rt>p(;titions ; 
and that the only source of safety was, not any attempt 
by power of fine thermometers to observe the tempera- 
tnxe diflferences, and by the resources of modctu rcAitb 
Bmtics to compute the disturbing effect, and so eYkioca 



it ; but, to cut down the variations of temperature them- 

Hence that retreating into cellars, and closing of 
doors, and only looking in through small holes with 
telescopes. Quite similarly too, in every astronomical 
observatory, where uniformity of clock-rate is prized, it 
has been the last, and practically the best, thing to that 
end yet found out, — that after the clockmaker has done 
everything which his art can do, in decreasing the dis- 
turbing effects which follow changes of temperature, by 
applying a so-called, and in truth very considerably 
effective, " temperature compensation pendulum," — 
there is always a further improvement that can be 
effected in the going of the clock, by superadding other 
contrivances simply to lessen the amoimt of heat- 
changes for such pendulum to try its compensating 
powers ui)on. 

Thus, at the great obsen^atory of Pulkova, near St. 
Petersburg, where they value an insight into small frac- 
tions of a second perha})s more than anywhere else in tlio 
wide world, the verv^ able Russian astronomers erected 
the chief clock of their establishment in the central hall 
of that building : because in that hall no window was 
ever opened, and large masses of masonry on every side 
greatly promoted an equality of temperature both by 
day and by night. Thereby was their grand standard 
clock notably strengthened, and enabled to keep a much 
better rate than a similarly constructed clock (with a 
so called by the clockmakers " temi)erature compensating 
pendulum *' of course) placed in one of the outer astrono- 
mical observing-rooms ; and where the opening of the 
shutters in the roof for star observation, necessarily 
admitted air sometimes Avarra and sometimes cold. 

But within the course of the year 1864, I was 

informed, by M. Wagner, then in charge of the time 

observations at Pulkova undex TA^. OXXo ^V\\in<^, that 

Chaf.IX.] the great PyRAMID. 167 

their normal clock was then going more uniformly than 
it had ever done before, or than tlioy bt^lievo any other 
clock in the world is going ; and because, from thiur 
central hall, windowless though it might bo, on tin* 
ground-floor of the building, they luul recently removed 

the clock to the ** subterraneans" of the observatory, 


where the natural changes of temperature are smaller 

It is not, ho\vt»ver, (juite eerfjiin yet, that theirs is the 
best-going clock in existence, for il. Lt» Verrier has 
recently removed the normal clock of the Paris ( )bsc*rva- 
tory to the *' Caves/* which exist tln're underLcround at 
a depth of 95 feet below the Mu-face ; and in a trium- 
phant manner he remarked, when mentioning the case 
tome, '* tcinpttrature nnuiritihlr, consfanf.'' 

Now, at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, then* 
have been observations taken for many vrars of srvcnil 
large and very bmg-stenuned thermonirti rs, whose 
bulbs have been let int(» t :!e r j.k at various measured 
depths ; and it is foun<l that, not\vithstan(ling the 
possibly-disturl)ing ettect of rain-watiT soaking down 
through fissures, there is such an astonishing power in 
a mass of stony matter to decrease temperatunvvarialions. 
that at the surface of the ground — 

The mran flpmi-unnunl varinlion of lioat jimoniits t > - •'JO" F.ihr. 

At throe inchcM under Ihi' Kurfact* . . l^O"* ., 

At thn-o fcL't under the 8uri;uM' l(i'' ,. 

Atsixftffit lO** ,. 

At twolvo feet .)*',. 

At twenty-four foet 1^' „ 

At 95 feet, then, from the surface, in the ea^^ of the 
Paris Obser\'atorv, how very sliii^ht and innoeunus to the 
most refined observation must be the variat it ni of season - 
temperature I But how nmch more slightly atVecteil 
still, and how admind>ly suited to a scientitlc obserying- 
room, must not the King s C'hand)er in the UwaX, V\x\v 
mid be, seeing that it is shielded troiu vW o\xVs\\vi 



summer heat and winter cold, by a tliicknoss of nowhei 
less ttian 180 feet of solid masonry I 

There is not, in truth, in any country of Europe 
there never has been erected, and it does not look mu<d 
as if there ever will be erected, by any nation under t 
Bun, a scientific observing-room for closet experimental 
that can at all be compared in the very leading requisite I 
for such an institution, with the King's Chamber of the 1 
Great Pyramid. 

When Francis Baily closed those remarkable observa- 
tions of his on the "m^aji density of the earth," he 
predicted that they were not likely to be repeated ' 
until the slow progress of science in general, and an 
improved knowledge of the theory of the " torsion 
pendulum," in particular, should have giveu the men of , 
a future day some reasonable hope of securing, by re- J 
newed experiment, a sensibly more accurate result. But I 
had he been aware of the unique temperature qnali- 1 
tications of that central chamber of the ancient Great | 
Pyramid, where too the mean density of the earth is I 
already represented and turned to account for man in.l 
the size of the interior of the granite cofier as com- j 
pared with the cube of 60 inches, — would he not hava 
been off the very next week to repeat his experiments 
there : and to have seen with his own eyes, before he 
died, that mysterious and primal-founded science temple 
of the south ? 

Absolute Temperature of the Kings Cliamher of the 
Great Pyramid. 

All the knowledge and advance, then, of the present j 
day, so far from improving on, or altering with ad-' 
vantage, cannot too much commend, copy, and adhere 
to, the wniformily arrangementrs for rendering constant 
'■be teaperature of the Great ryiauA^s c«?iftx t^iambet. 

Cbap.IX.] the great pyramid. 169 

But in that case, the responsibility now falls upon mc 
of showing a something else which it is also required in 
practice to know, — ^viz. What is the absohite degree of 
that so produced, steady, and constant, temperature in 
the King's Chamber? 

There, unfortunately, we lack high-claas modem 
observations continued sufficiently long and under un- 
exceptionable circumstances ; but so far as what have 
been taken may be trusted, the best of them are found 
to indicate a particular temperature degree which theory 
assists in confirming, and which possesses otherwise 
some singular recommendations. In the Pyramid, as 
before observed, there is a grand tendency for numbers, 
things, and principles going by "fives ;" and this seems 
carried oat even in its temperature, for it may be 
described as a temperature of one-fifth ; that is, one- 
fifth the distance between the freezing and boiling points 
of water above this former. 

(A^ervtd Tempeixtturea at and Tiear the Great Pyramid. 

The first grounds for this belief are, that M. Jomard, 
in the "Description de TEgypte," gives the observed tem- 
perature of the King's Chamber part of the Pyramid as 
22* Cent. = 71^6 Fahr. ; but this was imnaturally raised 
by, first, the number of men iiv-ith torches whom ho 
had with him ; second, by the incredible number of large 
bats which then made certain parts of the Pyramid their 
home ; third, by the ventilating chaiuiels not l)eing 
open or known in his day ; and fourth, not improlxibly 
by the artificial dryness of the interior : for certain it is, 
that in the great Joseph Well in the citadel of Cairo, in 
the same latitude, at the same height, but with watery 
▼apour (and perhaps in excess), the same M. Jomard 
measured the temperature there, and found \t \T Ci^\i\»« 
to 18^CeDt = 62''6 Fabr. to 64'4. Falir. 


Hence 68** Fahr. would have been nearly a' mean 
between his two observations ; besides being a probably 
closer approach to the pure and undefiled original tem- 
perature of the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid 
under both ventilation, and the other intended normal 
circumstances of its foundation. And C8** Fahr. is pre- 
cisely a temperature of one-fifth. 

There is more, too, in the temperature numbers 
resulting for the Pyramid, than the mere accident of the 
mean temperature of its particular parallel of latitude ; 
for that quantity would in truth seem to be certainly 
higher, if observed at, or in, the surface-ground, 
especially the low valley ground itself, than this pyra- 
midal quantity of one-fifth. Not only for instance did 
M. Jomard find it so, for he measured 25° Cent. = 77** 
Fahr. for the lower part of the " well '* of the Great 
Pyramid, and also for several of the tombs in the open 
plain in the neighbourhood ; but my own observations 
in 18G4-0 on the tenqierature of wells in and about 
the city of Cairo (in winter and spring, and at a depth 
sufficient to give as near an annual average as pos- 
sible) yielded on a mean of 12 of them 6 9 9 Fahr. A 
quantity which is also the identical result for the 
mean annual atmospheric temj)erature of the same city, 
as obtained by the Austrian Meteorological Society 
from five years of observation. 

Hence if the Great Pyramid was devised originally to 
stand in a temperature of one-fifth, it was necessary that it 
should be mounted upon just such a hill as that whereon 
it stands (and more particularly the King s Chamber 
level of it), in a sensibly cooler stratum of the atmo- 
sphere than that of the plains below ; reducing thereby 
69^9 to 68^ Fahr. 

Thirty-seven years too after M. Jomard had measured in 

the Kings Chamber the extra temperature of 71 '6 Fahr., 

(i.e., extra according to this subsequent XJtieorj^, C^Vsu^l 


Howard Yyse cleared out the two ventilating channels ; 
and reported, without having had any idea that the 
temperature had heen theoretically too high — that in- 
stantly, upon the channels being opened, the ventilation 
re-established itself, and with a feeling to those in the 
chamber of most agreeable coolness. 

But no sooner had he left, than the Arabs stopped uj) 
the ventilating channels again ; while steam-navigation 
and the overland route poured in day after day, and 
year after year continually increasing crowds of visitors 
with their candles and torches and frantic, Red Indian 
savage acts into the King s Chamber s granite hall ; so 
that in 18G5 I found its temperaturo more deranged 
than ever, or risen to no less than 7.") 2 Fahr. On 
one occasion indeed, it was so much as 7') 7 imm*)- 
diately after a large party, from some vulgar steamer, 
had had their whirling dances over King Cheops' tomb- 
stone and their ignorant cursing of his ancient name, 
to the vocal music of passionate shouting and the i)ain- 
fiil thimder of the coffer being banged, to close up(m 
breaking, with a big stone swung by their Arab helps ; 
while the temperature was only 74"" at the same time in 
the Queen's Chamber below, and 7*^"* at the dry-well 
mouth lower down still in the Pvramid. Numbers 
which evidently indicate an abnormal ti^nperature- 
elevating force at that moment in the King's Chamber : 
and no wonder ; at least to anv one who should have 
looked in upon some of those mad and multitutlinous 
scenes of lurid-lighted revelry, indulged in by many 
nnoking, tobacco-stinking gentlemen, a few ladies, and 
imp-like Aral)s of everj' degret\ black, brown, and grey. 
Lamentable scenes to be beh(»ld in the present <m1u- 
cated age of the world ; yet scenes which both disturbe«l 
my quiet days of measuring, and photographing by 
magnesium light, there, at intervals of a\)o\\\, <^Nv^t^ 
three or four hours; and which the CoiiSuVs ^wJ 


give no assistance in endeavouring to keep dow 
" i^ypt," they said, " in the present day is every msa't 
land, and every one is his own master when he comet 
out into the desert here. Pharaoh would be pullec' 
from his throne, if he attempted to interfere." 

Temperatv/re and Pressure. Data, for the Coffer's TTet^Ml 
amd Capacity Measuiv. 

At the present moment, therefore, the coffer is no 
more of its right, or original, temperature, than its right 
and original size, when so much of it has been broken 
bodily away by the hammering of the representatiye 
men of modem society. But the barometric pressure 
in the chamber happily defies such power of disturbance, 
and keeps, by the law of the atmosphere over all that 
region, expressively close to 30000 Pyramid inches. 
Wherefore we correct our temperature observationa 
slightly by theory, take the mean observed pressure^ 
and then have quite enough to justify us in this, our 
first inquiry, for taking as the original coffer and King's 
Chamber temjierature of i.O+O yejirs ago, and also what 
their temperature would be again were the ventilating 
channels re-opened, and a strict prohibition issued in 
Scottish Covenanter phrase, against " promiscuous daDC- 
iig " l*y a.11 travellers, whether educated or ignorant, 
over Cheops' mistaken gravestone, — we have, I say, 
and may quote, the number 68''0 Fahr. ; or the tempera- 
ture of one-fifth. 1 
Wherefore at that temperature, and the pressure pre-i 
viously mentioned, the coffer's 71,250 cubic Pyramid 
inches of capacity, filled with pure water, form the 
grand vxight standard of the ancient Great P)-ramid. 

What weight in our reckoning of tons or pounds, that 

wiU amount to, and what subdivisions of its grand 

-etaadard tho I^ramid syateto ■pcrmil^, ■«« ma:^ -^T-tAffllilY 


Chap. DC] 



take up with advantage in the third division of our 
book, — after having devoted one more chapter to 
examining our foundational Pjrramid data of lengths 
and angles more rigidly than ever ; and especially by 
the method of comparing, through the agency of 
several recent discoveries, the interior, against the ex- 
terior, of this most remarkable, most abused, but already 
most largely evident Monument of number, weight, 
and measure, as well as of some funereal associations. 




IN the several theoretical conclusions arrived at thus 
far in this second division of our book, the interior 
measures of the Great Pyramid finally made use of in 
the research (as those for the size and shape of the 
coffer) had been taken almost entirely by myself, and 
generally with more care and at far greater length and 
fulness of detail than to be found anywhere else. Now 
when some of those conchisions, ascertained long since 
{{.e, five or six years ago), were quoted very recently in 
a London drawing-room as deserving attention, the 
kindly speaker was confronted by a Cambridge mathe- 
matician, who rose with authority amongst the guests, 
and simply remarked, " So this man you tell us 
of, made his own observations ! Tlien what can his 
theoretical deductions be worth ? " Wherefore the 
previous speaker was instantly extinguished, or held to 
be so, by every one present (forgetful that the argument 
against John Taylor in his day was, that he never 
observed at all, but only worked from, or upon, the 
observations of others), and the Great Pyramid w^as that 
evening, for the polite society of that drawing-room, 
hfinded back to the Egyptologists as nothing but an 
ordinary Egyptian tomb. 

Whether so-called pure mathematicians of College 
upbringing have reason to \)e svis^mou'^ ot ^ajck other 


in such a case, I know not ; but a very different rule of 
conduct has been for long observed among astrononiei-s. 
Indeed, the efforts of such men as Fnineis Ifeiily, Sir John 
Herschel, Professor Do Morgan, and many others of the 
leading spirits of their time during the last forty years 
have been largely directed to encourage, and ahuost oblige, 
every astronomer in a i)ublic observatory to do some- 
thing more than merely observe ; more too than com- 
pute his own observ^ations also ; for they taught that ln» 
should further ai)ply them to theory, or theory to thrm ; 
and discover, if he could, auything that thry werr 
capable, in that combination, of disclosing. 

No doubt the observations should first, wherever pos- 
sible, be published pure and simple ; though that costs 
money, which is not always forthcoming even in (iovi»rn- 
ment establishments ; and afterwards, or separately, 
should ap{>ear any theoretical cllworerles that cithrv thv 
cbserver, or any one else may have hem ahlv to eduve 
out of them. But that was exactly what I had done 
in the case of my Pyramid observations of 180.5. 
For, by immense sacrifices out of a small income on 
the part of my wife and self, I had published tlH» 
original observations in 1807 in Vol. II. of niy ** Life 
and Work," in as full detail as though it ha<I been both 
a Government expedition, and its printing paid for out 
of the national purse. And this self-taxation was esjie- 
cially to satisfy all those intellectualists who might 
wish to do the computing and theorizing for them- 
selves ; while only in Vol. HI. of *' Life and Work,** 
and subsequently in my " Anti<iuity of Intellectual 
Han," did I begin to try what I could make out of 
this new and extended supply of niw material for 
testing John Taylor's Pyramid theor}\ 

And yet five years afterwards a stay-at-home mathe- 
matician, inithout pretending that any bv.'ll^T vA)^<(^x* 
▼ationff had been nuule by any one else, e\V\iet \>^lotvi 


or since, could openly ridicule the possibility of th( 
being any value in my deductions, merely because I " 
had the honour and expense, the toil and danger, 
making the observations as well ! 

But fortunately, since the date of puhlication of my 
volumes in 1867 and 'G8, several free and independent 
spirits, often quite unknown to me, have discussed 
some of the observations contained in them much more 
minutely than I had done myself; and have made 
discoveries which had never entered into my head even 
to conceive of. How happy then shall I not be now to 
withdraw for a time into my shell as nothing but a mere 
observer, and let all the theorizing be done by Mr. William 
Petrie, late a Chemical Engineer ; Mr. St. John Vincent 
Day, Civil Engineer ; the llev. Joseph T, Goodsir ; 
Captain Traeey, R.A. ; Mr. James Simpson, Commercial 
Bank ; llr, W, Flinders Petrie (not yet entered into 
the battle of life) ; Mr. Henry Mitchell, Hydrographer, 
U, 8, Coast Survey ; the Rev. Alex. Mackay, LL.D., 
Edinburgh ; Charles Casey, Ksq., of Carlow ; the Rev. 
F, R A. Glover, M.A,, London, and, though last not 
least, Professor Hamilton L. Smith (Professor of Astn>- 
nomy in Hobart College, Geneva, New York, U. S.) - 
the several parties being mentioned here according to> 
the dates of their researches becoming known to me. 


1} School of Pyra/mid Theorists i 

■ the King's 

Of all parts of the Great Pyramid amenable to accu- 
rate linear measure, there are none presenting such 
advantages therefor as the King's Chamber ; because 
it is — ^1, Equable in temperature ; 2. Unvisited by wind, 
Band, or iiatural disturbances ; 3. Of simple rectangular 


by wind, ^m 
tangular ^H 


and a rather larger angle of inclination, observed as yet 
only by myself and not altogether to my own satisfac- 
tion) ; 4. Erected in polished, dense, hard, red granite ; 
and, 5. It exhibits the longest lines of any part of 
the Pyramid, both in that hard material, and in a 
horizontal position with vertical end pieces. 

M. Jomard speaks of his English predecessor, 
Ph)fessor Greaves, having inscribed, or cut, the length 
of his standard foot measure on the walls of that 
chamber. But I could not find any trace of such a 
thing ; and rather suspect that Jomard must have been 
misled by some figurative expression of Greaves's ; who 
wisely considered, that a printed statement of the 
measured length of that chamber (so constant in its 
size from age to age), in iemxs of his foot measure, 
would be a better record to posterity of what the 
length of that standard must have been, than any 
attempt to cut it there and then bodily into the hard 
granite by smoky candle-light, with imporfoct tools, 
and while Mameluke Mohammedans were looking on 
with impatience and hatred of evcr}'thing done by the 
Christian dog. 

The Mensuration Data at the Disjyosal of the Xew 


Certain it is that I could not find any oor])oroal record 
of that foot measure in the King's Chamln^r; nor can 
the Heads of Houses in Oxford find (rreavL's's iron 
measuring-rod itself, though they have the wooden 
box for it safe enough. But the libraries of Europe 
contain innumerable copies of the hook record, to the 
effect that the length of the King's Chamber in the 
Great P}Tamid as measured by Greaves, amounted to 
34*380 of his feet, i,e. 412*56 of his Bt\U^\i '\\\v:\v^^ 
in 1637. 


Now this is a quantity well worthy of remembranoe, 
viz., this 412*56 inches of Greaves : for — 

By Col. Howard-Vyse, in 1837» that same chamber 

length was stated to be 411*00 

By Mr. Lane, in or near 1838 • • • • 412*60 

By Messrs. Alton and Inglis in 1866, from . 411*7 to 412*1 

and by myself in 1865 it was given as follows, with 
particular care to reduce my inches to standard British 
Government inches : — 

South side, near floor level, 11th March, first 
measure s= 412*6 

Do., second measure = 4 12*68 

16th March, first measure rr 412*6 

Do. second measure . . . = 412*7 

North side, March 11th, first measure . = 412*4 

Do. do. second meaflure . . = 412*6 

Do. do. third measure . . = 412*6 

Mean of south side = 412*60 

Mean of north side . . . .' . . =: 412*47 

Mean length of both north and south sidos . = 412*64 British inches. 

= 41213 Pyramid do. 

Breadth of King's Chamber near east end, first 

measure = 206*4 

Do., second measure = 206*2 

Kear west end = 206*3 

Mean breadth of east and west ends . . . s= 206*30 British inches. 

= 20609 Pyramid do. 

Height of King's Chamber near north-east 

angle of room = 230*8 

North side = 2297 

North-west angle = 229*2 

South-west = 229*9 

South side = 229 6 

South-east angle = 230*8 

North-east angle repeated . . = 230*8 

tThe mean here >= 230*1, but is certainly 

smaller than it should be ; for so many of the 

floor stones, from which the heights neces- 
sarily had to be measured, were disturbed 

and to some extent risen up (like the drawing 

of a tooth), as though in consequence of 

earthquake diltnrbance. Hence the true 

quantity must be much nearer the greater 

than the smaller limit of the meaoored 

heighUf and ahould probBibly be odled . . = 230*70 British inches. 

=. Ta^Al t'jtamid do. 

Gijtf . X.] 



DiaMoali of floor : 

fVom Mmth-weft to north-eaat corner 
North-weft to aonUi-eMit . 

Metn meMQied floor diagonal 


461-65 British inches. 
461-19 Pyramid do. 

Diagonal! of east walk 

Low north-east to high sonth-eaHt comer . = 309*2 
Low soath-east to high north-east corner, 
anhtracting 1-6 indiea for hole in low 
■oath-eait comer .... 

= 310-0 

Diagonal of west wall : 

Low south-west, to hieh north-east, comer 
Subtract 1-0 for a sunken floor-stone south-west 
(Tho other diagonal not measurable on account 
of a large and deep hole in floor in north- 
weat comer of chamber, whereby men enter- 
ing have gone on excavating at some time to 
under that part of the floor whereon the coffer 

309-6 British inches. 

309 3 Pyramid do. 


309-4 British inches. 
3091 Pyramid do. 

Mr. James SimpsorCs Sums of the Squares, 

With these measures before him, and paying more 
attention to those of them taken from rectangular sides 
than the more diiScult practical case of the comers, 
Mr. James Simpson, adopting what he thought the most 
probable numbers for length, breadth, and height, com- 
puted the several diagonals, and prepared the following 
theoretical measures of the room in Pyramid inches. 

King's Chsmber lines. 








Bolid diagonal • . . 






The Utter MeaBuree 

corrected by 

Simpaon'a proportiona. 



The differences between Mr. Simpson's adopted linear 
numbers and my pure measures in the first division, it 
will be seen amount to not more than '07 of an incb, or 
within the error of an average single measure by me, 
and much within those of some observers ; indicating 
therefore that we may take his numbers as expressing 
well the true dimensions of the apartment i/nter ae, 
such as the breadth being exactly half of the length, 
and the height exactly half of the floor diagonal (as 
discovered also independently by Professor Hamilton L. 
Smith) ; if indeed a good conclusive reason can be 
shown for them ; and this is what Mr. Simpson does 
most effectively in a series of commensurabilities of 
squares in very Pj-ramid numbers. 

Take, says he, half of the breadth, or 103*05, as a 
special unit of division ; and test and divide therewith 
each of the above recorded quantities as below ; and 
then, squaring the results, you will have for the — 

Breadth . . 2*000 whose square = 4 

Height . . . 2-236 „ =: 5 

LcDgth . . . 4000 „ = 16 

Or sum of squares for linear dimensions . . = 25 a Pyramid number. 

For the end diagonal . 3*000 whose square = 9 
Floor do. . . . 4*472 „ = 20 

biide do. . . . 4-582 „ = 21 

Or sum of squares for part diagonals . . = 50 a Pyramid number. 

Solid diagonal . . = 5*000 whose square = 25 a Pyramid number. 

And the sum of the three Pjrramid numbers . = 100 

And this is in the chamber whose walls, according to 
Mr. Flinders Petrie's recognition first, are comi)osed of 
just 100 blocks of well-cut, squared, and even-heighted, 
though very differently lengthcd, granite. 

The manner in which the long fractions of some of 

the siniplG divisions clear themselves off, on taking the 

squares, is especially to be noled \ aa^ ixoxa. ^ further 

Chap. X.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 1 8 1 

theoretical consideration of his own (which I tmst he 
will soon be able to publish), Mr. Simpson considers 
that a more exact expression for the original size and 
proportions of the room should be in Pyramid inches — 

Breadth =» 206 0659 

Height = 230-3886 

Length = 4121317 

DiagonAl of end ==r 3090988 

Do. floor = 460-7773 

Do. ride ^ 472*1562 

Solid, or cabic diagonal =» 515*1646 

And the grand diTiiiion teat of thiB chamber . = 103-0329 

In 80 far, these verj' preeiso absolute quantities of 
length are recorded here chiefly to gain their n?lative pro- 
portions more exactly ; and, thortforo, when we multii)ly 
one of them, the chambers lonyth (its cliiof lino and tlio 
best measured line too of the whole Gn*at Pyramid), by 
the special Pyramid numbers 5 x 5, and find it to yi(»ld 
10303*29, or the same row of cii)liers with the decimal 
point differently plaetMl, as Mr. Simpson's touchstone 
line of commensurability, we may then ask further 
whether that larger, absolute) quantity of length so 
implied, has any particular value or meaning outside 
that King's Chamber wherein it is now foun<l. 

Then comes a remarkable answtT for any philosophical 
mathematician to ponder over, and especially as to how 
it came there in the early age of the Pyramid's foun- 
dation, before all history ; viz., that the area of the 
square base of the Great Pyramid, whose i)erinieter has 
already been determined by us to bear in those Pyramid 
inches a round and even relation to the number of 
days in a year, is equal to the an?a of a circle whose 
diameter = 10303*30 + 01 of the same IVramid 
inches. (See Plate III, Equality of Areas, "So. \.^ 'Wwx^ 
hringiag up again, though in a slightly diffcTcivX, ^>aa\j^ 


that squaring of the circle which was one of the chief 
objects of the Great Pyramid's ulterior design touching 
its external figure. And which object seems to hare 
been intimately and nio&t intentionally woven into the 
verj- fibr&s of the Great Pyramid's constitution ; for them 
was no aiUomatic mechanical necessity obliging brute 
masonry in the hands of unthinking workmen to give 
the King's Chamber exactly that special size or shape, 
which would endue it with a definite circle-squaring 
commensurability to the size of the base of the whole 
monument in which it is contained. 

Linear Relat'ums between the Coffer atul the f m^«H 
Charter. I 

But in the King's Cliamber we may look to some 
further values, bearing on intrrlor subjects now ; and 
that constant warning from the ante-chamber to expect 
a " division into five " when we enter the King's Cham- 
ber, at once helps us to a connection between its walls 
(divided into 5 courses), and that peculiar vessel of 
capacity formation and mensuration, the coffer. For 
the 5th part of the breadth of the room, or Itlth part of 
the length, is 41-21 Pyramid inches : and the measured 
height of the coffer (the quantity where the hapless 
French Academicians, in spite of sJH their high s<;ience, 
made an error of three whole inches), is shown on page 
138 to have been measured by me as 41'23 near its 
edges ; but considered to. require some small reduction 
on account of concavity of the bottom surface, when 
stating the mean height; or for that purpose to be rather 
held as 4113. or somewhere between the two. 

The cubic diagonal is, however, the most important 
and governing line that can be drawn in any room, and 
amoauts in the King's Chaml)er to 515164G Pyramid 
; a quantity w^cVi, OS ms- 5ttn«s.?>\\ss^a she 

Cmaf. X.] the GREA T pyramid. 1 8 3 

connects the King's Chamber at once, on one side with 
its containing Pyramid, and on the other with its con- 
tained coffer vessel For, multiplied by 10, the cubic 
diagonal is exactly the length of the side of a square 
equal in area to a right vertical section of the Great 
Pyramid (see Plate IV. Fig. 3) ; and on the other, the 
same cubic diagonal divided by 2 equals practically the 
sum of the lengths round the coffer's external base ; 
or, in other words, the greatest radius of the King's 
Chamber, 2 57 08 Pyramid inches, equals the greatest 
horizontal circumference of the coffer.* 

Capacity Relations betiveen King's Clianiber ami Coffer. 

Now the coffer, the moment we began to examine it 
on its own actual measures, exhibited on page 143 a 
marked tendency to duplication of interconimensurable 
capacities ; and so also does the King s Chamber com- 
mence with a duplex character in its linear measures, 
' seeing that the length is, with an accuracy of at least 
a thousandth of the whole, just double the breadth; the 
breadth is double a certain unit, which performs wonders 
in detecting commensurabilities; and the floor diagonal 
is double the height Tliat height, moreover, has another 
double character, but in a different way ; for vou mav 
measure it either from the floor as visible height, or 
you may measure it from the bottom of the gniiid and 
solid granite walls, under the floor, as virtual and 
symbolic height, and find them then five inches higher 
than before. Tliis room has therefore, whether we like 
it or not, yet by fact of masonry, tv.v heights ; and they 

• Thii eqoatioii is not exact, owing chiefly to the strani^e anomaly in 
the lower part of the west side of the coffer, shown at p. 137, and deserv- 
ing farther attention at the place. But meanwhile takinq- ttie breadth 
Juat aagirenon p. 137 ^ 38*72 British inohen, and the leni^h, if freed ft^'.nv 
the anomaljv -> W>'20 BiiUsh inchet ; thon (33*7*2 4- 00-10\ y^ 'I :=^ *2.V\*^K 
MiUUk Inebet . £5738 Pjrnmid inches. 

will be found on manyau occasion to act as two remark- 
ably powerful strings to its bow of symbology. 

Thus, at once, if you take the first height, you get 
^Ir. Simpson's commensurabilities by squares ; the cubic 
diagonal duplex relations; and also the capacity commeo" 
surability by 50 of the lowest course of the room with 
the coffer's interior. But if you t^e the second height^ 
w hat do you get ? 

Why, with Mr, Simpson's last numbers, and a rou] 
5 inches for the diflerence of the two heights, yi 
obtain 19,990,679 cubic Pyramid inches; or, as 
has reason to say (the preciscness of the five inches 
round the room having still to be measured, and quite 
admitting of being, as estimated by me alone, and at 
only one available place, some 01 of an inch too smsll), 
"you may get absolutely and unquestionably twenty 
milhon cubic Pyramid inches ; a grandly round numb^ 
ill itself, yet having a duplex aspect in decimal arithmetic, 
in common with several other features of this chamber 
of twice 25. and its duplicating coffer." Whence the 
chamber itself may be considered, not one long chamber 
of twenty million inch capacity, but rather to be com- 
posed of two chambers, each of them of ten milhoii 
cubic Inches capacity, set together; and suggestive .] 
therefore, of the employment for capacity in thatk< 
united chamber with its coffer treasure, of a Unew- 
standard consisting (as actually is the case tliere) 
two Pyramid cubits in length ; each of which oubil 
is the ten-miUionth part of the earth's eemi-axie 

This is, in fact, the very idea required to be giv( 
by the Pyramid to clench the whole of our coffer capacity 
measure theory in Chapter IX. It is well, therefore, 
know that there is still further confirmation to it froi 
both the Queen's Chamber and the ante-chamber. 



chap.x.] the great pyramid. I&5 

Cap(wity References in tfte Queens Chamber. 

If the King's Chamber be the chamber of the 
standard of 50, or of two cubits length, the Queen's 
Chamber is the chamber of the standard of 25, or one 
cabit length ; for it stands, with its original floor, not 
the present one, on the 25 th course of masonry com- 
posing the Pyramid ; and its one grand architectural 
feature, the niche in the east wall, symbolises, by its 
amount of excentric displacement in the room, a length 
amounting to just one cubit. We miglit expect then 
to find, if the theory be true, that one ten millions of 
cubic inches are indicated by this room's contents, as 
against the two ten millions of the King s Cliambcr. 
And this does appear to be the case. (See Plate IX.) 

The room is, indeed, quite a short one, and being 
furnished with an angular ceiling, is totally unlike the 
King's Chamber in shape as well as material, which is 
white limestone, now mucli encrusted with salt ; but 
Sir. Simpson, extracting my measures of it from " Life 
and Work," soon perceived the breadth, measured by 
me at 205 6, to be a reminder at the least, if not 
a repetition, of the Kings Cliamber breadth, 206 06 
I^yramid inches, but apparently clogged by the sjiline 
incrustations. Wherefore altering the other measured 
numbers similarly {i.e. making them about a quarter of 
an inch, or nearly one eight-hundredth of the whole, 
longer at each end), he obtained for the length 227 0:^ 
in place of 226*5, and for the mean hei^jht 213S6 in 
place of 213*2; the three dimensions then gi^^ing for 
the cubic contents of tlie chamber 10,004,676 cubic 
Pyramid inches, or as close as could be expected nowa- 
days from a chamber of soft material, liability to saline 
deposits, and of extra difficulty to measure exactly. A 
chamber, however, which Prof«*ssor Hamvltjoii L. Si\?wlV\v» 
of New Yprk, keeping chiefly to tl\c \vvwcvk^V» «kA 


sharpest parts, has some splendid ideas and magnificent 
researches upon (soon to appear in SiUvman's Jou/mal), 
showing the niche more especially to be a very magazine 
of the crucial angles of the Pyramid's structure ; and the 
roughnesses of the floor (see Plate IX.), even to have a 
symbolical meaning in connection with the incommen- 
surables in nature. 

The A7ite-chamber*8 SymhclismB. 

There was alwajrs, nevertheless, more satisfaction to 
me as a measurer inside the Great Pyramid when dealing 
with granite, rather than limestone ; and this harder 
material began in the ante-chamber, the little dark 
room almost in the centre of gravity of the whole mass 
of this mountain of masonic skill. 

The total length of that ante-chamber was by several 
measures, all recorded in "Life and Work," as follows : — 


Mean = 116*37 British inches. 
= 116*26 Pyramid inches. 

While the length of the granite portion alone of the 
floor is recorded at — 


Mean =- 103-28 British inches. 
= 103-17 Pyramid inches. 

and the height of the granite wainscot on the east side 

of the chamber is given at 103 1 British, or 103 

Pyramid, inches ; but consideied \.o \i^ \xi\fc\A<^ V,*^ b^ 

Cmaf.X.] the great pyramid. 187 

the same as the other really, and either of them to be 
best represen table by 103*08 Pyramid inches within 
limits ± 0'05 inch. 

On these numbers Captain Traccy, R.A. (now at 
Gibraltar), was the first to remark, " Why, this granite 
portion of the ante-chamber floor (thanks to those who 
have been enabled to distinguish granite from lime- 
stone, see Chapter VII. p. 11 1 to 11 7), is the length of the 
unit test of the King's Cliambcr for discovering coni- 
mensurabilities, viz. 103033; and the height of the 
granite wainscot on the east side must be intended to 
measure the same." 

Now, said he, one of these two ecjual lengths being 
placed horizontal, and the other vortical (both of thoni 
also coming to, and so enclosing, the same comer), 
they evidently typify the adjacent sides of a scjuaro ; 
the arta too of that square. I^ut the area of that 
square of 103033 in the side (or the length of. the 
granite portion of the floor only, for within the limits 
of error of the modern measurers) is precisely equal to 
the area of a circle 11G'2G in diameter; and 11G'2G 
Pyramid inches is the whole length of the antt^-cjliamber s 
floor, granite and limestone together. Or, as the Abbe 
Moigno, in "Les Mondes " for IGth Ootob<T, more ele- 
gantly puts it (having previously called 11()*2G = 2 r, 
and 103*03 = c) ; this remarkable enq)loynient of 
granite and limestone by the ancient Pyramid architect 
is the method adopted by him of sjiying, in one com- 
mon language of mathematical science, ixyy\\\ an isolated 
mountain peak of 4,000 years ago, to all nations in the 
present educated age of the world, that — 

IP 2 

TFAo, after this first coincidence of the ante-chamber, 
says the Abb^, could pretend that the d\veT^\V^* ol \)[v^ 
wMtenBla and their relations, or dljferen<:c«, oi Vi»^g3 


are a simple, brute accident ? But here are others not 
less extraordinary connected with their abaolute lengths, 
when measured in the standards and units of the Great 
Pyramid's scientific theory : and in no others known. 

2. 116-26 X TT = 365*24, the number of days in a 
year ; the number, also, of Pyramid cubits contained in 
the length of a side of the base of the Great Pyramid. 

3. 116*26 X TT X 5 X 5 (5 is one of the chief Pyramid 
numbers) =9131 Pyramid inches; the length of a 
side of the square base of the Great Pyramid deduced 
from all the measures that hare been taken since the 
happy discovery of the comer sockets by the French 
Academicians under Napoleon Bonaparte. 

4. 1 1 6*26 X 50 (50 is the number of horizontal courses 
of masonry between the level of the ante-chamber and 
the base of the whole Pyramid) =zz 5813 Pyramid 
inches ; the ancient vertical height of the Great Pyramid 
deduced from a mean of all the measures. And, 

5. 103033x50 = 5151-65 Pyramid inches ; oris 
the side of a square of equal area, 1st, to a triangle of 
the shape and size of the Great Pyramid's vertical 
meridian section ; 2nd, to a circle having the height 
of the Pyramid for a diameter. 

Geometrical Derivation of the Passage Angle. 

That same square, of 5151*65 Pyramid inches in 
the side, is a still further important feature in the 
design of the Great Pyramid ; for, as may be seen 
more easily than described, from the practical geometr}^ 
of Plate VII., by placing that square centrically and 
symmetrically on the centre of the base of the Pyramid, 
tri-secting its upper semi-diameter, and bi-secting its 
lower, we obtain the positions of its several chambers 
Bnd passages ; and, above aW, \>^ a lvrc\!ti^T x<^W<e^^^ \,^ 

Cbap.X.] the great pyramid. i8g 

the height of the buildiDg, we procure the angle of slope 
of those passages. 

This angle should be, from the construction, 26* 18' 
10' : and my observations found it for the entrance 
P^^Bsage, by a multitude of measures with several dif- 
ferent instruments, acting on different princiiJes — 

26» 27' 0" 
26' 28' 7" 
26' 26' 20' 

Mean 26° 27' 

For the first ascending passage- 

26' 6' 30" 

26' 6' 40" 

Mean 26' 6' 

For the Grand Gallery — 

26' 17' 28" 
26' 17' 4' 
26^ 17' 63' 

Mean 26' 17' 32' 

Which tliree passages, therefore, contain the theoreti- 
cal 20"* 18' lO" amongst them; within quite as closo 
limits too as could be expected in so ancient a struc- 
ture, with many of its liiiK^stone masses cracked by the 
weight of a mountain s superincumhont pn^ssure through 
long ages ; and very much closer than is found when 
we examine instnimentally into tlie mensuration crroi-s 
of most modem buildings. 

Inches typified in the Gixinite Leaf. 

A farther use for that particular passage angle comes 
up in the astronomy of the PjTamid's chronology \ bvvt 
TdegaiiDg just now that subject to a future c\ia\>lviT , ViX. 


113 conclude this one with reference to a very small 
matter in size, though great in importance, 
granite leaf, standing at the head of, above, and beyo] 
all these passages. 

Some objectors to the Pyramid seientiBc theory have 
said, "We do not admit the reality of your Pyramid 
inches with its original builders, when you can only get 
such inches by subdividing immense lengths of the 
building by divisors of your own choosing. {Though 
this is denied.) But show us a single such inch, and 
then we may believe." 

Whereupon Captain Tracey has pointed out that 8U( 
single inch is actually marked, and in a Pyramid man- 
ner on, or rather by means of, the above granite leaf in 
the ante-chamber ; and it comes about thus : 

In that small apartment its grand symbol on the 
south wall is the already mentioned illustration of a 
division into five : and if the sjTubol had virtue enough 
to extend into and dominate some features in the next, 
or King's Cliamber (as in illustrating its now undoubted 
number of fi-ve wall courses), why should it not typify 
something in its own chamber as well ? But what is 
there, in the ante-chamber, divided into five ! " The 
sacred, or the Great Pyramid's own, cubit," answers 
Captain Tracey ; " for here it is so divided in the 
shape of this horn on the granite leaf, just five inches 
broad. Ajid further, that fifth part of that cubit of the 
Great Pyramid's symbolical design is divided before our 
eyes into five again ; for the thickness of this remarkable 
boss 13 1-Sth of its breadth. So there you have the' 
division of the sacred cubit into 5x5 inches. 

This boss on the granite leaf (see Plate X.) is another 
of my rediscoverings of things which art to be seen ; for 
they have been marked, but not sufficiently noted or 
measured, in that excellent though so unwieldy and 
seldom consulted folio of enoTinoMS \i\a.lft'i, " Perring's," 




or rather perhaps to be called " Vyso and Perring's," 
views of the Pyramids, published in 1840. 

Nor was this most unique yet modest boss described 
and pictured by me with full correctness even in " Life 
and Work/* I having made it much too high, too 
accurately rectangular at its lowest corner line, and too 
sharply and neatly defined all round : as I am enabled 
now to say j)Ositively, having been kindly furnished by 
my friend Mr. Waynman Dixon with a cast of it in 
Portland cement taken by him in the Great Pyramid 
last year (1872). The on^ inch thickness however, and 
fivt inches breadth, being fairly measurable along the 
best part of the cast -boss for measuring, viz. its steep, 
though not absolutely rectangular, lowtT edge, — they 
remain untouched and perfectly suitable for Ca[)tain 
Tracey's analogy, which is further supported as follows : 
— ^The boss, a flat bas-relief one inch thick or high 
from, the stone, is on the north side of the upi)er 
of the two granite stoi^es forming that **gnmite leaf" 
which crosses the ante-chamber near its northern end. 
(Compare Chapter IX., pages 154 to 157.) Excepting 
the presently broken state of the upper surface of 
the top stone, evidently a modern mischi<»f, the fonna- 
tion of the whole leaf is regular, rectangular, and sym- 
metrical. Why then is the boss not in the middle 
between the two sides of the very narrow apartment \ 
(41 '21 inches broad). 

My measures of 1865, if they can be trust<jd here, 
show that the boss is just one inch away on one side 
of the centre : and as it has been otherwise shown bv 
the niche of the Queen's Chamber, that it was a Groat 
P\Tamid method to indicate a small (pumtity (there a 
whole cubit) by an excentricity to that amount in some 
fiu* grander architectural feature, we cannot but accept 
this excentricity of the boss as an additional Pyramid 
memoria] of the very thing which is Wmg es^^di lost 


by the sceptical Just now ; viz. one single, little inc^^H 
memorialized by the builders of the most colossal piM^^H 
of architecture in the world. All the more dectdodlj^^H 
too, when, as Mr. St. John Vincent Day has since thefl'^^' 
shown, that that very excentrie position of the boss has 
enabled the distance from its centre to the eastern end 
of the leaf itself in its well-cut groove in the granita 
wainscot to be, within the limits of mensuration errors^ ^h 
just a whole Pyramid cubit = 25 025 British inches, or ^H 
something very near to it indeed.* So that we have ™ 
tied up here the whole cubit, its fifth part and its 
twenty-fifth part ; wliich, though so small, like the 
needle in a haystack, yet is it also securely tied up here, ^ 
for the instruction of all posterity. ^H 

And Captain Tracey again shows that the lower fitODe'^f 
of the granite leaf (in this ante-chamber, which proves ^ 
itself to be a veritable sjiiopsia or microcosm of the whole 
Great Pyramid), that this lower stone, I say, which is feirly 
dressed, rectangular, f and the one on which tlie upper . 

* M; meaaoTM My, p. 100, yoL u. of " Life and Work "— 

Erililh inchoi 

Centre of boss to enst side of room -= 21'5 

P. 98, vol. ii., dHpth of groove in that wall . . . = 4-0 

Whole distnuce from centre of boss to enit end of granite leaf 
in iU grooire = 25-8 

Bat again, on p. 03, and alao p. 95. Ilia (.'forcd breudlh of the 
loom ia given in British inakw ut 48'1 

Add 1 inch of escentrieity of the boas from caat 

WlLole diaUiice of centre of buKi from Uio inside of ila Out 

groove in eranitc (a dialancc wliich I recGnimend to futore 

explorers to i-heok for me) 

Moan = *S Mf I 
Hnir = 21-034 \ 

25-OM ' 
p. 37 of the I3Ui vol. ol J 

Say, granite leaf, tMckoesa noillk to toutii, a 


stcne with its diviaions of the cubit rests, — expresses a 
notable division of the capacity measure of the coffer. 
For it presents us, within the walls of the ante-chamber, 
urith a fourth part of that coffer vessel; or with the 
veritable " com quarter " of old, and which is still the 
British quarter corn-measure both by name and fiEu^t and 
practical size. 

A Representative Antagonist of the Modem SderUific 
Theory of the Great Pyramid. 

But now, after so many confirmations, both large and 
small, furnished by the Great Pyramid itself (and there 
are more still, and of a higher class, to appear in our 
fourth and fifth parts), the reader may possibly be in- 
clined to ask, " Who are the parties who still refuse to 
allow the force of any of these things ; and persist in 
saying that they see in the Great Pyramid merely 
a burial monument of those idolatrous Eg}^tians, .who 
delighted in nothing so much as grovelling worship, 
and architectural memorialization, of bulls and goats, 
cats, crocodiles, beetles, and almost every bestial thing V* 

One of these unhappy recusants has lately offered him- 
self for description. He is an Oxford man and a clergy- 
man, a country vicar and a chaplain to Royalty ; the 
author too of a large octavo of travel in Egypt, pub- 
lished two years ago and alreaily in a second edition ; 
a book written throughout cleverly, fluently, scholarly, 
but in an outrageously rationalistic vein of ultra Broad 
Churchism, even to the extent of holding the Biblical 
history of man, in all its miraculous features and limits 

of lower itone 27*9 to 280 

BreMlth east to west, between the open wall* . ^ 41*21 :!: « 

»9 between the leaf*! grooves . . = 48*06 + x 

Bat they ought now to be repeated by M>me one else, when so much 
ibeoraticttl importance boowb to attach to them. 



of chronology, to be utterly false. The religions of Christ 
and Moses this author perversely maintains to have 
been in no way differently originated from those of 
Egypt, Greece, and Rome. They were each and all, with 
him, merely the product, " the aumma philoi^opkia," 
of the wisest men of their time, acting by their human 
wiadom alone, and composing systems of religion suitable 
for their own respective ages : as, too, he would have 
the ablest men amongst us try to do again for these 
troubled and most unhinged times in which we live ; 
times wanting, he says, a new religion, for that of Christ 
is no longer effective. 

This, then, was the author who, starting for his 
Egyptian tour at six hours' notice only, tells us that he 
took no scientific inatniments with him ; and says, 
moreover, that he did not want them, as he has methods 
of philosophical observation overriding all science. 

Thus, as to the almost endless series of mathe- 
matical and physical problems contained in the Great 
Pyramid, this vicar-Oxonian merely leant against the 
monument, with his hands in his pockets, and look- 
ing upward along its sides, declared that he got a 
far better notion of it, than if ho had made any 
number of scientific observations ; for he perceived 
with the greatest certainty then, there, and at once, 
that in place of there being any truth in all the unique 
nimibers and mysteriously deep scientific things pub- 
lished about it by the Scottish Astronomer Royal,— 
the whole edifice throughout all its building was nothing 
but an ordinary development of ordinary human nature 
in history. The I^ptiana, he says, built the Great 
Pyramid at the time, and in the manner, they did, 
merely because they could not help it : it was the only 
way that occurred to them to build it, and there was no 
thinking spent upon it. I 

If opposite extremes ever meet, they certainly do 3« 

Chap. X.] 



here : for the said Scottish Astronomor Royal also holds, 
that the Egyptians spent no thought ui)on the design 
of the Great Pyramid, and built it without understand- 
ing it, and because they could not do otherwise at that 
time. But that nevertheless a Mighty Intellig(?nee did 
both think out the plans for it, and conii>el unwilling 
and ignorant idolaters, in a primal age of the world, 
to work mightily botli for tlie future glory of the one 
true God of Revelation, and to estahlish lasting jjro- 
pbetic testimony touching a further dovcloinnent, still 
to take place, of the absolutely Divine Cliristian Dis- 

The Astronomer, however, asks no one to take his 
mere opinion. If the fiicts which he has to unfold, 
work no conviction ; neither will, nor should, all the 
words of persuasion tliat he could i>ossibly utter. 







TITHEN Magna Charta ruled the British land, — and 
^ * perhaps in thoroughness of spirit and completeness 
of intention with those immediately concerned that was 
not very long, — a ray of metrological wisdom and a 
beam of light from some far-off horizon in the history 
of the human race, shot momentarily athwart the 
troubled scene of our national weights and measures. 

Those institutions had existed from the earliest times 
known to our literature, an heirloom among the Anglo- 
Saxon peoples ; and a late first-rate American writer, 
as well as statesman (John Quincey Adams), equally 
claiming with ourselves to be descended from that 
ancient stock, but without any necessary prejudice 
in fiftvour of the wisdom of modem British Parlia- 
ments, has expressed a very firm conviction that the 
most perfect condition of those weights and measures, 
even including all that was done for them by modem 
Bavants under the reign of George IV., was in the 
earliest known times of Saxon history ; and connects 
itself much more with an ancient Royal residence at 
Winchester, than a modem one in London or Windsor. 
It may have been earlier still ; and the system had already 
fidlen into such republican, many-headed, confusion in 
the times of King John, that the Chartei, to \\v^\o^ qV 
mI/ men, said that in future there was otA^ \x> \>fc ovsfik 

ioo 0^7? INHERITANCE IN [P"t m-l 

standard of meflsure tbroughout the land ;* while, toij 
render that principle a possible one to carry out vaM 
practice, wisdom counselled, and ancient Saxon practicQ/l 
reminded, that grand standards both of length &nd.l 
weight should be immediately constructed, and copies f 
thereof dispatched to all parts of the kingdom. 

But what followed ? 

That which too uniformly follows when a generousi-J 
people, roused for a time to the care and assertion ofTB 
their rights, trust all to the word of unwilling, ' 
despotically inclined rulers ; and then relax once more 1 
into passive obedience and dull routine. 

Those standard measures, if ever made, were lost ; 
copies were sent to country districts ; the Magna 
Cliarta lawyers were ignorant of the most vital facts 
(as abundantly evidenced by their verbally ordaining 
that the quarter was to be the national measure for 
com, but leaving the people in ignorance of what measure 
or weight it was the fourth part) ; "f" and then came a 
certain very natural consequence. 

Practical weights and measures are not only of in- 
terest, but essential importance to all classes of the realm; j 
for, as was well said years ago, all the productions ti.\ 
land and labour, of nature and art, and of every concern | 
and condition of life, are bought, sold, or estimated by \ 

* " Meaaam iro vnnted for tvo dielinct objeota, tbe commercial • ._ 
the identiQc. The wmits of nitlumt iihilosopby huve gtawti up wilhiD 
the lut two cacturies; while eo oarlf aa Mii^na Chaita it wna one o% the 
oaoceiBlonB to the grieviuiees of the subject that there ihoulU b« one 
weight and one moniare throughuut the land," safs the lat« Lord 
firougbun's chief educational authority \ not koiiwin^, bowover, that the 
^pooh of Magna Cbarta, instead of beinK primeval, la Teiy middle-ajfod 
-'-' -'- ''-Q real history of British vui^ita and meaaurea. 
5. Magna Chaita, Beet. 35: — 
There shall he hot one Dnifomi atandard of weights, meaBures, and 
manofectureB ; that for com Bball he the I*ndon qnarter." 

"Magna Churta," aajB Dr. Kelly, in his " Metrolofry," 1816, "point* 
oat the qaartBr of London as the only atandard fur muaaurus and weighti 
of that time, but we are left to guess ot wWl toou^aD oi -«QU{,h.t it wai 
■*- giMrtar put." 



them. Hence, weights and measures have been very 
properly defined as the foundation of justice, the safe- 
guard of property, and the rule of right ; while the laws of 
honour peculiarly abhor any fraud in this respect. Yet 
withal, says the same authority, it is to the common 
people, in every country, to whom the business of 
weighing and measuring is almost exclusively com- 
mitted. Whence, in part. By evident necessity, it comes 
that weights and measures are priTnarily aflairs of the 
working classes, of the poor, and those who with 
their own hands do the daily work of the world ; not 
of the rich, who luxuriously inhale the sweets and 
tempting quintessence thereof, \^dthout vulgar toil ; 
without any racking anxieties so to economise their 
daily bread as just to be able to make both ends meet. 
They, i.e. the rich, and even the classes between them 
and the workers, viz., mercantile men, and various em- 
ployers of labour, can perfectly well afford in their 
lordly mansions or comfortable counting-houses, to 
reckon up their gains in terms of any measures, or of 
any language, whatever under the sun, when balancing 
their account-books at stated intervals ; but the working 
poor, in their daily, ceaseless, occupations, have neither 
the education, nor the time, nor the opportunity to deal 
with more than one language and one set of measures. 

And these last, to be fully useful, must come to 
them, in every item, just as naturally as the mother- 
tongue is felt to do in after-life ; for who is there, 
unless experienced in practical matters himself, who 
knows how suddenly and immediately, in many of the 
constant affairs of the working world, an unexpected 
exigency occurs; when, without books, or scales, or 
balances, or compasses, the labouring man, whether 
lailor or ooal-miner, whether agriculturist or engineer, 
has to look some natural danger in Ike face \ ^xA \ar 
aa/fr hope of plucking the flower, " safely" itom ^ 


event, is in his then and there instantly concluding, 
without instrumental assistance, without time for 
serious thought or metrical examination, upon a nearly 
correct estimate of some measure of weight, or length of 
space, or strength of material, or angle of slope, before 
the catastrophe arrives. 

The working man, too, must have convenient natural 
standards also to refer to* at certain times, both to 
correct the estimate of his mere feelings, and keep up 
as well an outward proof^ as an inward ideal, of justice 
in his dealings with those around him, but in the 
terms he loves best So what was the consequence 
when the restored king and government of A.D, 1215, 
having got the rule of the country once again into 
their power, did not send the promised standards to 
every town and village in the land ? Why, every town 
and every village began to make standard measures for 
themselves, and for their own immediate knots of 
society, rich men and poor, farmers, artisans, and mer- 
chants, in their small and often very isolated pro- 
vincial communities. 

Within a certain range that was tolerable enough ; 
because all these examples pro tern, were more or less 
closely founded on, or were tolerably representative in 
some way or another of, the original Saxon standards, 
and were named with names derived from the same 
effective language ; but beyond that range of temporary 
service, — then began the mediaeval confusion worse con- 
founded which has reigned in our national weights and 
measures ever since. Under the same name, at the 
same epoch, all sorts of different subdivisions of the 
same original quantities have been intended in different 
parts of the country ; and, in such various country-side 
parts, through a long series of years, what astounding 
tuunes, not unfrequently for tiie ^Skd^^ \!tosi%^\cK^^ \tfi\» 


been inyented out of the wealth and depth of the 
mother tongue ! 

The late Dr. Young collected as many as would have 
filled a small dictionary,* and the general progress of 
the nation was not at that time found free from ex- 
ceptional results in this direction. For, as civilization 
'progressed, wealth asserted its interests too powerfully ; 
and lawyers were always attainable, to frame any num- 
ber of acts of parliament to secure rent and taxes 
being drawn from the working poor in any and ever}- 
denomination ; but to prevent their deriving profits 
from their work, unless a statute standard was rigidly 
adhered to. 

That holding up to view the importance of one grand 
national standard, was indeed in so far (for it was evi- 
dently one-sided) very excellent ; but unfortunately, 
the powers that were went on framing their acts of 
parliament without either defining, making, or identi- 
fying any such standard. The taking of scientific 
steps really to do that, seemed to men of the pen, 
the law, and schools of high mental philosophy, a 
base mechanic operation, which their ethereal line of 
studies placed them far above the level of It was a 
drudgery they would not submit to ; and even up to 
the other day (1814), when at last it was impressed on 
the governing bodies that, in the material matter of 
weights and measures, there must be material standards, 
— Uiey appointed a yard, which was to bear a certain 
proportion to a second's pendulum of a specially named 

* The foUowing ii an example from one di vision of his report :— Awm, 
hftf , bale, basket, bat, beatment, billet, bind, \At\^^ boll, Ix'lt, bolting, 
bottie^ bout, box, bncket, bunch, bundle, burden, cabot, cade, canter, 
carotael, oaniage, oart, carUoad, case, cast, chcof, chest, clue, cord, corf, 
cran, oianock, cut, c^ar, cyvelin, daugh, dish, drop, duffer, &c. &c. 

^ Mr. Adderlej said that in his country there were tbirty-six different 
bialiela, and he was informed tbat in Lancashire there weT« mox^ XX^a.'a 
doable tliat nmDbar." — *'Iiepoti c/DiacoBdon in the llo\iM olComnioi^ 
J4ik Mkjr, J864. " 


[Pur It^H 

and legally described scientific order ; but what lenj 
that peadulum was of iu very fact, they did not inquire 
for they said, " any expert watchmaker could ascer- 
tain that;" and yet up to the present time neither 
watchmaker nor pliilosopher, nor government official of 
any kind or degree, has fully succeeded in that little 

So the confusion of weights and measures only 
worse in the kingdom, while otlier branches of civiliat^j 
tion continually progressed. About the year 1700 
the Government, through the Attorni.>y-General. had 
stituted an accusation against a merchant for cheati 
the revenue by using false gallons ; and he, the mer- 
chant, successfully proved that it was the Government's 
own appointed gallon that he had followed, and that 
Government did not know what they had been legislatln|f 
on the subject.* "1 

Tliat was a grievous exposure ; but the fault wa* 
easily thrown on the poor working men, when a Parlia- 
mentary Committee superciliously reported in 1758, 
that of those uneducated beings, but who had hitherto 
borue all the toil and burden of the work, only a few ol 


" Alittlf! after 1700 an tDformalJonnfU' tried in the Rxohequflr again it 

-, for 

1 ported more Alios 

n than he hfid n 


231 cubic incbes) was the dUndttrd. 
Bat the defendunt sp|)ea1ed to the taw, which inquired that a atandanl 
gallon «huuld he leapt at the Treaaiirj' ; prared ihat there wna auch a 
galJon at the Treasury, containing 282 cubic inches : and eHtabliehed, by 
the evidence of the oldest persona in the trade, Ibat the batls and hoga- 
heads which came from Opain had alwa;'! contained the proper number 
of the Teal standard gailoDB. A juror wua withdrawn, and the law officare 
of tlie Crown took no further proceadingg oicept procuring the aboTe Act 
(' An Act of e Anne, cap. 27, tor arresting the further decrease of the 
galJun helow 231 inches'). A better instance of c»nfu«ion could hardlj 
be imagined ; Iho legal gallon had gradually been dimiutshed more than 
ED cubic inchea ; the merchants in one piulicutai trade continued to 
iiD]iart and to pay duty by the teal gallon, and were finally called lo 
account by the A Itomey- General, who, in common with the reel of the 
world, had /oi^ottHn wliat a real gallon waa, and sued for penalties upon 

appeal to wjiat wal no more a \egal aLaud^ii ibB,u tha mauure in a pii- 

nue ihop." — fenny Cyelepadia. 


them were able heretofore to make proper measures or 
weights ; standards were carelessly made and destroyed 
as defective, and the unskilfulness of the artificers, 
joined to the ignorance of those who were to size and 
check the weights and measures, occasioned all sorts 
of varieties to be dispersed through the kingdom, 
which were all deemed legal, yet disagreed. 

Other independent-minded persons, however, ven- 
tured to report, and perhaps more justly, that another 
cause of this confusion was '' the prodigious number of 
acts of parliament, whereby the knowledge of weights 
and measures became every year more aod more mys- 
terious." In 1823 it was stated by Dr. Kelly, in his 
examination before the House of Ijords, '' that there 
had been upwards of two hundred laws enacted without 
success in &vour of conformity, and five hundred various 
measures in defiance of those laws." Both sets of acts 
of parliament, too, were in opposition to that law of the 
practical nature of things, which ordains that every- 
thing in connection with weights and measures shall be 
done in direct reference to material examples thereof. 

But, in 1824, a standard yard and a standard pound 
were at last deposited in the House of Commons ; and 
the Legislature enjoyed the advantage of having a 
moderately accurate example before them, of the prac- 
tical thing they were legislating about. This pleasure, 
however, only lasted about ten years ; for in October, 
1834, both yard and pound perishe<l in the (ireat Fire 
which consumed the two Houses of Parliament. 

Then was maile another insane atti^mpt to get on 
without any standards at all ; to collect revenue by the 
threat of a standard, and yet have no standard to refer 
to. Lawyers, therefore, had it all their own way in this 
pleasant Bction ; and in an act of parliament (^o toA % 



William IV. c, 63), which passt'd both assemlilies in 
following year, " the Btandarda were refen'ed to as if 
still in existence, and quoted as aiithorities to be ap- 
pealed to on every occasion, iilthough they had been 
actually destroyed a twelvemonth before, and no other 
standards submitted in their stead." 

Both Houses of Parliament certainly appeared to have 
been wholly ignorant of this actual non-exiatence of the 
objects on which they were legislating. But some per- 
sons said for them, that they were not, and never liad 
been, entirely dependent on their late legalized parlia- 
mentary standards ; for Government had an ancient 
standard of its own, to which extra-conscientious 
ministers might refer when there was grave occasion. 

Curiosity was excited. There had been indeed once 
two standards in the Exchequer, descended from some- 
what historical times {i.e. Queen Elizabeth's) ; one of 
45 inches, the other of 36. The former, the more 
accurate of the two, seems to have been allowed to drop 
out of sight altogether at some period unknown ; and 
the latter was abused, instead of used, in a degree 
directly proportionate in latter days to the nation's 
advance in wealth, the growth of geodesic science 
amongst learned men, and the increase of general atten- 
tion to the scientific subject of standards in foreign 

For, so far back as 1742, when acme inquiries were 
set on foot by both the Royal Society of London, aad 
the Paris Academy of Sciences, the Elschequer standards 
were then in a respectable Condition ; and seemed to bo 
treated with attention and care, by the high officers and 
clerks of the establishment. But no one had heard of 
them again for a long interval. And when their habita- 
tion was at length revisited in 1835, to see the founda- 
tion on which the government of good King William 
was then legislating, Mr. Baily reports of the then single 


standard, and apparently the only one,* '' that it was 
impossible to speak of it too much in derision and con- 
tempt A common kitchen poker, filed at the end in 
the rudest manner by the most bungling workman, 
would make as good a standard It has been broken 
asunder," he writes, " and the two pieces have bei^n dovt- 
tailed together, but so badly that the joint is nearly as 
loose as a pair of tongs. The date of the fracture I 
could not ascertain; it haWng occurred beyond the 
memory or knowle<lge of any of the officers at the Ex- 
chequer. And yet, till within the last ton years, to the 
disgrace of this countr}', copies of this measure have 
been circulated all over Europe and America, with a 
parchment document accompanying them (charged with 
a stamp that costs £3 lOs., exclusive of official fiH^s), 
certifying that they are the tnie copies of the British 

These are severe remarks ; and partly h(»lp to answer 
the noted difficulty which Dr. Kelly found himself 
confronted with, after all his historical researches up to 
his own time ; viz., that in England there is nothing 
that has a greater tendency to grow worse, or, curiously 
enough, more obstinately resists improvement, than 
weights and measures. Yet the Exchequer itself hais 
indicated the full truth of Mr. Baily's critique, by 
publishing the Astronomer Royal's very similar views ; 

^ Since tiie above was written, an nnosuall^ (C^od parliamcntaiy report 
liM appeared, drawn up by Mr. Chisholm, chief clerk in the office of the 
GomptroUer-Oeneral of the Exchequer, on "The Excht^qner Standards of 
Weight and Measure ; '* menUoninf? a yard rod, a g^allon, and two bushels 
of Henry VII. ; a yard measure and an ell, togi-ther with pintu, quarts, 
callons, baahela, and troy and aroirdupoia weights of Queen Elizabeth, 
Derides sereral other weights and measures of the early Norman kings, 
and not regarded as standards. 

Of the abore Exchequer standards, so-called, the yard rod of Henry Y II. 
Is tliai which was expressly stated, in 1743, to have been for a long time 
disnsed as a standard ; the ell rod of Queen Elizabeth is that which also 
dxfvppod. into disuse between 1743 and 1835 ; while the yard rod of tho 
same queen is that which was reported on by Mr. Baily to the Royal 
Astronomical Society in 1836. as horrible in workmanship, aivd '^\\k \Va 
Jtngtli shoiiflDtd hjr a doretmil. 


first, on the error in the general theory of British^ 
legislatiou on the subject of standards, as shown : 
" the entire apathy on the part of (Jovemment towai 
the matter, whereby it acts only when pressed 
popular demands ;" and second, the error in the pra 
tice of the British Executive, which is, within 
functions, not much uulike the above ; leading also t 
auch exjMsures of our chief political statesmen as t 
following, extracted from Mr. Chisholm's report :- 

" In answer to a question upon this subject in t 
House of Commons, Sir Geofge Grey is reported to have' 
said (see Hansard) that ' the standards (Exchequer) hadj 
been examined ; some adjustment was found necessary.T 
and measures would be taken to have them verified.' 
It is probable that the answer of the Home Secretary I 
was imperfectly heard or misapprehended, as no exami- 1 
nation, comparison, or adjustment whatever of the Y 
chequer standards has been mada" 

Since then, however, some members of her Majesty's 
Government have advanced in metrological knowledge: 
a new office has been created for the subject and placed 
under the care of the same Mr, Chiaholm, late chief clerk 
in the Exchequer, with the title of " Warden of the 
Standards;" and a gentle current of interest has so 
decidedly begun to flow towards tho subject, that one 
or two of the oratorical leaders on ordinary pohtical 
topics have graciously intimated, that when that current 
shall have become stronger they may then perhaps — 
find it worth their while to utilize its motive powei 
and in their own way and for their own purposes coi 
sider, what can he done for, or with, our British nationi 
and hereditary weights and measures. 

Too late ! too late I for while these politicals 
tlaUying with iheir national duties, a mine has 1 
apruiig beneath their feet. 'T\iei taet*iia.iv\:^ axA tsAs^^ 


ftcturers of the country, with a section of the scientific 
men, chiefly of the electrician and chemical stamp, 
have burst into the arena, and declare that they cannot 
wait for the slow improvements of Grovemment. They 
want, they haste, to be rich. The creed that they almost 
worship consists in " buying in the cheapest, and selling 
in the dearest, market," or making money with the 
utmost speed ! * and as they fancy that their operations 
receive a momentary check in some foreign countries, 
by the dififerent metrological systems there and here, — 
fio immediately, without weighing the whole case, with- 
out allowing the mass of the population to have a voice 
in that which is ^ir affair, which is as ancient and 
necessary to them, the people, as their very language, 
and without considering whether, by breaking doAvn the 
barriers between France and Frenchified countries and 
ourselves, they may not be raising up other obstacles 
between ourselves as so altered, and Russia, t America 
and Australia, — they, these new intruders into the 
scene, are calling out and demanding that French 
weights and French measures shall be instantly adopted 
by law from one end of Great Britain to the other ; 
under pains and penalties, too, of the most compulsory' 
order, and enforced by a new and special description 
of highly paid officials to bo appointed for that sole 

In the midst of such a headlong pursuit of mere 

• See Mr. John Taylor's work, " Wealth the Number of the Boiwt." 
t Amonget many other Bymptoms of strong and youthfal TiLality, and 
promiae of iU fntnre pre-eminence in the affairs of the world, HusDia 
■oomi to adopt the French nnits of measure. Some inteTest^Hi parties 
recently went to St. Petersburi^, tryin:; to persuade itM citizens to adopt 
the French ayitem, on the plea that Belgium, Holland, Sardinia, Tusuiny, 
Spain, Portngnl, Greece, Switzerland, and several countries of South 
America, had already joined it, and that Gn^at Britain ir<i« JHst going tn 
d9 m. Bat Rnaaia was nothing moved by that, and though all the wurM 
waa going to toVoiit itself to I^Tance, she, Russia, was not ; she knew the 
▼aloe of ner own hereditary measures, connected at one point wUh. U\^ 
Brituh ■jitem, and sne would as soon give up Yier langnu^*^ «a \k«x 
waam^ metxokgx, Mdmpted to, mud loved by, her peopU. 

B pre - 


wealth, as this iiDprecetleiited tAmpering with the pre- 
historic possessions of our nation, for such a pui 
would be, the poor are unfortunately the first to 
the wall, They may have been somewhat curbed 
bridled in past limes by kings and barons and Govern- 
ment, servants, — but what is that to tlie oppression of 
merchants and mill-masters hasting to be rich, and 
freely sacriUcing thereto any patriotic sentimeDta 
historical associations which their " hands " may p] 
sume to indulge in ? 

There is not indeed a completer way than by such m 
forced introduction of foreign units, for treading out the 
desire for national independence amongst our poorer 
classes, the chief material, after all, of our army ancl, 
navy in war, and main strength in peace ; and 
telling every man of them, and twenty times a day, 
whether he is in the field or whether he is in the 
house, that his convenience and comfort in necessaries 
are sacrificed to schemings for still more riches to come 
to those who are already overflowingly rich ; and thali'. 
the poor man's fine traditional aspirations for the peov 
petuity of the British name, are held subservient amongsti 
his latest rulers to lower and less patriotic ideas of dwi' 
hour. While even the very " People's House " of thtt' 
Legislature with their Committee of 1862 arrived, int 
their own words, unanimously at tho MacchiaveUian 
conclusion, " cautiously and steadily to introduce into 
this country the French metric system, adopting its 
nomenclature also ; at first merely Uf/aliaing its 
and then, after a time, rendering it compulsory :" 
never, perhaps, expecting to hear the Nemesian ay 
raised against them, the cry which, when issuing from 
the rank and file, has proved the speedy death-knell of 
a great empire within the last three years — " Nous 
somines trahis " {" We are betrayed "). 

The Committee were indeed told, from the reports 






Chap. XL] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 2 1 1 

the Astronomer Royal and elsewhere, " that the said 
forcible introduction of foreign weights and measures 
into Great Britain would be to the excesHivebj great 
inconvenience of 9,999 persons out of every 10,000 
of the population, and the gain to the one person 
in 10,000 only small; and that any interference of 
Government for comj)elling the use of foreign measures 
in the ordinary retail business of the country would be 
intoleivble ; that they could not enforce their penal 
laws in one instance in a thousand, and in that one 
it would be insupi}oHahhj oppressive,'* Yet all the 
effect that this wise, salutary, and tnily cliaritable in- 
formation produced on the politico-pretence merchants 
of peace principles, with Mr. Cobden himself amongst 
them, was **to look forward to a comprehensive and 
exact system of inspection, and the establishment of 
an efficient central depiirtment to give force and unity 
to local action." In fact, to act like a (Sennan army 
in undisputed possession of a foreign countr}% and put 
down at all costs amongst the British people any 
national feelings for liistorical institutions of their own ; 
for things which, however they may have been meddled 
with by modem acts of parliament, are still substan- 
tially the same as those which the orifj'mes of the 
nation received, the nation itself does not know how or 
where, or exactly when ; though they are fully aware 
that they have possessed them as long as they have 
eyer been a nation at all, or from before the birth of 
any history amongst us ; and they, the mass of the 
working people, understand the outside w<>rl<l thoroughly, 
Camiliarly, intuitively, only in terms of them. 

No wonder the Timea wrote on July 9th, 1SG3 : — 
"A very great trial is impending over this free and 
happy country. It is not the loss of our cotton trade, 
of our colonies, of our prestige, or our iiuvtvUuwi 
supremacy: It is a change that would slrVWi^ ia^ <\viv.'^x 


and wider than any of these ; for there is not a. house-1 
hold it would not fill with perplexity, confusion, ani' 
Rhame, From a divinion in the House of Commoi 
yesterday, it appears that we are seriously threatened^ 
with a complete assimilation of alt our weights andi 
measures to the French system. Three years are givi 
to unlearn all the tables upon which all our buying aQi}< 
selling, hiring and letting, are now done. Three years 

I supposed to he amply suflScient for undoing and 
obliterating the traditions of every trade, the accounta 
of every concern, the engagements of every contrac^. 
and the habits of every individual. But wo very much 
doubt whether the general shopkeepem. who take pos- 

aon of the comers of our small streets, or the green- 
grocers, will be able in three years to translate their 
accounts into Duas, Hoctos, Kilos, Myrias, Steres, and 
Litres, Metres, MiUinietrcs, Centimetres, and the hun- 
dred other terms extracted by our ingenious neigh- 
bours from Ijatin or Greek, as may happen to suit 
their purposes, Is the House of Commons, then, really 
prepared to see the votes, the reports, the returns 
of the revenue, the figures of the national debt, all 
run up in paper francs and actually paid in gold 

The accomplishment, however, of so undesirable a 
result seems to have been postponed for a time by the 
Parliamentary proceeilings of May 4th, 1864; when. 
Mr. Ewart's bill, after two readings, was withdrawn in 
deference to another proposal brought up by Mr. Milner 
Gibson. But as Mr, C'obden professed himself quite 
unable to see the difference between the two, though 
allowing there might be some, — and we know already 
what are the ultimate compulsory intentions of the 
promoters of the bill, — it is plain that the ihin end of 
the wedge \s already mtroduced to attempt to destroy 
mour British hereditary met,ro\og^-. 

Chaf. XI.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. z 1 3 

Thus fer, nearly, was written in the first edition of 
this hook, published in 1864 ; but now in 1873-4, 
what is the state of matters ? 

Well, their condition is surely most passing strange ; 
for, bill after bill has been brought into Parliament, 
agitators have been at work throughout the land, defec- 
tions from the national cause have occurred by the 
thousand, scientific men have turned coat, and those 
who a few years ago gave the most splendid testimony 
that to force foreign measures on the Britisli people 
would aggravate them to the extent of ciWl war, those 
who in an earlier state of society would have died 
rather than abandon their best opinions and patriotic 
creeds, — ^have now been signing propositions on the other 
side, and even assisting in putting up at the Palace of 
Westminster, side by side, copies of the British and 
French standards of length, as though the Government 
of France ruled already over half of the British peojJe. 

Other renegade scientific men, encouraged too by 
some of the chief scientific societies, have been publish- 
ing new text-books in science for, if possible, all the 
schools and eoUeges in the empire ; wherein, though 
they still condescend to use the English language, Xhey 
scorn to be loyal to the English authorized weights 
and measures ; but speak of everything in the heavens 
above and the earth below in the new French metrical 
terms, which they seem to have sworn together they 
will make this countrj' accept, whether it likes it or 
not* While in the elementary schools which are now 
springing up under Government headship and School 
Board management all over the countrj-, teachers are 

* In the letten which have appeared in ** Nature,** fmin II.M.S. 
Ckmilen09r*t tcientiflc expedition, carried on at an expenne of not Iom than 
420,000 a year to the British people, those contomni.'d iiidividoals have 
the distancei steamed over hy their Jiritish nhip, hy means oC Bn\.\&Vi cma\^ 
datcribed to thorn in kUomitrtM ; and even a little piece ot cYvaW^Yffo^^X 
mp by thB dredge ^m the oc«Aa-bottoixi, is do&ued fox me \a ^fiV^ 
imdea bjr AmcU'oomJ ptuie o£ a metre. 


better, — ^he might well have risen to the idea that at 
some primeval age they must have been of strange and 
even surpassing excellence. But it was not given to 
him, or any scientist in that reign, to perceive the logical 
bearings of the case so clearly : wherefore weights and 
measures went on in a doomed course towards a sea of 
trouble destined to surge over many nations. 

Louis Napoleon may have disappeared, a defeated 
man ; but before he fell from power he had engaged the 
then Prussian king, now German emperor, to abolish 
the ancient national German measures and establish the 
new French ones in their stead, when the year 1872 or 
1874 should arrive. And now that haughty potentate 
must either swallow his words, undo much preparatory 
legislation, and break faith with the metrical men, — or 
will have, whether in his own, or in his son's time, to 
enter into contention with the masses of the German 
people who have raised him to his present tlirone by 
their intense Germanism ; but never gave him authority 
to tamper with their hereditary German gifts and pos- 
sessions ; theirs from before the time that they say 
St. Paul visited them as the (Jalatians. 

"Oh !" but joyfully argue some men, ** it would be so 
gloriously promotive of modem science, for one set only 
of weights and measures to be used and referred to by 
the scientific men of all nations." Yet that is only a 
resuscitation of a cruel fallacy of the middle ages ; viz., 
to try to keep up Latin as a conmion language among 
all scientists whatever language their poor fellow- 
countrymen spoke. A demoralizing and suicidal fallacy ; 
because it was found in practice infinitely more im- 
portant, patriotic, charitable, for each scientific man to 
have no secrets, no mysteries from the masses of those 
poor, but worthy, and often most religiously-minded 
men around him ; and whose friendly encompassing of 
liiw in that manner, was the vex'j ^wx^^ oi xJdl^ Qfi\ft.t* 


and leisure which he enjoyed for his oiiiTi prosecution 
of science. Wherefore the first professor who gave a 
scientific lecture in the vulgar tongue in a German 
university, was rightly held to liave made almost as 
precious, useful, and fruitful a n»form, as that priest 
who began the system of publicly praying, and reading 
the Scriptures, in the language of the people. 

There is, indeed, something to ])e siiid for choice, or 
regulation, of weights and measures coming from the 
side of science ; but the people were in the field before 
science, and have the first and largest interest in them 
stilL Neither is it in the j>ower of any scientific men, 
with all their science up to its very latest developments, 
to invent a truly national set of weights and measures, 
any more than they can make a national language and 
a national peopla 

Before the Flood, according to the Bible, there was 
no division of mankind into nations ; (hut was a divine 
appointment afterwanls, together with the creation of 
their tongues, the appointment of their ])ounds, and, 
there are good reasons for believing, the assignment of 
their weights and measures. And if that vi(s the case, 
a direct and intentional effort by men to sul)vert them 
now entirelv, is not likelv to succeed, however niaiiv 
scientists put their shoulders to the wht»el. 

But the French metriwd svstein, in its a^^ts and 
ambitions, is precisely such an attempt in these days to 
dethrone the primeval system of weights and nieasnn»s 
amongst all nations ; and make all mankind speak in 
future in that new and artificial metrologieul language, 
invented only eighty years ago in Paris. And if there 
is sound reason for believing in the Divine a]»pointment 
of the ancient systems, this new antagonist to them 
ou{^ to have been ushered in under some \vit\ evycv- 
tmjr inHuence. 


, purpo^H 
■e stayeS^H 

aerved all the smaller, and most of the exact, pi 
of Anglo-Saxon life and existence. 

But happily the Commissioners' hands were 
and one of their number — the highest approach to the 
ideal of a philosopher since the da)'s of Newton that 
this country has prodaced, the late Sir John Herschel 
(whose remains now repose in Westminster Abbey) — 
was presently gifted to see, that of all the various length 
measures now on the statute-book, the inch (which was 
then in such imminent danger) is by far the most really 
important, because the true and original unit and source 
of all the others. This idea too seemed continually to 
grow in Sir John Herschel's mind. For, through 
inch, he perceived that all the British weights 
measures might be easily made (onco again perhaps) 
most scientifically earth commensurable ; and without 
the popular value of any of the chief units or standards, 
. or even their names, being interfered with. 

That grand principle, too, of earth commensurability, 
or that there should be a complete and" harmoninus 
scale of numerical relations connecting the small units 
employed by man in his petty constructions on the 
earth, witli the grander units laid out by the Creator in 
the sky, Sir John Herschel stood up splendidly for: and 
argued and wrote for the glorious idea really belonging 
to British metrology, in various parts of the countrj' ; but 
in vain ! His colleagues on the Standards Commission 
could see no beauty nor desirability in that whicli ho 
esteemed so highly : unless it was those of them who 
claimed something of the same earth-commensurable 
principle, though in a less perfect form, for the French 
metre : and ikty wished to abolish the entire British 
system. So after doing all that he could to convince^ 
demonstrate, persuade, with the effect only of 
that the majority were determined to sacriiice evf 
thing to France, be tAok 0:is %( 


Chaf. XI.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 2 2 1 

and honest man to take — ^he gave up what had been 
an honour to fifty years of his life, his place at the 
Standards Commission, his prospects of power or in- 
fluence in Government appointments, — and went out 
from amongst them all, alone, wounded in spirit and 
lowered, perhaps, in the eyes of many ; but nobly 
nerved to carry on the battle single-handed, in the 
open world outside, against the metrical mania of the 
day : a strange disease, "which Sir John Herschel 
(the equal to ^liom, not Cambridge herself could show 
at the greatest of all competitive examinations) deemed 
not only anti-national, but, in spite of all that is so fre- 
quently said for it, not of the highest science either. 

This case, I fear, is the one, only, bright example 
which British science has shown in our dav, of a 
scientist who would sutler in place, in power, and in 
worldly, social dignity, for opinion ; and did so : — a man, 
therefore, in whom a great nation might tnist in any diro 
emergency ; and who, when the last pro-French metrical 
bill was about to be urged before the House, came to 
the defence of his country's cause with the following 
letter to the Editor of the Times : — 

'* As Mr. Ewart*a Bill for the compulsory abolition of our whole 
•yttom of Britiah weighta and measurfs, and the introduction in ita placo 
of the French metrical lyBtem comva on for ita necond reading on the 13th 
pfDzimo, I cannot help thinking that a brief Rtatement of the comparati%'u 
4$fmeto claimaof our Britidh unite and of the French on abstract scientific 
girounda may, by ita insertion in your pages, tend to disabuse the minds 
of each, if any, of oar legislators who may lie under the imprcMion (I bi*- 
lioro a very common one among all claases) that our system is devoid of 
a natural or rational basis, and as such can advance no d priori claim tu 
maintain its ground. 

** Jk facto, then, though not dejnre (i.e, by no legal definition exist inq: 
in the worda of an act of parliament, but yet practically* 'veriticd in our 
parliamentary standards of length, weight, and capacity as they now 
exist), our British units refer themselves aa well and as naturally to the 
length of the earth's polar axis as do the French actually exiHting 
■tandards, to that of a quadrant of the meridian passing thnmgh PitriH, 
and OTen in some respects better, while the former basis is in itself a 
imfeiable one. 

" To afaoir thu 1 abMlI Manme as our Britiah anil o( \eiigV\i V^« \m^\\s\ 


foot ; of weight the imperiAl ounce ; and of eapacity the imperial half- 
pint ; and shall proceed to state how they stand related to certain proto- 
types, which I shall call the geometrical onnoe, foot, and half-pint; and 
shall then institute a similu' comparison between the French legally 
authenticated metre, gramme, and litre in common use with their (equally 
ideal, because nowhere really existing) prototypes supposed to he doiTed 
from the Paris meridian quadrant, distinguishing the former at the 
practical, the latter as the theoretical, French units. 

'* Conceive the length of the earth's axis as divided into fif hundred 
million equal parts or geometrical inches. 

*' Then we will define: — 1. A geometrical foot as twelve such geome- 
trical inches ; a geometrical half*pint, as the exact hundredth put of a 
geometrical cubic foot ; and, 3, a geometrical ounce as the weight of one 
exact thousandth part of a geometrical cubic foot of distilled water, the 
weighing being performed, as our imperial system prestoibes, in air of 62* 
Fah., under a barometric pressure of 30 inches. 

"In like manner the theoretical kilogramme and litre of the French are 
decimal] y referred to their theoretical metre on Uieir own peculiar con* 
ventions as to the mode of weighing. 

^ This premised — (1) the imperial foot is to the geometrical in the exact 
proportion of 999 to 1,000 (nine hundred and ninety-nine to a thousand), 
a relation numerically so exact that it may be fairly considered as mathe- 
matical ; and 2 and 3, the imperial half-pint and ounce are, each of them, 
to its geometrical prototype as 2,600 to 2,601. 

'* Turn we now to the practical deviations from their theoretical ideals 
in the case of the French units. Here, again (1), the practical metre is 
shorter than its theoretical ideaL The proportion is that of 6,400 to 
6,401. The approximation is, indeed, closer, but the point of real import- 
ance is the extreme numerical simplicity of the relation in our case, more 
easily borne in mind, and more readily calculated on, in any proposed 
case. 2 and 3. Any error in the practical value of the metre entails a 
triple amount of abquot error on the practical kilogramme and litre, so 
that, in the cases of these units the proportion between their practical and 
theoretical values is not that of 6,400 to 6,401, but of 2,133 to 2,134. 
Here, then, the greater degree of approximation is in our favour ; and it 
is to be observed that in our case this triplication of error does not hold 
l^ood, since, by a happy accident, our standard pound has been fixed quite 
independently of our standard yard, and our gpUlon is defined as 10 lbs. 
of water. 

'* I am. Sir, your obedient Servant, 

*«J. F. W. Hbeschxl. 
«* CoLLiNGWooD, April 30M, 1869." 

This is very clear so far: but its able author did not 
go far enough. For while his grand fountain and source 
of earth-commensurability for the British measures was 
based, even by him, upon, not the foot, which he ulti- 
mately used, but the inch, being an evenly earth 
commensurable measure, and by the particular number 
of jive hundred millions of them, yet he afterwards 
drops out of view botli the inch, the five times of so 

Chap. XI.] THE GREA2 PYRAMID. 223 

many parts, and says nothing about his new cubit 
standard, which he was at that very time proposing 
for the British nation, and prescribing that it should 
consist of 5 X 5 of those inches, in place of their present 
yard of thirty-six inches. Nor does the eminent astro- 
nomer attempt to show that either the earth-commen- 
surability or the terrestrial fiveness of the inch was any- 
thing more than accidental. At all events, he does not 
explain how or when, or through what, or by whom, 
that unit first came about ; and though he alludes to 
English history as far back as any printiid acts of par- 
liament may extend, he shows no faith ca|>able of 
tracing the fortunes of our nation u]) to those dim 
periods of primeval story where the Bible is the only 
book worth consulting. 

Perhaps it was well, though, that Sir John Herschel 
stopped where he did : for time is re<iuired to enable 
men effectually to receive the whole of any very new 
idea ; and he did succeed at least in making »ome able 
men pause in their mad career of abolishing, as having 
nothing at aU in them, the traditional British standards 
and units of measure. And had he, the most brilliant 
representative of modem exact science, gone on further 
still, and been the propounder of the Groat Pyramid 
source of tue wisdom of our ancient mejisures : that 
they had been monumentalized there in the Siriad 
land before history begiin, but yet in admirable earth 
and heaven commensurability, and in a manner never 
known to the profane EgA'ptians ; — the s^M'ptioal modtTU 
world would hardly have consented to believe, but that 
the excellences of such a system were Sir John Her- 
schel's own transcendent inventions ; tuid had tu-isen 
much more through his brilliant gra.s]) of modem aoade- 
mical science, than by his simple readings in that stone- 
book of Revelation which stands on the Jeezeh hill, 
open, though hitherto illegible, to all uuuikiuvL 


But for John Taylor, who never pretended to be a 
scientific man, to propound the grand idea ; — and for 
the Scottish Astronomer, with scarce pay enough to 
exist upon, and only a few old instruments, though in > 
80-csiled Hoyal Observatory, at his hand both for [ 
fessional work, and to follow up the Great PjTamid c 
— was, and is, quite a different matter. Such plan y 
indeed, banlly less, than to let the stones of tie r 
Pyramid themselves cry out to a heedless generation. J 

But, oh ! how effectively they cry for the few who n 
and do, give heed to them ! Only see how satisfactori 
in our Part I., the Great Pyramid's first and simplq 
mechanical features have helped us over Sir Jol 
Herschel's enormous, and by him never solved, difficul 
of explaining why there veas more meaning in the i 
inch going Jive, rather than any other number of hiu 
dred million times into the length of the earth's axis 
of rotation. Let the reader presently judge, too, how 
similarly gleaned PjTamid facts will enable us to assig 
a date, a place, and an origin to the whole syste 
capable of demanding the respect of all men, scienti 
and unscientific alike ; on a far higher footing, moreov^ 
than anything that can be said for all the works of C^ 
philosophers of Greece, the poems of Homer, or 1 
reputed wisdom of the Egj-ptians themselves. 

Be it, however, our first and immediate part \ 
enter somewhat into practical applications ; i 
forth in the four ensuing chapters what may he the n 
probable schemes of subdivision and arrangement of £ 
Great Pyramid's grand atanjanls ; to indicate 
points of contact with the British and Saxon metrolo^ 
and allude to both their aids to the minds as wefl 
as the bodies, and their proniotiveness to the fidness of 
thought as well as the material comforts, of nnive^ 
intellectual man. 

cbap. xn.] 





THE grand standard of capacity in the Great Pyramid, 
as already stated, is given by the contents of the 
granite coffer at the further end of its final and so-called 
King's Chamber ; and this vessel measures, as too it was 
originally intended that it should, 71,250 cubic Pyramid 
inches, or something y^rj close thereto. 

This whole quantity subdivides itself easily, after the 
manner of the Pyramid arithmetic and Pyramid con- 
struction, as follows : — ^Tho two most important steps 
being, ^r»f, the division into 4, as typifying the four 
sides of the base ; and second, the division into 2,5Q0, 
or 50 X 50 parts ; fifty being the special number of the 
room, and the number also of the masonry courses of 
the whole structure on which that chamber, or rather 
the two chambers of ten million cubic inches each, of 
which it is composed, rest in their places. 

Ptramid Capacity Mrarvhb. 


each denomi- 





Name now propoaed to be 





given to each suceeaaive 



cnbie inchea. 

pounds of 



, Water. 



































Wi ne-glaat or fluid onnc<» . 





Tea-spoon or fl uid dnchu i 





Ten dropa. 






Drop. V 




We begin, therefore, with the large measured and 
scientific quantity of the coffer ; and end with a unit 
which, in an approximiate form, as a drop, (i.e., the 
cubical space occupied by a drop of water falling freely 
in air at a given Pyramid temperature and pressure), is 
in every one's hands, and ia definable accurately upon 
the coffer by the stated proportion. 

In contrasting this arrangement with the British 
imperial system, we may see at once that that modem 
system ia merely a measure for large and rude 
quantitiea, knowing of nothing smaller than the pint 
(the gill being merely a later tolerated addition to suit 
special wants), and rendering it therefore necessary 
for the apothecAriea and druggists to maniiiacture 
a sort of fluid and capacity measure for themselves, 
which they do by atarting from the pint and ending 
in the drop ; or, as they term it, with needless addition 
of dog-latin, a " minim." 

Thia apothecaries' fluid measure was established only 
ia 183G ; and we may assume, with Lord Brougham')! 
Penny Cyclopcndia, that such fluid ounce, when it is ao 
ounce, is an ounce avoirdupois ; although it is stated 
elsewhere, that medical men are never to use anything 
but troy weight. 

This incongruity renders the break between imperial, 
i.e., the present British, capacity, and apothecaries' capa- 
city, measures pecuHarly trying ; followed as it is by a 
break of connection between ajKtthecaries' capacity, and 
apothecaries' weight, measures also. 

In the Pyramid arrangement, however, there is no 
halting half-way ; but, when it is a question of capacity, 
the scheme goes right through from the biggest bulks 
ever dealt with in commerce, and through all the 
measures required by the people further in dealing with 
coal, com, wool, potatoes, beer, wine, peas, meal, oil, 
m^^nes^ ptiotogtap^'a'^^i "sx^ <iB.gaao>U^ up to tiie 

Cmaf. Xn.] THE GREAT PYRAMID. 227 

smallest quantity ever judged of by capacity measures 
of specified name ; for when once we have arrived by 
several decimal stages at " drops," no one would ever 
think of subdividing them further, if they could, in any 
other manner than by the tens of pure arithmetic again 
and again. 

Next, for the testing of these bulks by weight, the 
imperial system has only one strikingly even equivalent, 
viz., the gpsdlon, =10 lbs. of water weight. But that is 
accompanied by the double drawback, 1st, fliat 10 lbs. 
in weight is not an imperial known weight ; and 2ndy 
that the gallon is not the unit of the imperial system. 

The unit of the hnperial capacity system is a pint ; 
and it is, moreover, the verj- important centre of con- 
nection between that system for large ordinary quantities, 
and the apothecaries' system for scientific and medical 
small quantities. It is, therefore, the point of all others 
in the scale which should be round and complete, test- 
able also at a moment's notice by an equally round, well- 
known, and frequently emj)loyed standard of weight. 

So it was too in the days of the wisdom, wherever 
that was derived from, of our Saxon forefathers, or th(5 
times of instinctive strength of our hereditar}- traditions ; 
but under the luxurious, and very modem, reign of 
George FV. that strange tendency to take measures from 
the poor, and enlarge them more or less for the con- 
venience chiefly of the rich, was rife ; so the pint, from 
having been the unit, as one j)ouiKrs weight of water, 
was expanded into the odd quantity of 1 and \ pounds 
of the same ; while the bigger measure of a gallon, 
with which the poor man has seldom to deal, was 
ordained to be the standanl capable of being tested by a 
round sum of 10 lbs., if that could be obtained or made 
up from other weights. 

This petty manoeuvring' witli some of l\\c cwsXowwvf^ 
old usages, if not also Iwrvditary rights, of \\\c \>ooT,^ti& 


attempted, in the case of the new imperial pint, to be 
electro-plated with brilliant proverbial mail, by Lord 
Brougham's and tbe great " Diffusion of Useful Know- 
ledge Society's " giving out this saying, to be learned 
by all good subjects in these latter days, — 

But, treason or no, I venture to doubt whetlier evi 
peasant has yet got that distich by heart ; and whetlu 
he does not rather ruminate in bis femily circle andl 
about the old heartliatone over the far more ancient a 
pithier rhyme, — 

An expression, too, in which there may be vastly more 
than immediately meets the eye ; seeing, as in our above 
table, that the Pyramid system appears to restore tbe 
principle embodied in those two little lines ; and may 
have communicated it, in ages long gone by, to many 
other countries also : in part, who knows, to prove 
them, if they could be faithful, a/ad for how long, tq 
their ancient covenant. 

Abnost every one of the Pyramid capacity measures, 
however, over and above its pint, admits of being tested 
by a round number of "water-pounds;" and that number 
is always such a one as we shall presently see equally 
exists in tbe Pyramid system of weight measure. 

We have, therefore, only to conclude this division of il 
the subject by submitting a table of comparison of each 
concluded PjTamid capacity vessel, with each similarly 
named current capacity vessel in Great Britain, through 
means of the common medium of English cubic inches. 
Whence it will be seen that, excepting the " coffer," , 
(though even that is hardly altogether unknown to ourl 








mle an expression for, and a description of.* i: . there 
is no need to invent any neTr name* ; f-:-r. -^znder the 
existing' names, as of pint*. izalloL^, lic. ^o.. the afceo- 
lute capacities have often vAkHed ri-^oh iLore thaji here 
indicated,*** and without a U'JLe of 'iie Ti:ASij7i for it. 


nr ^-sci^z. :f Yr^sr c^ Ic r-^jy 

»77*^^— ^'^ r 

= ::.*£-: :f«: r:':r Q^r-.^n, Brit. = :v.5*M44 

— * -iti!.* « »n'**_ 'lii. Ai»i-ti_ = 

= i7T 2T4 

, _ .— • " * ^^" 

fall iora of I^ ciaier 'iftr^i&ry =.-tG^l:>r:'Jx. *- r./^^u . »t^:i^ ptrr««vd 


• r, 

y^M cf Si 

rLii-: afcia 


GTBBtP|TBBd Quarter of Coffer 



• See Xr. Tat! r t 

- r^Tt^\ ?v 

fcs^i:. ?. :*4. 





ijo OUR mHERlTANCE IN [Pui. ^| 

"&«*■' (; ^ 




irudde . . 

6,TS8- ^1 

Baml . 









Dordreoht . 

Great Sac 





Frankfort . 



QcDoa . 



Hague . 














Great Pyramid 


7,i4fi- :■ 

Reval . . . 



TuriD . 



ZwoU . 

Mudde . . . 

S.S51- ^H 

■' Buiiel" Caparilg Corn Ifeasurti. ^| 

CaaOrj or Cilj. 

N-une of Mean.™. 'ContmU ^aigU.h [ 

Berlin . . . 

Boheffel . . . 

3.180' 1 '^m 

CWabria . . 



Greek (ancient) . 



nildeeheim . 



MHg^burg . . 









Nancv . 



Naplet . . 


3. 122 

NimegUBn . 



P.rmu . . . 




Poland . 



Great Pyramid 


2,866- |H 

St. Maloes . 

BoiueaD . 


Sardinia . . 

Starello . 

2.S88- ^H 


Xillaa . 


Wiunsr . . 

ScbeSel . 

2,517- ^M 




rpHE weight measure of the Great Pyramid we have 
•*■ to obtain from its King's Chamber coffer also ; but, 
as before intimated, by the introduction of an addi- 
tional and more difficult idea than mere cubic space ; 
and this idea is, the ttiean density of the whole earth. 

Were masses of such matter directly procurable, the 
best representation of the Pyramid weight standard 
might have been a rectangular block of that substance, 
5*7 times smaller than the coffer s internal capacity, set 
up beside it in the equal temperature and rarely much 
disturbed atmospherical pressure of the same chamber. 

But as we are not able, in spite of all the wonderful 
resources of modem science, to delve anything like 
deep enough to obtain a specimen of this grand unit 
material which forms the foundation of our globe, we 
must take the coffer s contents in water as a stepping- 
stone, but only as that, to reach our desired result. 

Thus the coffer's contents of pure water are 71,250 
cubic Pyramid inches, which at the temperature of 68* 
Fahr. would weigh 18,030,100 of our avoirdupois grains ; 
according to the estimate of the British Government 
that one cubic British inch of distilled water at tempera- 
ture 62** Fahr. and barometer 30 00 inches, weighs 
252*458 grains ; the necessary reduction being per- 
formed for the different size of the inch and \\i^ ^\j^ 

temperature. Tliercfore a mass of the earth's nn 
density material of the size of 12,500 • Pyramid cul 
inches, at the standard Pyramid temperature 
pressure, weighs in the lump 18,030,100 British avoh 
dupois grains. 

But what are its subdivisions on the Pyramid systemj 
Here we ean follow no better plan than that adopted ' 
the capacity branch of metrology ; and then we 
rewarded by finding, when we come to the most chi 
teristic division of all, viz., that of 50 x 50. whi( 
should give us a popular unit to compare with the 
pint in capacity — we find, I say, that it does give us 
something which is excessively close to the old Saxon 
pound ; but with this further advantage, of world-wide 
application in the Pyramid system, and presently to be 
illustrated in computing weight from measured size, viz,] 
that each such Pyramid pound is equal to the weight 
Jive cubic Pyramid inches of the earth's mean density. 

Hence our first Pyramid weight table runs thus : — 

FriumD Wbigbt Mbascrt. 





Weight of 

CipMitj of 



put oaDUiQed 




to Ma kind 








































Ounce. J 





Dmin. J 










G«i5. J 

• Daii'rai.bamll.UQ^ViAiiA.trsb-T. 



C!it*r.XUI.J r//£ G/iSAT PrjtAAfin. 133 

HaTiDg already stated that the Pyramid grnnd weight 
stAodard weighs in British terms, viz., avuirdupois 
ineasure, 18,030,100 British grains; we arc met, as 
soon as we begin to compare Pyramid and British 
weights together in point of fact, with an accusation, — 
that the Pyramid grains must be very small, if there 
tin 25.000,000 of tliem, to 18,000.000 nearly of the 

But herein comes to light one of those needless 
pieces of meddling legislation by our most modem, or 
Georgian era, political rulers, which so provoked John 
Qaincy Adams and other American writers on Saxon 
metrology ; for whereas the old law of the land was, 
that the troy pound should be divided into 7,680 
grains (and which were very nearly the weight of full 
and fair grains of well-grown wheat), a later law said 
that it should be divided into only 5,760 parts or 
grains so called, but of no known variety of plant em- 
ployed for breadstuff WTierefore Cocker, Wingate, and 
other 'arithmeticians of that day used to enter in their 
useful oompendiums during the transition period, that 
32 real grains or 24 artificial grains made the penny- 
weight troy ; and when that ingenious story was 
pretty well indoctrinated into Uieir obedient scholars, 
the notice of the old grains was dropped out altogether, 
and the new ones remained masters of the situation, 
with the word " artificial " removed, and as though 
there had never been any other. 

Referred then now, over the heads of these, to the 
Ifeuuine old grains of Saxon metrology (so for as we can 
them back by the usual literary and historical 
ind which is, aft«r all, not so much as a thousand 
the number of 25,000,000 of the Pyramid gnuns 
have been measured then by 24,040,100 of the 
grains of tJtat earlier, thougVi not Y^jraarii. 
^j'j but a sufficiently close appioajdi \» tisa 






25,000,000, to satisfy any poor man seeking the t 
of n few grains only. 

But the British legal weight measure of raoi 
and historical times has, over and above this 
always been, even within itself and at home, 
dire antagonism between two grand and rival system 
viz., troy and avoirdupois, not to say anytliing i 
apothecaries' weight, which is little but the 
under a different mode of subdivision. General puH 
favour seems at last to have settled upon avoiis^ 
dupois, as most worthy to be the national weight in 
future for things in general, and especially things 
on a large scale ; but as it does not go lower than 
drachms, why then, even though troy weight should be 
extinguished to-morrow, apothecary's weight will have 
still to be kept up for dealing with smaller quantities 
than drachms and the more valuable class of substances. 
There is, indeed, a legal definition of the number of 
the large modem " artificial grains " which coustitute a 
pound avoirdupois, viz., 7,000 ; but as the further 
avoirdupois subdivisions are into 16 ounces, and these 
into IG drachms, we are left there with one such drachm 
equal to the cruahingly awkward quantity to deal with 
in accounts of 2734375 grains ; and drachms are just 
the point where science begins to be particular. 

Therefore it is that druggists, obliged already to buy 
wholesale by avoirdupois, have then to dispense retail 
by troy or apothecary's rtveight ; for these last are the 
only British weights which enable them to deal easily 
with grains ; and yet these are not real grains, neither 
for the people, nor in history, nor in science. 

The Pyramid weights, therefore, which are on one 
system only, and go through the whole scale from tons 
to grains without any break, seem to offer already at 
this point, an honourable mode of escape to the British 
nation out of the conivmon \k«^ Wi« suffered £i>r • 



No new names are required, many close approaches to 
the grander standards and units will be remarked, and 
the proportions of matter under each denomination, as 
used in the Pyramid and in British nomenclature, are 
approximately as follows : 

Ptraxtd and Britibh Weight Mbastbxr, 
Compared through the temporary medium of English ** artificial ** graina. 

1 grain PTTMnid 

I diaahm PyTMoid 

1 pooBd Ppainid 






(1 grain ''naJ,** or old 
0.721S' Saxon 

{ 1 grain new Enriiwh 
1 drachm aToira. 
1 drachm apoth. 
1 oc. avoird. 
1 OS. troy or apoth. 
' 1 pound avoird. ^ 

1 pound, an ancient I 
weight proflorved at I 
the Exchoquor, bnt > 

Iof unknown origin 
1 pound old V^gliiih 
and Scotch 
!1 atone meat 
1 stone wool 
1 cwt. aToird. 
1 wey En^flirh 










\ 1 ton aroird. 
( 1 ton shipping 








Specijic Gravity, 

In no part of metrology more tlian in weight, is 
there found so much of the wheel within wheel of 
natural difficulty, tending, unless well watched and 
studied, to introduce perverse variations whenever uni- 
formity is attempted ; and there are still existing some 
supporters of the arguments for keeping up both the 
troy and avoirdupois weight systems amongst us. For 
the same reasons, too, that those gentlemen believe the 
complication was first introduced. 

And what reasons were they ? 

When society was in a very primitive, or much more 
probably, a mediaeval degraded, condition, and little but 
gimin was sold, a test for the amount of grain in any par- 
ticular vessel was, the quantity of water it would hold. 
But water and grain are of different specific gravities \ 
therefor^ if equal bulks were taken, tVie ^\ixc\\aA&T ^o\. i^ 

= 3« 




very different quantity of what lie valued most, than 
equal weights were observed ; and as some parties were 
mors particular about bulks than weights, and mce-verei, 
two sets of weights were prepared, with such an amoiint 
of difference between them, tliat a pound of grain in one, 
occupied the same space as a pound of water in the 

But in the present day, when all sorts of matters 
besides bare grain are sold, and almost every one of the 
thousand and more substances dealt in has a different 
e/pecifia gravity, we cannot hope to have as many dif- 
ferent systems of weight as there are of such sub- 
stances ; nor, maintaining only one system of capacity 
measure, to keep up on all possible occasions that 
appearance of identity between weight and bulk. Hence, 
for the modem man, the only resource seems to be, to 
have one capacity, and one weight, measure pure and 
simple ; but to produce the identity required of old for 
different substances, by calculntion. Assisting that 
calculation, too, by some convenient table of specific 
gravities, wherein the point of coincidence between the 
two descriptions of measure, or the point where there 
is no calculation at all &om bulks to find weights, shall 
be in favour of the substance most frequently required 
to be dealt with ; or for those which offer the best 
average example of all the substances which have in 
their turn to be either weighed or measured by man. 

In the French metric system this point of coincidence 
is occupied by water ; and it is intended that the cubic 
amount of water being measured, that statement shall 
in itself, with the mere alteration of names, and perhaps 
of the decimal point, express its weight, Hence, at 
a recent metrological discussion at the Philosophical 
Society of Glasgow, a pro-French metrical speaker lauded 
this quality of his fiivourite anti-national system ; and 
L &ilarged upon how couveoieiit "A miis\> \ift. iiix a. Bier- 

Cmat. xni.] TBE GREA T PYRAMID. zyi 

chant receiving goods in the docks, out of many yessels 
from many countries, to go about among the packages 
with a mere French metre measuring-rod in his hand ; 
and by that obtaining their cubic bulks, thence to 
know simultaneously their weights also. 

*• Yes," remarked another speaker, " that would be 
simple enough if British merchants imported, amd ex- 
ported, and dealt in, nothing but iviiter" 

Now the pro-French metrical man on this occasion 
was a large dealer in iron ; and had made much fame 
for himself, and some money too, by improved methods 
of working the weighty iron plates required for modem 
armour-clad war vessels. So he was completely over- 
thrown by the above answer ; but tried to recover himself 
and his theory with the professional remark, *' Well, but 
you must allow that the French metrical system is an 
excellent one for ship-builders computing their displace- 
ments by." 

" Yes," again answered his merciless opponent, '* if 
ship-builders are never required to deal with salt water ; 
only distilled water ; and can keep that always at the 
nncomfortably cold temperature of water s maximum 
density, and can also work in a vacuum as to atmo- 
spheric air;" for all these are the truly anti-practical 
plans for any correct weighing to be performed on the 
boasted French metrical svstem. 

Other speakers then came to the defence of the pro- 
French metrical iron ship-builder, and urged that a table 
of specific gravities might be employed wlu*n anything 
else than pure distilled water at a temperature of 39^ 
Fahr. was being measured or weighed ; and that when 
rough commercial results only were required, both 
temperature and atmospheric pressure might jyi-oUibly 
be n^lected. 

Let us look each of these sides of the ar^mewt 
straight in the &ce ; for they ^rve iRctW \a coiiVxviX 


essential and inherent qualities in the French metric^, 
an ag;ainst the Pyramid, system of weighing. 

The former, having its specific-gravity etjuality-point 
at water, while almost all the substances dealt with 
art and science (especially the more useful and vali 
ones in modem life, such as the metals, miiieralB, Ac.), 
are heavier, far heavier, than water, — the weights first 
given out by the French metre rod are always largely in 

The latter or Pyramid system, on the contmrj. 
having its equality-point at the earth' 
or between atones and metals, is much nearer the tml 
at onee and without any specific gravity correction, 
things in general, and for precious ones in jiarticular. 

Again, the French system which makes the tempei 
tm^ reference close to freezing, or where men can bi 
exist (and certainly cannot work to advantage), and 
atmospheric pressure reference, a vacuum where 
cannot exist at all, — must require much larger coi 
tions on the rough measures actually taken in the 
eumstances of daily life, — than the analogous Pi 
references ; which are those of the average temperatl 
and average pressure under wliich all men upon 
earth, do live, move, and work. 

Under the French system, indeed, a shopkeeper 
ought to take account in summer of the large itmouDt 
of natural expansion of his goods above the ideal 
temperature of water's maximum density, the wintry 
Sg" Falir. ; and in winter he ought to correct for the 
artificial temperature which he keeps up by stoves or 
otherwise. AVhile in both summer and winter he ought 
to make allowance for the buoyant power of air of the 
density, more or less, of 30 inches pressure of mercury, 
on the comparative specific gravities of the material 
iis weights, and the material of the things weight 
thejr being true accotiing Wi \ia ^^^*J^ 

C»ff. xm.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 2 39 

absolute vacuum, and that, too, in close proximity to 
an ice-house. 

But under the Pyramid system, and under the 
British also, the ordinary weighings in the shop under 
the temperatures and pressures there usually ex- 
perienced, either in winter or summer, will be never 
more than microscopically different from weighings per- 
formed under the exact and scientific temperature and 
pressure references of these systems ; viz., the mean, 
very nearly, of what are experienced both in the shops 
and the general habitations of men, all the wide world 
over. But of this more awl further, in Chap. XV. 

Weights, then, on the P}Tamid system are equally 
referable, as with the French system, to one given point 
on both the temperature and pressure scales, when 
nicety is required. But that given point in the Pyra- 
mid case is an easier, pleasauter, and a better known 
one ; while for the rough work of the world, the 
Pyramid weights are calculable at once from Pyramid 
linear measure, without any reference to observations 
of thermometer and barometer at the insUmt, much 
more accurately than the French from theirs, under 
similar circumstances. The Pyramid ndes, too, being 
expressible in the following simple maimer : — 

For mivall things, ascertain their bulk in cubic inches, 
divide by 5, and the result is the weight in Pyramid 
pounds — if the said articles are of the same specific 
gravity as the earth's average material. 

For large masses, ascertain their bulk in cubic 
Pyramid cubits, add j^, and the result is the weight in 
Pyramid tom^ — under the same condition of specific 

* ConTenely, the Pyramid weight of a body of enrth's moan denntv 
beinc given, to find its Pyramid cnbical moa5iire— multiply the pounji 
wvight by 5, and it will give the nnmbcr of cubical ineViQ^; «ax<\ ^\.^wMib 
IW kmt wwagbi hjri,toand the nunibor of cable cuUts. 


were no^^ 

But if the matter measured in either case were 
of earth's mean density, but, say, ordinary stone, the 
real weight would be nearer a half, and if of the 
more common metalij, double, the amount given by 
the above process ; the raw number first procured by 
it, requiring in the case of every different physical sub- 
stance, to be multiplied by its specific gravity im temu 
of that of the earth's. Hence, such tabular multiplier is 
1 when the specific gravity is the same as that of the 
earth ; a fraction of 1 when lighter ; and 1 with 
thing added to it, when heavier ; as in the folloi 
table, prepared from various authorities 

Bpbc?ific Oravitiis. 



■ Ch 

■ Wl 

■ Bo 

■ Ma 


^^ fill 


White Pina (Ameriwin) 
Oat« [looie as in buihei) 
Larch (Scotland) 
Lithinm . 
Riga Fir . 
Barley (looee as in 
Ether, Bulphurio 
Wheat (loose at in 
Alcohol, pure . 
Pumice-stone ■ 

Butter, tallow, fat 
Bee»' wax 
OUOak . 
Diililled water 
Sea water 

Heart of oak 
Connel coal 

White Bugar . 


'S ; 

Porcelain (cbina) 

G!a*a, crown . 

" Common atone " 

Desert sand, nnar the Sphiui 


Red gtanito (Peterhead) 

^ammulitio limwUtno, Q.P. 

Ciur. ZUl] THE 




Tfiiore,U«ck . 


Mercury, brown cinnabar 


Wolfrmm . 


Silver, Wrgin . 



Silver, hammered 


Tin, pore, Comiah . 


Mercury, precipitated, j9^r k 


Iran, CMt at Carron . 


Lead, molten . 


Iron ore, prinnatie . 




Lead ore, cubic 




Iran, forged into ban 


Mercury, fluent 


Copper, native . 


Mercury, congealed . 




Gold, not hammered 


Steel, hardened 


Gold, hammered 


BraM, cast, cummon 


Gold, En^linh standard. 

BrmM, ctiiit 


22 carats 


Mercurj, precipitated, rod 

I 1-47 

Gold, Knf^Iish standard. 

Colialt . . . . 


24 carHt« 


GadmJam . . . . 


Gold, English standard. 

BraM wire, drawn . 




Kickel . . . . 


Platinum, purified . 
Platinum, nammered 


Copper wire, drawn . 



Bismuth, native 


Platinum wire, drawn 


Btumuth, molten 


Platinum, compreKHod 


KilTer, native . 


Iridium, coniprebscd 


No efficient system, then, of determining weights hy 
linear measure, in the present (Liy can possibly go unac- 
oompanied by its table of specific gravities. And some 
few of those items at least might worthily be extracted for 
natural theology texts by every schoolmaster appointed 
to teach weights and measures, — for what a boundless 
vista does not specific gravity open up into the realm of 
nature. And what thankfulness should it not excite in 
the mind of man towartls the Creator, for his free gift of 
bU these endless varieties of elementary matter, where- 
with He has of old stocked the earthly abode of man ; 
and thereby made a higher existence possible to him, 
than to denizens of water alone. 

The specific gravity standard of the P\Tamid weight 
measure being the mean density of all the solid, as well 
08 fluid, treasures of the earth, — means thus a great deal 
in the histor}- of mankind ; and there appears to be 
further an even commensurability of a most interesting 
order, between the weight of the whole Great Pyraiwvd 
and the weight of the earth, or in tlie yto\)otUoiv oil 



1 to lO'*.* A commensurabilily, too, which may-l 
considered to have been intended ; for had the buili 
not been chiefly composed of a stone so much ligl 
than what is usually known as " common stone," tEm 
it has the specific pravity of 0-4'12 in place of 0'442, 
the even proportion would not have been ohuined, — 
without indeed altering the size, and that would have 
overtliTown other equally, or still more, important com- 
raonsurabilities. But now, without in the slightest 
degree interfering with any of its other departments of 
science and cosmical reference, the Great Pyramid asserts 
its unexceptionable fitness to be a centre of uuthoriti 
and reference for weight measure also, and to all 
of all nations, living on the whole earth. 

IiTfumATioNAL AprNMntx TO Okbat pTHAMtti WstoaT Mbaidbm. 
Sfredilaiy Aunj Wtighl Mtiuitra. 

lontv I 

Ccmntrj or CitJ. 



Aii-k-Chjipdle . 



Augsburg . 

Hravy pouiid 
Li^ht pound 


Bmui" . 

Uvre. poidsden 



P<.u-d . 



Light pound 




Cuiarv IslundB 

I,ihra . . 


CaBS«l . 






CanstaocA . 



Comca . 









LivtB, poldB An D 


Frankfort . 




Light pound 


Hambarg . 




do. . . 


Kimi^Wg . . 





Liigs. . 



• Baa mr " Aatit^att} ot likHdaMtenLUw,' ' pp. 46S-4;fi. 






y. Numo of Weight. 

■Wrijrht in 
i:njrli?'Ji Uniins. 



' 7.1S0 

Lune))urg . 

do. . . . 

7.0 iO 


Livn*, poids do ana 


Libra . . . . 



. i Ki.tlolo 

! 7,144 


. ' P.mnd 



. - do. 



Cantaro pifM' »lii . 


Xpiifchatel . 

Livri', ]>oids ib* in-.irc . 

' 7. •>•>•> 

Oldenburg . 




I.iljbia, p<'S(i gros«»'j 







7,-.' IS 

Great Pyrami 

1 . ■ "Ponnd" • 

'. 7,212 

Uotterdam . 

. j Liglit pound 


St. Gall 



Spain . 

Ijibra . . . . 





Stralsund . 

. ( )l.i livre . 


Strasburg . 

Livnj . . . . 



I4ib])ni, ])f'SO gn.i>S') 


Ulm . 




do. . . . 


Wurzburg . 



ZpU . 

. 1 do. 



. ' Light pound 


Tho above forty-8«von n^markable nppnixinntiu'js in miny r'nintriMs 
to the Pyramid pound, arc cxtr.ictc'l cmt of a tiiMc nf 171 w- ii^bts (if all 
kinds; and thcorii^in, or cvntn* ot'diit'iiM-in of tli>- 7.-l.i u'm riM pitUTid, is 
pvid^ntly not to be nous^ht in any of th*> oIrtH:<ir»l ]iri»fa!i»' iiaii«in«*, Ibi* < »hl 
K tman pound having bi-en i-qual to from l.Osi toO.JK'i Kni:Ii>h t^rainji; 
tho Ancit'ut Gn-ek mina, fmui i>,lSl) to O.'.'iM Kir^liOi i;riiii'*; tht^ 
Pnaraonic Egyptian pound, or mini = S,;$04 ^lai .m; and tlic Ai- xan Irian 
Kt^'ptian miua = ti,K8ti Englidh grains. 




TITE have now arrived at the commercial arrangement 
' ' of the most important of all the measures of a 
nation ; at that one which requires practically to be 
attended to first, and which tea» first attended to, and 
secured with more than suffieitsnt accuracy, as well 
as with the grandest of suitable and harmonious cart.h- 
commensurahiUty in the Great PjTaraid ; viz., linear, 
or length, measure. 

The unit of this measure, at the Pyramid, is the inch j 
accurately the i5-,oSMJijjth of the earth's axis .of rotation ; 
approximately, a thumb-hreadth, to any man who has 
ever lived on the earth during tlie last four thousand 
years. In that long interval of anthropological time, 
what mighty empires, what varied races of men. and 
what languages too, have passed away from the fact 
of the world ! Therefore, of the present words and 
phrases, laws and customs, which rule in modem 
society, whether scientific, pohtical or commercial, 
which of them can expect to continue to control the 
actions of men for anything like a similar period to 
this rule of the inch ; or for the next forty centuries of 

A thumb-breadth, then, is no indifferent test-refer- 
(ince to every poor man, for realising when in haste the 
unit of his measme oj \gaylh.-. waA. faae^juift up 


identity in his works, with those of his fathers from 
earliest history, and even before liistory. ANHierefore it 
is only characteristic of the working men of Newcastle, 
according to the imintemled tej>timony of Sir William 
Armstrong before the British Association of 18G3, that 
they liave once more ]>ractically by their deeds and in 
their works, pronounced indubitably for the inch (an 
inch, too, decimally divided), wherever extreme accuracy 
is concerned. 

It was so in our olden tiuies as well ; viz., 
that th(j English unit was the inch, and not any of 
those larger measun^s, i>f yards la' iiiftres, which the 
wealthy have been endeavouring to gut established of 

The old Exchequer HtamlanU, spokt'u of in 1742, 
marked E for Queen p]li»ibeth, and supposed to date 
from 1580, were, as reportt'd at th«; tiui(\ oue a yard, 
and one an ell ; but that did not make cither the one, 
or the other, the unit of the counirv. Where the unit 
is small, the public standard nuist inevitably consist of 
a number of such units strung together ; and the 
incommensurability, except through their component 
inches, of that pair of measures laid si*le by sid«% the 
yard and the ell, might have renunded men in sub- 
sequent times of the true state of the ease. But no, 
the rich men and the lawyers were in power ; so the 
unit of the country during the last century — an«l until 
Sir John Herschel ten veal's aj'o bes^nn to advocate 
the national, hereditan', and seientitie claims as well, of 
the inch — has been taideavoured to be proelainu'd, the 
huge, anil unscientitic, or not earth-coniniensurable, 
quantity of, a yard. 

Tlmt the eflforts of the ruling classes have long Ix^en 
really directed to this end ; and that in making so 
much, as they have during late years be«'n th»ing, of the 
yard, they have iutvnded it as in itself a new \m\V,, mA 


it bniss 
of ^iPi 

not as a eonvenii'iit uuin'bcr wf tlio atiikMit small i 
units arranged together to suit a special purjHxte of 
eomuierce, the following words of the act (June 1824) 
sufficiently testify. 

" The straight line or distance between the centres 
uf the two points in the gold studs in the straight bniss 
rod, now in the custody of the clerk of the House a ~ 
Commons, whereon the words and figures itantUtrd j 
of 1760 are engraved, shall be, and the same is hei 
declared to be, the ori^uol and genuine standard of ti 
moasnro or lineal extension called a yard ; and that the 
same straight line or distance between the said two 
points in the said gold studs in the said brass rod, the 
brass being at the tempirature of 02° Fahrenheit's 
thermometer, shall be, and is hereby denominated, the 
imperwl standard yard, and shall be, and is hereby de- 
clared to be, the unit, or only standard measMire of 

Yet a yard-unit comes, even on the rich people; 
the country, rather awkwardly ; or they are s 
something still greater ; for the Aatronoinical Sodet 
new scale of 1835, as well as of those of Troughton,! 
George Shuckburgh, and others, were oftener o " 
feet than three. At three, liowerer, it has been i 
tually settled by the last ParHamentary com 
and at three feet it will legally remain imtil some j 
constitutional exertion bo made to rectify it. 

During all the time, too, that it has remained t 

* The commission of 1838 had been thorough enough to d 
the fullowing puinU: — 

A, Basis, urbitrsry or natiti&l, of the syitom of stenilarde. 

B, CouBtrui'lJUD of primary sUndards. 
0, Meani of nmloriug Ibe Blandards. 
D, Expediency of presetving one measure, to., ooalteriMl. 
U, Change uf scale of u-eighLa and nieasures. 

F, Alteration of the land-chnin and the mile. 

G, Abolition of Troy weight. 
H, Intrmluction of decimid scole. 
i, AMimilulioiL to "Con icalo at other couutiies, &c. 


a most artificial and naturally incommeusurable quantity 
with anything grand, noble, sublime, — there never 
seemed to be the slightest suspicion, until John Taylor 
announced it from his Great Pyramid studies, and Sir 
John Hersehel followed with scientitic coulirmations, 
that each of the HG inches of which the modern British 
Government's unit and standard yard is composed, 
contains within itself all that much desiderated physical 
applicability and scientitic perfection, — when each single 
British inch is, nlmost exactly, the l-5()0,000,000th of 
the earth's axis of rotation already referred to. 

Almost, only, not cjuite, at this present time ; for it 
requires 1001 of a modern liritish inch to make one 
such true inch of the earth and the Circat Pyramid. 
An extraortlinarily close apj)roach, even there, between 
two measures of length in ditVereut ages anil ditVerent 
lands ; and yet if any one should doubt whether our 
British inch can really be so dose to the ancient 
and earth-perfect measure, 1 can only advise him to 
look to the original documents, and see how narrowly 
it esca])ed being nuich closer ; and would have been 
so too in days, but that the Ciovernment othcials 
somewhere in the **unheroic'' eighteenth century allowed 
the ell-mcjisure, of eipial date and authority with the 
yard, and of a greater number of inches (45 to .SO), and 
therefon\ in so far, a more powerful standard, — to drop 
out of sight. 

The nioilern inch now in vogue amongst us, was 
derived from the Exchequer yard-standard, through 
means of Bird's ct)py in 1700 and other copies, and 
was then*fore intemled to be one (if the inches of that 
particular yard ; but the inches of th«» Kxchefpier ell 
were rather larger inches, and there w«ti» more of them ; 
so that if either standard was rightfully taken as the 
sole authority for the vuluc of an inch, \l ^\iv)\x\<i Wn^ 



been the ell. Now when these standards were vej 
accurately compared by Graham in 1743, before a lu 
deputation of the Royal Society and the Goveramai 
it was found that the Exchequer ell's 45 juci 
exceeded the quantity of 45 vuch inches as the '. 
chequer yard contained 36 of, by the space of 004i 
of an inch. A result, too, which was in the main « 
firmed by the simultaneous measures of anotl 
standard oil at Guildhall, with an exeeas of 0'0444l 
an inch, and the Guildliall yard with the excess 1 
0043+ of an inch. 

Keeping, however, only to the Exchequer standi 
ell ; and finding that it was not, after all. the Excheqtu 
yard, which was subsequently made (in Bird's copy) 
the legal standard of the country, that it was comjiared 
with, but a previous copy of it, and found in i74i 
to bo in excess by 00075 t of an inch, on the RoM 
Society's scale,-^we must subtract this quantity f 
the observed excess of the Exchequer ell ; and then \ 
get that its 45 inches were equal in terms of \' 
present standard inches of the country, to 45*0419. 

But 45 Pyramid inches are equal to 45045 mode) 
English inches ; whence it will be seen, that a F 
inch and an early English inch had a closeness to e 
other that almost surpasses belief, or of 1" to 0-9D99d 
and will cause every well-wisher of his country to a 
that the inch, must be preserved. Not only preson 
too, but, if possible, restored to its ancient, or PyramW 
value ; — when the following table of earth-commeninir- 
able lengths (in its now proposed divisions, I'hosen 
because appropriate to the Great Pyramid's numbers 

* ABtronomical Society's Momoin, voL ix. 

t ThU is the quantit)-, ot uboiit it, by whiob the liojrsl Sooiety's tcale 
Mid those doseendod firom tt exceed the Exchequer yurd, by whkt Mr. 
Boily calls "a very lai^e quantity ;" but he went la eight placn of 
docimnU of nil inch in hin measure, and he does not aeem, lUJWtuaately, 
Id iisve looked at the Exchet^uer all at oil. 



as well as suitable to human use and wont), would 
become possible to be the British measures in modem 
times also, and without dislocation to any of the more 
usual popular factors. 

Great Pyramid Length Measure. 

DiTiaioB. or nniii- 
bcr of each part 

tak tbr intuid 
IcBffth .StamUrd. 






T/mgth in 


cubit* or 


Lensrth in 



Nfiine now 

' prupoMi-d to be 


Eiirth'ri sonii- 


• 1 




•250,000,000- j 

axin uf rota- 






2.»n,o< 0. 


, 4,000 






r 40,000 

















• • 



Cubit or arm. 





. 250,000,000 













• • 



A small standard, viz., the foot of 12 inches, is left 
in place ; because, ahhough not evenly ortrth-coiuinensur- 
able, and inappn)2>riate, therrfon\ for scimtitic purposes, 
there is a large vulgar use for it ; and it is connected at 
one end, though not at the other, with tlu» rvramid 
system. Ami if we next compare all the mutually 
appro.\imating items with the Kritish, we shall have the 
following table : — 

Pyramid and British Linear Measi-re, 
Compared through the tcmporHry medium of British linear incht^. 

1 inch Pj'rainid = 

1 foot ,« = 

1 cuUit or arm „ = 


1 acrc-iiide 








1 mile 

I league „ — 

1 earth's ■emi-azie 
of rotation . =260,260,000000 

1 inch 6riti>h = 

1 fiwt „ = 

2 foot nilo ,, = 
1 rtnl „ := 
1 nm^-sidc,, = 
1 milu „ = 
1 loiu^ue ,. = 
1 earth's MMni-axla 

of rutiition . =, '250 ;loO ^'JiQ^'^^^ 



24 000 








Tlia tirat remark to be expressed on tliis tahle, 
very close approach of the acre-side of the Pyrai 
that of the Briti^ scale. It is a lengtJi which du 
nominally figure on the usual lineHr English 
though it exists through the square measure ; a 
without doubt, the most important largi 
iiu" which the whole community possesses ; 
is the invariable term in which aU the landed property 
of the country is bought, sold, and " deeded." 

As such an all-importaat quantity to this country, one 
oantiot at all understand how an acre was evsr estuMished 
by Government at such a very awkward proportion m 
the length of its side, to auy of our linear measures ; 
for the fraction wliiyh it gives, is rough to a degree : and 
yet, it «-ili be observed, that the Pyramid principle, 
hardly altering the real value to any sensible exi 
makes it. in its own inches, at once the easy quantil 
2,500 ; or in arm, i.e. cubit, lengths, 100. 


Nor does the advantage of the Pyramid principle 
here, for the mile contains 2,500, or 50 x 50, cut 
lengths ; and such a propoi-tUtn has recently become 
great a fe,vourite with Government, that they have com' 
menced a magnificent survey of Great Britain on pre- 
cisely this proportion, or l-2a00th of nature. 

lliis is by far a larger scale than either our own,' 
any other, country has ever been completely surv* 
on yet ; and infers such an infinity of drawing, copi 
and engraving, tliat it could positively never have 
thought of, even in wealthy Great Britain, but for 
previous invention, _/ir8( of photography to do all 
copying, and then of eleetrotypy to multiply the 
engraved copper plates. Hence the survey on the 
of l-2500th is a remarkahle public work of the pi 
time, and excites some curiosity to know how and 
tb&t proportAoa c8.iu)i U> W ado\ited. 

Chap. XIV.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 2 5 1 

Plainly 1-2500 docs not fonn any portion of the 
British imperial linear system ; and wlu^n we are oflicially 
told, tliat the proportion was ado2)ted to all<jw of tin*. 
map being on a scale of 25 inches to a mile, or 
becoming therel>y cajiablr of representin*^ an acre bv 
one s([uare inch, — we are quite assured (if the Ciovcrn- 
ment is still true to the kgal measures of the land}, 
that that is "txoi the reason ; for tlu; niaj) is nor. on 
that scale. It <V truly of the proportion of l-2")(K)th 
of nut It re; but that gives in tjie British nn.'trology, 
25'3-lr4 inches to a mile, and 1018 inches to an acre. 

Immense inconvenience, therefore, results to the 
component members of the British nation, that the 
gnmdest amd most costly survey of their country which 
they have ever paid for, anil which is now in inevitable 
progress whether they like it or no, — <loes unt tit in to 
their existing measures evenly, but carries these annoy- 
ing fractions along with it. 

Yet a single act of parliament adopting tlu^ IVramid 
measures for the country, — or, we might almost say, 
restoring the nation's here<litary measures to tlieir 
pro|K>r place, — would cause the map, without any altera- 
tions to it, to be at i»nce a map on the seale of 2't Ifgid 
British inches to the mile, an<l of one square l«'«ral 
British inch to the acn», without the smallest fraetiiin 
left over or under ; and would substituti' truth for 
falst^hood, on everv occasion when a Driton has hastilv 
to mention the great natitinal map of his country. 

In my first edition, I saitl that liritons might in liot 
haste stumble into that slovi-nlv an<l untruthful ern»r of 
si)eakinguf 2.i'344 inches, as lieing i.'iOOO inelies ; but 
I regret to have to add now, tliat Iarg«'rexi»erit'nee >ln»w> 
that tluy commit themselves <qually in their calmer mo- 
ments as well ; for in tlie Proittt/lHiff< of tin' Uinjul So- 
cittjf ofEdinhurt/h for the Svikslun 1 ^7 2-3, JWnI YV\\i\v^« 



[Pabt IIL 

the learned President Professor, Sir Bobert Christison, 
Bart, M.D. (and great for the introduction of the French 
metrical system, as well as for more accurate or con- 
venient weights and measures for British pharmacy and 
chemistry), one therefore who knows what exactness is, 
yet even he, from his presidential chair and in his in- 
augural address for the season, could continually speak 
of, and the Society subsidized by Government, could 
continually print on page after page, " the 25-inch 
maps of the Ordnance Survey ;" just as though those 
2o*34f4-inch Ordnance maps really and truly were on 
that other scale, in the existing inches of the present 
law of the land — as u^ll as in the inches of the ancient 
Great Pyramid, in favour of which the very popular 
President made then no mention. 

Inteiinational Appendix to Gueat Pviiamid Linear Mbabcrb. 
ITfreditary Cubit or " Cloth'' Measures. 

Country or City. 

Name of Linear MeaBurc 

Jjeti^Yi in 
BritiBh Inches. 

Aiz-la-Chapelle . 

Kll .... 



Pic . 


Alexandria . 

Pic . 



Turkish pic 





Antwerp . 

Woollen cU 



Long ell 






Ell . 



Ell . 


Betalfagni . 

(^uz . 



Woollen braccio . 


Cairo . 

Pic . . . 



Pic . 



Wl . . . 






Pic . 



Aune . 



Ell . . , 



Woollen braccio 


J do. 
1 Leghorn 

Silk braccio 








Ij^atb in 

L«rd.o . . 

Ell ... . 



Ell . 






Woollen bnic'io 



KB . . 



Mmccio . 



(loz . . 






Kll . . 



Anne . 



Kil . . 


Kll . . 



I-onKdl . 

23 70 

Kll . . 



Woollen Lrttccio 



Silk lirac'ciu 



Ctoth litaci-io 



Silk i>ic . 



(iuJie . 



Kll . 

24 -SU 



! 26-'S 

GrMtPjTunid ■ 

"Bacred cubit" 

1 2fi02 



1 2U-16 

St. Gall 

Cl.)th ell . 

1 24'1.'U 


HI . . 

1 2a':4 

BciM . . 

Short pic . 

1 2.'>'!l)l 


Ell : . 

1 25-112 

SlutR>rd . 

Ell . . 


Tuurcy . 

Ell . . 


Trent. . 

Uoth cU . 


Silk pU . 



Wooll-n ell 

' 26-60 


Silk dl 


TunU. . 

Wi.ollfn mt- 


Silknic . 

24 -HH 


Ann.- . . 



Woollvn lovrrio 

26 61 


Rilk hnnio 



WooUm. liretcio 


Silk braccio 


Viccnn . 

26 96 

Zanta. . 

Silk l«ccio 



Ah shown in onr toNe on puifo aJB, Bnd iU milis^nent (•xpHtvitieaifl 
la-iiifh foot sUndftrd inlioiiueea notable difficiiUiea into the eaitli-a 
moninmhlB nection of tlie Orpftt Pyramid Brranifeinpnl of long nie* 
And tiroposals have been bpforc the puhlic for scx-ornl j-entB, from U 
0)Tposite qunrtera too, rFqiiesting QoTerninant lo onuct n lO-Jndl Ir- 
the futnro lue of tlie nation. 

Such ft foot would Bvidently hannonise at on™ with oTtry b« 
the Fyrnmid ayslem ; but bow vould it suit the conrBnienoe ' 
workinn men, for whoeo purpose mainly tho foot seems Ui b»V8 l 
orifrinBlly introducod, and u atiU kept up ? 

We have nlrwidy seen in th« note on pugs 27. Chuptor ITT., that 13_ 
natural or nuked foot of miui is bnroly lO'S inchei long, though the ahoed 
Hnd booted foot of civilised man may be toelve incbefl or more; and 
indeed, in Kirae parts of ewitzBrlanil and Qermany. their lociU ntetrolugioa) 
tablte itatn Uist twelve inches make, not a foot, but a " schuh " or abae. 
TheTB need be no surprise, IhercfOTe, to find, that tn-o aoparvte foot mea- 
Bures have long bees hnnwnamongal mankind, one oftbemaTera^ngtwelre 
Rugligh inches long, nnd the other ten, thongh atil] almost loTHriably 
divided into twelve paits, or small inehea of its own : in the foot of the 
one cose, its length whs twelve Ikumh breadths, and in the other, tiretT« 
,rAvv- breadths, approximately. The ancient Roman foot (11-62 Engiiili 
indiea long nearly) was evidently of the farniBr class: ai wm likewise the 
Greek Olympio foot, g^nemlly known as the Oisek (oat p«mftlltMr», and 
= 1211 English inrbeg; though Greecf- hnd also another foot standard, 
termed the Pythic foot, which was only 9'75 English inohes long- 
But in mediiHTal and modam. or Saxon, Nonnan, and British times, 
biiroanity senmB to have declared i fself nnmistnkonbly for the larger foot. 
So that in Dr. Kelly's list of all t)ie oommorcial peoples known to Great 
Britain in 1821 (see hia Vnii-eriai Csmiiat, vol. li., p. 344). wMIe ten of 
Ibem have feet ranging between 9'50 and ID'EIS English inchee, no leu 
than aerenty-four are found to have feel whose length* are eomprued 
somewhere between 110 and IS'O «f the same inches. 

Hence, if any alterations should be made in f^itare time to earth-oom- 
menaurate the Pj-ramid foot, as now imagined = 12-013 English inches, 
it should rather be in the direction of making it = 12*5, than lO'O, 
Pyramid inches; and no harm would be done in either case, so long as the 
value of the inch was not interfered with. 

The ancient idolatrous Egyptians of the Fbaraonic period do not appsaz 
to h*ve had any foot measure; hot, for all linear purpos«a, to t 
invariably used their well-known profane cubit = 2l}-7 English iniL 
long: doubling it snmetimea aa the royal or Kamak cubit, which II 
then = 41*4 English inches. In subsequent Greek AleiandnMI Sm 
those Kgrptians both employed, perverted, and mixed up with their cr 

sundry measures of Greece, and may then ha«e bad feet, as veil as an 

cubita = 1'5 fool ; but Ihfse hybrid and short-lLvod standards are by no 
means north our while now to enquire into, fur Alexandria of the 
PlolemieB, never very ancient, baa long ainee been deservedly dead and 
buried ; while the present Alexandria is n difletent city, inhabited by ^ 
differently denuendeil pE?oplo, and professing a totally diiferent religion. ,' 






AlMp«ch . . . 

t'<M — 12 . 


AuK>bur|r . . . 

Foot ^ 12 . 

Aortm, Vienna . 

Zi.ll ■. . . . 


buil . . . . 

F.wt-^12. . 


Bdgium . . j 

[*»t ill tntdicJoiis und 

hmKU,.Rv too. 

B<>rUii . . . 

K-H -i-Vl. . . 


B<-n... . . . 

Z<dl .... 


riLiiRiiit . 


(^.l^mb^rg . . . 

Foot -H 12. . . 


ClevM . . . 

F..ot-l2. . . 


Uoiimnrk . . . 

Tomin.. . . . 


I':md«n . . 



Fnmce (.>!d.T .y-l^yi). 



VTOMxlMtlimtH^tfl), j 



IIMU . . ) 

Fmnie (in<>dGm) 

H.n««.i . . . 

Z..11 ; . . . 


Holland . . . 


ln.pnick . . . 

Fwit ^ 12 . 


K.im4.berK . . 

FlK>t— 12. 


Ujden . . . 

F.-.t^l2. . . 


iMn^tMl-Vi. . 


LQWk . . . 

Z.dl .... 


Lucmie . . . 

S.-huh -^ 12 . . 


M'd'llekurf; . . 

Kiml -r IJ . . . 


Stufchatol . . . 

Fuut -:. 12 . . . 


KoTway . . . 
NSremtarg . . 

■riim .... 


F.™t -j- 12 . 

n-i>!i: 1 

OIUenbiiTB . ■ . 

Fo..l -:. 12 . . . 

Km ... . 

1'<.I.„..^12 . . 

O'lWB ' 

Purtiig.1 . . . 

l'..U..ff„d« . . . 

1 -iiMi 

Pn«ue . . . 

K0..I-12. . . 


[>ni«ia, up t« ISr^ . 

Z..11 .... 


du. rince WVl . 

Onat Pyruaid - 

"lach" . . . 


Rhineland . 

Foot -i- 12. 



Fikit^ia . 








Und UA -^ 13 . . 



T»ra .... 


Zurich . . . 

ZoU .... 






A S already shown, no system of weights and measures 
•^ can be comi>lete without a reference to heat, and 
its power of altering the dimensions of all bodies. It 
would appear too, that, next to the very existence of 
matter, heat is the most important inHueuee or condi- 
tion in creation ; and, since the rise of the modern 
science of tliermo-dynamics, which looks on heat as a 
form of motion, the measure of heat is the first step 
from statics to dynamics, which is the last and truest 
form of all science. 

A " thermometer " is therefore one of the most widely 
essential of all scientilic instruments, and there is pro- 
bably no modem science which can advance far without 
its aid : unless indeed assisted by some somi-natund 
method of securing one constant refereni'e temperature, 
for all its observations ; but which is seldom the case 
in modem observatories. Yet the themionn'ter in Eng- 
land, though there so doubly necessary, has lieen 
allowed to remain in a most unsjitisfactorv guise, lliat 
is, its scale is generally ridiculed over all continental 
Europe, as being botli inconvenient in practice, and 
founded in error, in so far as the notion of that worthy 
man, Mynhei^r Fahrenluiit, touching absolute cold, is 
seen every winter to bo a mist{ik<», whenever U\s \\\ot- 
mometer Acscends below its carefuUy-mark^jd xcto \ 




iRPTl ft* ^ 

while the all-important point of the freezing of 
is left at the not very signal, but certainly rather 
inconvenient, number of 82°; and the boiling-point at 
the not more convenient one of 212S 

Many, therefore, have been the demands that 
should adopt either the German Reaumur, or the Freni 
centigrade, i.e., originally the thermometer of Celsius 
in terms of any of which, water freezing ninxks 0' ; and 
all degrees telow that notable point, are negative ; 
above, positive. 

The proposed change has, except in a few chi 
circles, been strenuously resisted, because — 

1st. The anomalous absolute numbers chosen ftif 
freezing and boiling on Fahrenheit's scale, do not inter- 
fere with the accuracy of thermometers so naarked, when 
due allowance is made for them. 

2nd. It has been against the principle of most British 
scientific men hitherto, in their diflerent weights and 
measures, to have them showing a natural standanl in 
themselves ; but only to have their proportion to the 
said natural standards numerically determined, and 
then recorded in writing elsewhere. 

3rd. This system has been carried out in its intej 
in Fahrenheit's thermometer when it is writtrai, 
180 even subdivisions shall exist between freezing anfl" 
boiling ; and the commencing number for freezing shall 
be 32°. 

4th. In the fact that the distance between freezing 
and boiling is divided into 180 parts in Fahrenheit's 
thermometer, but only 100 in the French thermometer 
and 80 in the German instrument, eminent advanti^ 
is claimed for eveiy-day purposes ; even among the 
chemists too, as well as all other members of the com- 
munity, — because a greater number of different stoMV, 
of terapf'rature can be quoted in even degrees withi ^ 
reference to fractions ot a itigtee \ ond — 


Ghap.XY.] the great pyramid. 259 

5tlL It is said that the proposed change would be 
subversiye of all ordinary ideas of steady-going indi- 
viduals as to what the new numbers really meant ; 
because, what honest country gentleman would appre- 
ciate in his heart that a temi)erature of 40°, when a 
French system should be established amongst us, meant 
a summer heat of 104° Fahrenheit ? 

Some of these objections have weight, but others are 
of doubtful importance ; and in all that can be said 
about the British scientific 2)rinciple (as established by 
government) not founding its measures on natural 
standards direct, — that has not only been well-nigh dis- 
established by the recent outcry of many noisy mem- 
bers of the commercial, and chemical, i)arts of the 
nation for the modem scientifically devised French 
units ; but is proved to be baseless for our nation's 
early, and more than historic, origin ; by reason of 
the real British length-unit, the inch, having been 
found, after all, to be an even round fraction of the 
earth's semi-axis of rotation. 

The ultra-scientific and most highly educated up- 
holders too of Fahrenheit, have, in the instance of the 
best practical zero of temperature, received a notable 
correction from the poorer classes of our land ; the very 
classes for whom alone all working measures should be 
primarily arranged ; for ever}- gardener, and i»robably 
every ploughman who thinks of such things at all, is 
accustomed in liis daily toil to sj)eak of the more rurally 
important and biologically trying cases of tcmj)erature, 
not in terms of Fahrenheit's scale by any means, but as 
so many " degrees of frost " or " heat." 

The practical importance, therefore, of having the 
British thermometrical zero at the fret.*zing-j)oint of 
water, is thus incontestably proved, and from the 
light quarter ; while, if it be desirable, as no doubt 
it is desirable, to have the space from iteexvu^ \^ 



boiling divided into a greater number of degrees 
than either the French or German systems ofFer,- 
why then, let the nation take for the spactt 
tween th& two natural water units, not even the II 
of the honest Dutehman, Fahrenheit, but the 250 
the Great Pyramid scale ; for by so doing, not only will 
they reap tliat one advantage above-mentioned to a still 
greater extent ; but they will suffer less shock, as it 
were, in their feelings, when talking of summer tem- 
peratures, than even if they retained the size of the 
Fahrenheit degrees, but placed the at freezing ; as 
simply illustrated by the following numbers, giving the 
same absolute temperatures in terms of livo difterenl 
thermometric scales : — 










But now for the finishing off of this last temperati 
scale, in the manner in which the Pyramid systeou i 
often ends with reference to the four sides of 
and to the first four simple sections of such a Pyrami4| 
Multiply, therefore, the 250° of water-boiling by 
making 1,000°, and where are we landed ? 

At that most notable and dividing line of heat, whei 
it causes bodies to begin to give out light ; and r 
tered with confidence by the Diffusion of Useful Know 
ledge Society in vol. ii. of their Natural PhUosopkA 
p. 63, under title of " Iron Bright Red in the Dark," i 
being 752° Fahrenheit, which amounts to 1,000" of t! 
Pyramid precisely. And multiply this 1,000° again \ 
5, and where are we? At 5,000° of the Pyramid, ( 
that glowing white-hot heat, where the modem chem 

Chap.XY.] the great pyramid. 261 

of several nations would place the melting-point of the 
most dense and refractory of all metals, platinum. Or 
descend again to — 400° Pyramid, and we find a point 
r^^arded by some existing chemists as the absolute 
zero of temperature : though natural philosophers are 
more inclined to prefer their theoretical base of the air 
thermometer at — 682° Pyramid ; but as none of them 
have yet approached nearer than about half-way thereto, 
no man among them knows what physical obstacles 
may lie in the untried portion of their path. And 
there may not improbably be many. 

Thus the French metrical temperature reference was 
originally intended by its exceedingly scientific authors, 
admirable for their day, to have been the freezing-point 
of water ; on the arithmetical and mathematical, rather 
than phj'sical and experimental, conchision — that they 
would find water in its densest condition when coldest, 
or immediately before passing into the state of ice. 
But lo 1 when they began to experiment, nature refused 
to be bound by human ideas, and water was discovered 
to be of the greatest density at a very sensible distance 
of heat above freezing, or at 39°* 2 Fahrenheit. 

When this discovery was once made, able men found 
in it a most beneficent influence to promote the ameni- 
ties of human life upon the surface of the earth ; seeing 
that but for the anomalous ex})ansion of water with cold, 
when the temperature descends below 30^*2 Fahr., our 
lakes and rivers would freeze at the bottom instead of 
the top; and would, in fact, accumulate beds of ice below, 
until in the winter they became entirely solid blocks ; 
which blocks no summer sun would be able to do more 
than melt a small portion of the surface of, to be inevi- 
tably frozen hard again the next cold night, to the 
destaiction of all the fish. 

The discovered fact, however, of w\\at tcaSX^ ^<t 


take plac?, when water approaches the freezmg-point, 
had tlie inconvenience of utterly breaking up the 
uniformity of the Acadomy's arrangements for tem- 
perature reference in the French metrical system. Rl 
the Parisian philosophers still desired to refer 
observations to freezing ; yet could not but con* 
BCientiously admit the superior propriety, at least for 
all measurements wherein the density of water entered, 
of employing their newly-corrected temperature 
SQ'.a Fahr., rather than their former 32° Fahr. 

Accordingly, at pi^e 21 of " Boscoe's Lessons 
Chemistrj'," where the best possible face is put \\\ 
French measures for the British nation, we are toM that 
the French unit of weight is a cubic centimetre of water 
at a temperature of 4° cetitigrade. But at pt^e 147, a 
table of specific gravities is given, where it is stated that 
water at the temperature of 0° centigrade is to be 
taken as unity. And no temperature reference at all 
appears for length measure ; perhaps because the aui 
knew that that is just now, for the metre of 
Archives, an uncertain quantity somewhere betweett'. 
6° and 12° C. 

Again at pages 361 and 362 extensive tables are for- 
mally given of comparisons between the English and 
French measures of all kinds (descending, where weight 
is concerned, to the sixth place of decimals of a grain), 
but no mention at all is made either of temperature or 
atmospheric pressure for any of them ; though the 
former condition must vary occasionally by 60°, and the 
latter by the extent of the whole atmosphere. 

In fact the too learnedly artificial and bungled cha- 
racter of the French temperature and pressure references 
is such, that they cannot, in practice, look the light of 
day, much less that of science, in the face ; while they 
are, above all thinga, aud for other reasons as well, 
totally unsuitable to t\ie ■«otV\w^ -oiaai. X«a. 


t all_ 

L coiuui^^— 


for instance, attempt or pretend to use them in 
practice, without breaking their most important pro- 
visions continually ; as well as introducing huge errors, 
such as the omission or introduction of the whole 
atmosphere, and all for the purpose of guarding 
against mere microscopic errors depending on minute 
and almost totally insensible variatiuns of the atmo- 
sphere as it exists about us. 

On this unhappy doctrinaire French system, strictly, 
if there should arise a difference of opinion in society, or 
at a market, as to which is the longer of two measuring- 
rods, or which is the heavier of two weights, you must 
carry both of them away from what they were being 
employed for, and bring the rods down by any {)ossible 
metliod to the 6"* or 1 2"^ C. point, and place the weights 
by some difficult and expensive contrivance in a vacuum 
at a temperature of 0° C, or perliaps 4° C. Ik)th of these 
being out-of-the-way conditions where no one wants to 
use either rods or weights ; and where you niaiy find that 
their relations to each other (from different ixites and 
characters of heat exjmnsibility) are actually and totally 
different from what they were at any of the degrees of 
natural temperature, which they were being really and 
practically used in ; and which degrees never differ 
much from tlieir mean quantity all the year through. 

Indeed the extreme narrowness of the range both of 
temperature and atmospheric pressure, witliin which all 
the best, and the most too, of human work is perfonnod, 
and can only flourish, — has begim at last to excite 
intelligent and interested attention. Wherefure tlms, 
an able and scientific American author, )Ir. Clarence 
King, holds forth, in his recent book entitled '* Jiloun- 
taineering in Sierra Nevada," Qdifoniia, — on pressure, 
when he has descended to tlie inhabited plain couilU'j 
from the high and snowy flanks of Mount v^Yisw&X;^^ \ — 


ed us intd^^ 


" The heavier air of this lower level soothed us ii 
a pleasant laziness (frame of mind) which lasted over 
Sunday, resting our strained muscles and opening the 
heart anew to human and sacred influence. If we are 
sometimes at pain when realising witliin what narrow 
range of latitude mankind reaches finer development, — or 
how short a step it is, from tropical absence of spiritual 
life, to dull boreal stupidity, — it is added humiliation lo 
experience our still more marked limitation in altitudt. 
At fourteen thousand feet, or with 17 only, in place of 
30, inches of atmospheric pressure, little is left me 
but bodily appetite and impression of sense. The habit 
of scientific observation, which in time becomes one 
the involuntary processes, goes on as do heart-heat 
breathing; a certain general awe overshadows the mi 
bxit on descending again to lowlands, one after anol 
the whole riches of the human organization come ' 
with delicious freshness." 

By what insane impulse then could it have been, 
the pliilosophers of Paris did not accept their position 
on the earth, under the atmosphere, as given them by 
God ; and instead of thankfully making the deltghtfiil 
mean annual temperature and wholesome mean annual 
pressure of the atmosphere on and in their abodes, the 
national references for those features in all matters 
their metrology, — they must rush oft' to a. horribly 
ling and actually freezing zero ; to a theoretical al 
of all vital atmosphere ; and to a host of physical 
culties which they have not even yet completely o' 
come or got out of the maze o£ 

Or by what mere flock' of-sheep impulse of irratioi 
following, is it, that now our own scientiflc men, and thi 
meteorologists among them more particularly, having 
made their own barometrical observations between 51 
and 90° in-doors, and having received others 
abroad also con&iied 'v\xXu&. \!^\« %Bsa» Umits o£ 


perature, can think of no other mode of bringing them 
v^ to one common point of comparison, than by carry- 
mg every one of them right away to the distant and 
outside fireezing-point ; and applying for that purpose 
80 large a correction to the numbers read off from each 
barometer, that the original observer fails to recognise in 
his computed observations those standard heights of 
quicksilver which he used to identify in his daily experi- 
ence with particular conditions of weather, or warnings 
of approaching storms ? 

But all these anomalies arc so hap2)ily corrected by 
the Great P^'ramid system, that its primeval Author 
must surely have had more real regard for humanity, 
than all Xia^m^vanU and doctrinaires of the first French 
Revolution put together. For the mighty building of 
old, being founded on the 30th parallel of latitude, is rft 
once in the approximate temperature and verj- approxi- 
mate atmospheric pressure of the middle zone of either 
hemisphere of the earth ; and as the iso-barals equally 
with the iso-thermals, are much broader there, than in 
any other latitude, — that 30° zone represents the climatic 
conditions of a larger part of the earth than any other 
possible zone ; and being also the panillel which has in 
either hemisjihere an equal amount of surface bt»tween 
it and the Pole on one side, and between it and the 
Equator on the other, it cannot help being somewhere 
very near to a golden mean betwe(?n the far too hot 
tropics, and the far too cold arctic and antarctic circles ; 
— ^while at the same time it receives more sunshine, 
more vivifying influence to man than any other latitude, 
by reason of its paucity of clouds, combinetl with the 
high solar altitude. (See the Maps in my '* £([ual Sur- 
&ce Projection.") 

That paucity of clouds in latitude SO** l)eiug W^eyVj 
due to the trade-wind influence, is accom\>ai\\^OL \^^ r 



barometric pressure which, in that latiiiKlo and at 
surface of the sea, reaches there its terreatrial inaxivi 
rather than vican quantity ; — but then come into 
the elevation both of the King's Chamber in the 
Pyramid, and of the Pyramid on its own hill-top, wl 
correct that small excess of pressure ; as likewise 
the same elevation fact, the rather too great tem] 
ture of Egypt generally, for the Pyramid Standard ; 
land being situated in one of the lonffitiules rather 
lalitiiden of extra development of warmth.* 

But this total hypsometrical elevation of 4,297 in' 
above the sea level, corrects the King's Chamber's 
of atmospheric mean temperature, to what, — in the 
of natural temperatures ? 

To the temperature firstly of one-fifth exactly 
freezing to boiling of water ; and secoudiy, to the i 
temperatmre of all the anthropological earth. The eTiHre. 
earth has a surface temperature rather lower than one- 
fifth ; but such entire earth includes Polar lands in 
either hemisphere which are not, and cannot, and never 
will be, permanently occupied by man. Lands too, 
which with their long Arctic nights ignore the PyramJi 
very first and foundaliooal teaching, or of solar 
numbering 3Go'24i2 to the length of the year. 

There is therefore no more occasion for taking thos? 
uninhabitable, and uninhabited, lauds' tem]>eratures 
into account, when deciding on the one temperature to 
which all living men shall refer tlieir science, their 
metrology, aud their commerce, than for our most 
learned meteorologists, working in pleasantly warmed 
rooms, carrying all their barometric observations away 
to 32° Fahr. actually; while our good friends tlie 
Russians^ — who kuow what cold is far too well to court 
it unnecessarily — reduce tlieir barometric observaU< 

> Seemyi'Tnalliiwcm.'&^'UbL^iariiKftTii^jEattaB," UTO. 




to 62^ Fahr. ; a most praiseworthy approach to the 68** 
Fahr. of the Great Pyramid, but without any eosmical 
reason in its special favour. 

And on making such very proper Polar exception 
in our earth-surface enquiry, the mean temperature 
of all man-inhabited countries appears to be, the very 
same beneficent and most suitable quantity as that 
of the Great Pyramid ; whose sptem of numbers 
enables us now to express its standard quantity 
of i of temperature, by 50**; or the very number 
already made out as specially belonging to the 
Eing^s Chamber itself, where temperature reference is 
most required. Hence we are now Pyramidically justi- 
fied in giving, in the general table on j). 268 (derived 
as to its items from various modern sources expressed 
in Fahrenheit and Centigrade), the numbers which 
would be read off for those phenomena, so imjmrtaht 
for the progress of civilization and man, upon any well- 
graduated Pyramid thermometer soon, it is hoped, to 
be constructed. 


No sooner has man in the course of his scientific 
development begun to contemplate the skies, than he 
feels the necessity of having angular, as well as, or even 
rather than, linear, measure to refer to for distances ; 
and the same demand for angular measure is soon 
afterwards ex{)erienced in each of the purely terrestrial 
sciences as well. 

Therefore it was, that the French BavanU of the 
Revolution attempted to introduce into their decimally- 
ananged metrical system an anyular graduation where 
the quadrant contained 100, and the whole circle 400, 
dq^rees. But, after trying it for some yeai^, \\\e^ VaiS 
to give it up; for the influence of " Great Tiaii^VM 






30 inches, except when otherwise stated. * 



on Salt. 


PUtinam meltg . 


Wood spirit boils 


Wrought inm melta . 

Potassium melte 



Yellow wBi melte . 


Steel' malts " . 


Greatest obserred Hbade^ 


temperature . . j 

Ourt iron melts . . 


Stesrine melts . 


„ grey, malts 



,. white .. . . 


Pynunid . . j 

Gold, pura, malW 


„ alloved as in RoinagB 


Ether, common, bott* 



Copper melU . . . 


Blood hBHt . . . 



Silver, pure, melLe . 


Butler and lard melt 



Brouze melU ' . 


Mean temperatnre at 1 


Sulphur boils . 


Pyramid temp.=Til 


Antimony melts 


Uean temperature 


Zina melts 


both of aU lands in- \ 
habited by man, and 



Irin risible in the dark '. 


of the most suitable 

Moroury boils . 


degree to man . i 


Elhor boils 



Mean tempiraturo of) 


Leadraells . . . 


London '^ . . J 




Phosphums boils 


at Pyramid . . ) 

BiBmnthmellfl . 


Water freezes , 

Water boils under 20atino-'> 


Freezing mixture, mow I 
and salt . . . j 


'!/'™ .. ■ IJi „". 


SiUphurio add freeaes 


10 ,. . 


Meraury freeM« . . 


6 .. . 


Greatest Arclio cold ei-' 


Spirits of turpentine boils . 


Acetic acid boils . . 


Grmlest artificial cold. 


Sulphur melU . 




Wambdoim . . . 


bonic dignlphide, in 



Sodium melts . . . 



BeOBol boils 


Absolute zero ' r&Iiliw's 
Chemistry) . . J 



Alcohul, pure, boila . 




Theoretical base of air) 


Stearic acid melts 




White wax melb 


pying no space at all ! ) 






Ckit. XY.] 



which had originally invented, and then fixed on the 
worid, our present sexagesimal system, or 3G0° to the 
circle, and 60 minutes to the degree, was too powerful 
for modem Paris to contend successfully against. 

But there could have been no more community of 
feeling or idea between most idolatrous Babylon and 
the totally non-idolatrous Great Pyramid in their 
goniometry, than in their methods of astronomical 
orientation, which we have already seen were entirely 
diverse. What system, then, for angle was employed 
at the Great Pyramid ? 

A system apparently of 1,000° to the circle ; 250** to 
the quadrant. 

This conclusion is deduced from the following features 
at the Pyramid. 

(1.) The angle of rise of the Pyramid's flanks, and 
the angle of descent or ascent of its passages, are both 
very peculiar angles, characteristic of the Great Pjra- 
mid ; and though rough and incommensurable on either 
the Babylonian, or French, or any known vulgar system, 
are in a practical way evenly commensurable on the 
Pyramid system. 

Ptkamid Fiatubb. 

Ststsm or AxoLB Mbascsbs. 





A whole cirCDmferenco 
Angle of tide with) 
koriioii . . . .j 
Angle of pniiMgee 

60" 61' 14" 
26* 18' 10" 



I oca* ! 


2. Whereas the King's Chamber has been in a 
manner utilized as the chamber of the standard of 50, 
and the Queen's as that of the standard of 25, and are 
both of them witnessed to by the number of the 
Pyramid courses on which tliey stand, the su\>l^tT\i»\v»Qa 




chamber may be considered the chamber of angTilar 
measure ; and does,* at its centre, view the whole 
I^rramid side, at an angle of 75" 15' 1" Babylonian, 
but 209° '03 Pyramid. And though there are now 
only 202, there are shown to have been in the origina] 
finished Pyramid somewhere between 208 and 212 
complete masonry courses ; or agreeing, within the limits 
of error of those researches, with the angular result of 

3. And then there follows a useful practical result 
to Navigation, and its peculiar itinerary measure, the 
" knot," or nautical, or sea, mile ; viz., the length of a 
mean minute of a degree of latitude. 

At present there is much inconvenience from the 
large difference in lengtli between our land and sea 
miles ; for they measure 63,360- and 72,984- inches 

But, granted that a Pyramid knot shall be l-2ath 
part of a Pyramid degree, — then the raspective lengths 
of a PjTamid land and a Pyramid se* mile will be the 
nearly approaching quantities, in inches, of 62,500- and 

The French metrical system included 7jkhi«j/; 
its firanes, issued accordingly, have deluged the worl 
to such an extent, that when a prize was recently pi 
posed to all nations by the British sovereign, for a cer- 
tain artistic manufacture to be competed for at the 
South Kensington Museum of Science and Art, the 
money value of that prize was publicly advertised in 
" francs." 

"Wherefore many inquirers have demanded, "What 
about money on the Pyramid system?" 

• Bee mj ** Life Mid Work," vol. iii. p. 208. 



I can only answer them, that I have not been able 
to find out anything about that subject in the Great 

But is that to be wondered at ? Only look at any 
piece of money whatever : whose image and superscrip- 
tion does it bear ? Tliat of some earthly Ciesar or other. 
Therefore is money of the earth, earthy ; i./?., in the 
sense of dust and ashes, human corruption and speedy 
passing away. But all the (iroat Pyramid measures 
hitherto investigated, being evenly commensurable in 
every, either with the dt^p things of this planet 
world, or the high things of hoavon above, are to be 
considered as impressed rather with a typical effigy of 
some of the attributes of the creation of God ; and we 
may find their purity, and almost ett^niity, presently 
borne testimony to by a closer and more direct link of 
connection still. 


Time is an admitted subject in every good system of 
metrology ; and yet is it an absolute imponderable ; 
one, too, of which, says the moralist, we take no 
account but by its loss. And if this be true, how all- 
important for us to know ** how much there is of it ;" 
especially how much still remains, of that finite section 
already told off by the Eternal, to witness the present 
manner of dominion, perhaps trial, of men upon the 

Just now these questions are above unaide<l man's in- 
tellect : and though the meta2>hysicians, following up 
their verbal disquisitions on the infinity of i*iMxce, desire 
to make out also an absolutelv infinite extension of 
tifnu^ and that both for time past and time to come, — 
the researches of the scientists are more to our purpose, 
for they dwell rather u])on the unlimVtt^d dlvi«\Vil\\^| 




^^^ (iesl 

of time, Divide it. for instouce, into ever such minul 
portions, and it is time still ; and not like the chei 
cal elements of matter, which, after a certain amoui 
of subdivision, exhibit, to the mathematician, their eoi 
ponent molecules with totally dift'erent properties ft 
what are possessed by laryur portions of the substancf 

But whether time be long or short, and past, fiiti 
or even present, the human senses, unassisted 
reference to the material world, are far more liable 
error in this, than in any other branch of all metrology; 
To some men, time shps away almost unheeded, unim- 
proved, too, until the end of life itself comes ; while 
with others, time is regarded as the most precious of all 
the usable gifts to men. With lime and plenty of il 
what splendid achievements may be realized ; 
into a short time, how much cai% be packed away. W] 
the involuntary action of our thinking system, even 
exceeds the utmost straining of our voluntary efforts in 
matters of time ; so that a single second between sleep- 
ing and waking has enabled a nrnn to pass, without di 
siring it, through the multitudinous experiences of 
long and eventful life. 

On one side, again, in the study of time, the Natural 
History sciences give us the sober biological warning, 
that man, as he exists now, in materially uninterfered- 
with possession of the earth, is not going to last fc 
ever ; for there is a settled length of time for the whol 
duration of a species, as well as the single life of 
individual therein. But on the other side, the too ex- 
clusive study of certain of these very sciences has led 
their out-and-out votaries, in late years, to talk more 
fiippantly of time than of anything else under 
sun, A few hundred thousand millions of years 
cordingly are at one instant created, and at anotheK 
destroy^ or at another still totally disregarded 
aome of these gentlemen, accordingly as their theori 

I au 
f i^H 






of the hour prompt them : and it is ouly the astronomer 
who stands up in rigid loyalty to this real creation by 
God alone, and tells mankind that time, is one only ; 
that it is the chief tester of truth and error ; and even 
down to its minutest subdivisions, it cannot be dis- 
regarded. The same eclipse, for instance, of sun by 
moon, as seen from the same place, cannot occur at two 
different times, only at one time ; and that one epoch 
18 capable of the sharpest definition, even down to a 
ftaetional part of a second. 

To astronomy thercfoi'e only, of the modem sciences, 
can we reasonably look for some safe guidance in the 
pfactical measuring of time. 

In the broadest sense, time is said to be measured by 
the amount of movement of some body moving at an 
eqoable rate. And the most equable motion by far, 
the only motion that has not sensibly varied within the 
period of human history, is, I might almost say, the 
&yourite, and fundamental, Pyramid phenomenon of, 
the rotation of the earth upon its axis. 

Not that even ihit movement is absolutely uniform 
through all possible time, in the eye of theory ; but 
that, tested practically in the most rigid manner, or by 
the determination of the length of a aid^Tcnl day, no 
alteration has been perceived either by practical or 
physical astronomy during the 2,300 years. The 
next most equable movement, too, but of far longer 
period, is a secular consequence of that diurnal rotation, 
combined with a disturbing element ; producing thereby 
the "precession of the equinoxes ;" whose whole cycle 
is perf^nned in about nine and a half millions of these 
days, or turnings of the earth upon its own axis l>cfon' 
a distant fixed star ; and of which grand cycle not more 
than aisixth part has been perfonned yet, within all 
the period of huzaau history . 



But though these two phenomena, — the sidereal day, 
and the precessional period, of the earth, may be the 
grand storehouses for reference in the regulation of time 
for high science, — some easy, simple, yet striking mottiti- 
cation of each is required for the practical purposes of 
man in general. And then comes in the evident pro- 
priety of using, for the shorter period, a solar, rather 
than s sidereal, defined day ; and in place of the exees- 
fiiTely long precessional period, the more moderate one 
of a year, i.e., the time of the earth's revolution round 
the sun ; though that is a movement experiencing many 
minute perturbations ; and at the present period of de- 
velopment of the universe, is by no means a nearly even 
multiple of the other movement, whether we define 
year by reference to either sidereal ewm, solar, or pi 
solar, phenomena. 

ile t^l 

These are points on which it is well worth while 
spend a few more words, in order to try to make 
case clearer to those of our readers who desire it. 
us begin then with the days. 

As the sidereal day is defined, in apparent astronomy, 
to be the interval elapsing between a star leaving the 
meridian of any place, through the earth'3 diurnal motion, 
and returning to it again ( + an excessively small correc- 
tion for the precessional movement in the interval) ; so a 
solar day is the time elapsing between the sun being on 
the meridian of any one place and returning to it again; 
and that portion of time is equal to a sidereal day + the 
amount, measured by the rate of solar motion, that 
the sun has, in that interval, apparently retrograded 
among the stars, by the really onward motion of the 
earth in its ceaseless orbit around that splendid light 
and heat-dispensing sphere. Hence a solar day is loi 
than a sidereal one, and in such proportion, that 





year contain 365^ of the fonnor, it will contain rouijhly 
366^ of the latter. 

When absolute diurnal equality is ro(|niriHl froiu ilay 
to day, the solar days have to go throuurh a riMiiputation 
formula to reduce them from real skAiw davs las tlicv 
may appear to an obsener, and tluTrfon* alst» trailed 
apparent) to menn solar days ; or the siu*ci'ssivt' ]»lact*s 
that the sun would occupy in X\\v sky if, in jilact^ of the 
earth revohnng in an elliptical orl)it >vith a variable 
velocity, it revolved in a circular <>rbit with a iMMistant 
Telocity, the time of a whoh* revolution remaining the 
same. But as this is onlv a residual i'onv(*tion, 
which does not alter the be<'innin<' «»r rndini; of tlie 
year at all, or the beginning or landing «if any day 
sensibly to the mere beholder of tlu^ genrnil fratnrcs of 
nature, — we may at once contrast the sidereal and tJie 
solar days together, as to their relativi* ajititudes to 
promote the greatest good of the greatest numher uf 

Of the beginning of a sidereal day, then, hardly m<>re 
than a dozen persons in the kingdom are aware ; and, as 
it begins at a diftcrcnt instant of solar timt^ ea(*h day (in 
the course of a year passing through the wh«)le *2\ hours), 
even those few JoctrimiirvM can only inform flunisi'lves 
of the event, by looking at their watch«*s under due 

But, of the far more easily distinguishable begiiniing 
of a Holar day, it was thus that a devout, tlmiigh not 
sacred or inspired, poet of the Talmud wrote e^nturies 
ago ; and he will probably be equally heart-aiipreeiatiHl 
still by every one : — 

" Hast thou seen the l>eauteous dawn, the rosy har- 
binger of day ? Its brilliancy proceeds from the dwell- 
ings of God : a ray of the eternal, imperishable light, a 
consolation to man. 

" As Duvid, pursued by his fues, passviA ;v i\xv^vvA.^v\ 


night of agony in a dreary cleft of Hermon's rock, he 
sang the most exquisitely plaintive of his psalms : — ' My 
soul is among lions : I lie in the dark pit among the 
sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows^ and 
their tongue a sharp sword. Awake up, my glory, 
awake lute and harp, I myself will awake right early.' 

" Behold ! the dawn then broke ; heaviness endured 
for a night, but joy came in the morning. With spark-* 
ling eyes ' the hind of the morning,' the soft and rosy 
twilight, sprang forth, skimmed over hill and dde, 
bounding from lull-top to hill-top further than one can 
see ; and, like a message of the Deity, addressed the 
solitary fugitive on the sterile rock : * Why dost thou 
complain that help is not near ? See how I emerge 
from the obscurity of the night, and the terrors of 
darkness yield before the genial ray of cheerful light ! ' 

" David's eye was turned to the brightening hue of 
the mom. Light is the countenance of the Eternal. 
He saw the day-dawn arise, followed by the sun in all 
its matutinal splendour, pouring blessings and happiness 
over the earth. Confidence and hope returned to his 
soul, and he entitled his psalm in the Cave of Adullam, 
* The roe of the morning, the song of the rosy dawn ! * '* 

If any species of day, then, is marked in the Great 
Pyramid's metrological system, is it likely, after what 
we have already seen of that building's kindly feelings 
for man, and its general objects and methods, — is it 
likely, I say, to be any other than the solar day (tlie 
mean solar day, too, if it be represented evenly and 
alwajrs by a cubit length) ? 

And for the same reason, the Pyramid year can be no 

other than the mean solar tropical year ; or that which 

is defined by the sun returning to the same tropic or 

place of turning in its apparent motion in the sky ; 

bringing on, therefore, l\ie ^\xi\«t «Aid summer, the 


typical day and the night of the year, in the same 
self-«vident, powerful, beneficent manner to all mankind. 
And of the previous mean solar dajrs, in such a solar 
tropical year, there are contained at present, according 
to modem astronomy, 

= S6d-242242 + ^' 

ss 366 days, 6 honn, 48 minutes, 49*7 + &c., aecondB ; 

a length nearly 25 seconds shorter than the similar 
year in the time of the Great Pyramid. A diftercnco 
easy to write down on jiaper, but not practically sen- 
sible to men in the ordinary avocations of life. But 
no one will be asked to decide for either, which kind of 
day, or which kind of year, exists in the Great Pyramid 
Metrology, — without documents of contemporary date, 
and enduring kind in stone, being actually discoverable 

The next succeeding arrangement, however, of time, 
in all metrological systems, after days, is not this gran<l, 
natural, yet most inconveniently incommensurabh*, one 
of a year ; but the short, and, by days, ])('rfectly com- 
mensurable one of, a week ; commensurable, however, 
not by 5 or by 10, but by the peculiar, and otherwise 
impressive, number 7. 

Indeed, the week of 7 days is something so im]M^rtant 
in itself, and forms so decided a stage of time whereon 
tradition conflicts with science, sjicn;d opposes profane, 
and the Deistic contends with the nuionalistic, — that it 
may bo prudent for us to retuni, in our now ensuing 
Part IV., to further rigid practical examinations of the 
Great Pyramid ; endeavouring then^bv to read off, with- 
out prejudice, what that priuKJval monument has to say, 
if anything, touching the voluntarj', as well as tin* natural, 
subdivisions ^f time for the ruling of the life and work 
of man while on his trial here. 






PreliviiTiary Note. 

"pOINTEDLY remarkable as is the assistance already 
-*■ afforded, as in Part III., chapter xiv., to the grand 
Government survey of Great Britain, now in course of 
execution, by the most ancient, and almost venerable, 
25-inch linear standard of the original and mysterious 
design of the Great Pyramid, — that standard is likely 
to be found of further service, and even invested with 
peculiar power and meaning, in other of our national 
emplojTnents, not merely of the present, but the more 
important future, of time also. 

The reasons for this unexpected resuscitation of one 
of the oldest metrological institutions of the whole 
world, are partly scientific, and partly rt»ligious. 

In science, nothing better can Ix^ found. For this 
admirable standard may, as previously indicated, be 
described as one twentv millionth of the earth's axis, 
or rather, one ten millionth of the earth's sinui-ajriff, of 
rotation : and in astronomv distances are usuall v, indeed 
almost invariably, given by semi- axes or nulii, and not 
by diameters, of the various globes or orbits concerned.* 
The distance from the earth to the sun, for instance, 

* And certainly never, as in the boasted KientifLc Fi«nR\i vs^u«aL|Va 
tenna of the utrfiict ofuiy globe whateTer. 


being much more frequently under discussion, than 
the space separating the earth's two positions at six 
month's interval ; and it is in such a radial form 
that the general problem is propounded and discussed 
by all mankind.* 

While* in rdigian, there is the feature about this 
one length of Pyramid measure, which cannot &S1, 
when fiilly apprehended, to constitute a most peculiar 
source of interest with some of the best minds in the 
world; viz., that, however it came there, i.e., in the 
Great Pyramid in the land of Egypt and in times before 
the calling of Abraham, — ^it is not only by its length 
the representative, or equivalent, of the 8a>cred cubit 
of the Hebrews, but it leads us to an understanding of 
why that length was styled amongst them, the " sacred " 
cubit ; and why we may so call it likewise. 

Of the Cubits of Ancient Renown. 

The mere name of " cubit " mounts up the question 
at once to the beginning of human affairs, for it is one 
of the earliest-named measures of which there is any 
notice. Not indeed that the word cubit is ancient in 
itself; but that it is now the one English Word always 
used by our translators to express whatever measure of 
length did form the working and practical standard of 
linear measure to, or for, any and almost every nation 
in the ancient world. No nation could exist then, 
any more than now, without having some standard of 

* The distances of sateUites from their primaiy planets are almost 
invariably given by astronomers, in their professional publications, in 
terms of radii of the said primaries ; the moon's distance from the earth, 
for example, in terms of earth radii. Bat what earth radii ? Alas ! in 
equatorial radii which vary with the meridian, and are Hot the radii by 
which the said distance is generaUy determined. 

In snch observations it is almost always the Polar radias which is 
really employed, in whole or in part, by combining the meridian measures 
of Puiirora or Greenwich as high northern, and the Cape of Good Hope 
or Melbourne aa far southern, OMerYatonoft. 


linear measure belonging to it ; but the standard of one 
nation was no more the necessary standard of another 
in a different part of the world and in a different age, 
than the yard of the British Govennnent, or two-foot 
rule of the British people, is of the same length, origi- 
nation, and meaning, as the metre of the French 
nation, the Rhyulaud foot, or the Turkish pike. 
National standards they are, all of them, but every one 
of a different length from the other. 

Hence, under the one name, convenient i)erhai)s for 
modem times from its shortness, of cnhxt, our trans- 
lators liave heaped together a numbiT of toUdly different 
measures of length, conflicting metrologicid symbolisms, 
and diverse national distinctions. Thov have even done 
worse ; for most persons having T^itin enough to derive 
cubit from cubltuH, the elbow, they measure off' 18 
inches from their own elbow somewhere to the end of 
the middle finger, and say, whenever the " cubit " of 
any time or any nation whatever is mentioned, — that 
was the length of their standard measure. 

Yet, though both the cubitus of the Romans and irtjxw 
of the Greeks were very close to the length of 18 
inches, the standard meiisun^s of other and older nations 
were very different in length. 

What names, then, were they called by ; or were 
there different names for different lengths of national 
standards, in those (Livs ? 

In Egypt the standard was called, from 2170 b. r. 
to 100 A. D., according to diffirent modem Egypt- 
ologi.sts, "mall," " meh," " malii," or "mai:" and sig- 
nifieil, acconling to \V. Osburn, i\n excellent interpreter 
of hieroglyphics, "justified" or *' mea.sured ofi." 

Amongst the Assyrians, according to Mr. Vox. Talbot 
and Dr. Norri.s, their standanl nit^asure was generally 
termed, in the age of Nebuchadnezzar, or 700 u, c,^ 
"ammat;" and in more ancient times, '^Vlm,' 


Among the Hebrews, again, the standard measiure 
was called " ammah."* There is discussion still amongat 
scholars whether this was the original, or Mosaic Hefarew, 
word, for the thingto which it is now implied ; for some 
authors maintAin that ammah is an Assyrian word, and 
introduced only by Ezra when he was recopying the 
Scriptures in Babylon during the captivity. But they 
cannot prove the case absolutely ; and meanwhile, 
although there a/rt some who will have it that the word 
alludes to " the fore part of the arm " — though too we 
are assured that the Hebrew standard was of a totally 
di£Ferent length from such part of the arm — ^there 
are others who maint>ain that the word rather implies, 
" the thing which was before in point of time** the 
thing which was " the first, the earliest, the * mother ' 
measure," and even " the foundation of all measure." 

But these disputations of the philologists are not 
sufficient for what we require now to kpow ; viz., what 
actually were the lengths of the several linear standards 
of ancient nations, in terms of modem British inches. 

Those of Greece and Rome (mediaeval, however, rather 
than ancient, as compared with the times of the Great 
Pyramid) were, by practical rather than philological 
inquiry, 18*24 British inches nearly, every one allows. 

That of Egypt, a far older land than Greece or 
Rome, was always longer, and close to 20*7 British 
inches, by almost equally unanimous and universal 

There has, indeed, been a solitary attempt in modem 
society, during the last four years, to assert that there 
was a short cubit, of the same length as the Grecian, or 
18*24 British inches, in use, and in great honour and 
prominence too, in Egypt, for the one purpose of mea- 
suring land, as early as the day of the Great Pyramid. 

• See '< EdmbuTgli Aitronomioal ObeerrationB,'* toL xiii. pp. R 79 to 


And as the author of this assertion is the Director- 
General of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain ; and 
as he has been adopted, supported, and followed therein 
daring the last year by the " Warden of the Standards " 
of our country, — it is necessary for me, a private author 
only, in metrology, to demonstrate even at some length 
the total baselessness of the idea. For otherwise these 
two giants absolutely stop the way, and prevent all 
further progress in Great Pyramid research. 

Tht Old Egyptian Cubit ; and the recent attempt to 

shorten it 

The mistake, — for actual • and absolute mistake it 
undoubtedly is, — seems to have grown up thus. The 
Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, after having 
twice tried and failed in the Athenceuvi, to establish 
(against my " Life and Work at the Great Pyramid ") 
two other reasons for accounting for the length of the 
base-side of the ancient structure (using a different length 
with each of them), — at last brought out a third length 
and a third theory: this last length being 9,120 British 
inches, and its accompanying theory, the gratuitous 
statement that the base side of the building was intended 
to be 500 times the Egyptian '* land-cubit." And if 
you grant, that besides the well-known cubit of old 
Egypt, 20*7 inches long, there was also in existence at 
the time of the Great Pvramid's foundation another 
cubit, whose length was 18*24 British inches, — evidently 
500 times that length, does make up 9,120 of the same 

But that length on pai)er, for the Great PjTamid's 
base-side, was only obtained by most impr6i)erly, and 
even dishonestly, keeping out of view the two largest, 
and perhaps best, of the socket measiurcs of the Pyraiu\d!% 
base-side length ; viz,, those of the ¥reiic\i aj(^emv<£\a3& 


in 1800, and Colonel Howard-Vyse in 18S7 ; both of 
which measured-results the Director-General had before 
him at the time of producing his new theory, together 
with my own discussion of them and others. While, 
as for the same high officer^s assertion that there was, 
besides the ordinary 207 inch cubit, also such a thing 
as a landrcuhU in ancient Egypt, of the mediseval 
Grecian length too of 18*24 inches, — that depended on 
nothing whatever but a most obstinate mistake of the 
high miUtary officer when reading a passage in Hero- 
dotus ; which passage, in reahty, says nothing of the 

Herodotus, that charming relater of history as a 
pleasant family tale, we must remember, is telling his 
story to the Greeks ; and amongst other particulars of 
what he saw in Egypt, informs them, of an allowance of 
land to each of the soldiers there, of so many cubits 
square ; to which account he appends the explanatory 
remark, evidently for the benefit of his then hearers, 
the Greeks, — that the Egyptian cubit is of the same 
length as that of Samos, 

This is positively all that the Director-General of the 
Ordnance Survey has to go upon : and it will be observed 
that there is no allusion in the passage to there being two 
cubits in use in Egypt ; one only is mentioned, and that 
one cubit is stated to be the same in length, not as the 
Greek cubit, but as that of Samos. 

In fact, there is no case whatever for the great survey- 
ing military chief at Southampton ; except in so far as 
he, in addition to the above, chooses roundly to assert, 
— and his brother giant, the Warden of the Standards, 
to support him in the assertion, — that the cubit of Samos 
was just the same as, and meant therefore nothing but, 
the Greek cubit. 

Now, as there is nothing whatever of ancient authority 
existing in the world, as &c ^ I am aware, touching 

Ckaf.XVI.] the great pyramid. 287 

the absolute length of the cubit of Samos in the time of 
Herodotus, 445 RC. (except that slight verbal compara- 
tiye notice of his, saying that it was the s:imc as the 
Egyptian, rather than the Greek), we must endeavour to 
ascertain from him, himself, what Ae, Herodotus, meant, 
— when he explained to a Greek audience in Athens, that 
the length of the Eg}'ptian cubit was the same as the 
cubit of Samos. Why, for instance, did he not say 
that it was the same as the Greek cubit, if he meant 
the Greek cubit ? 

By turning to his book " Thalia," 55, we shall find that 
Herodotus there makes a Ijacediemonian speak of the 
Samians (in their isle so yery close to Asia Minor and 
so fiir from Greece) as ** foreigners." And again, in 
"Thalia," 56, he himself characteristically speaks of a siege 
of Samos by the Lacedaemonian Dorians as " their (the 
Greeks') first expedition into Asia." " Words," says the 
Rev. Professor Rawlinson, " which are emphatic. They 
mark the place which the expedition occupies in the 
mind of Herodotus. It is an aggression of the Greeks 
upon Asia, and therefore a passage in the histor}' of the 
great quarrel between Persia and Greece, for all Asia is 
the king's " (i. 4).* 

Samian, then, in the mind and feelings of Herodotus, 
eminently meant Asiatic or Persian, the antipodes of 
everything Greek ; and it was a rather delicate way of 
that admirable describer telling his polite Athenian 
audience, that the cubit of the strange and far-oft' 
Egyptians he had been travelling amongst, was of the 
same length as that of their hated and dreaded foes, 
the Persians ; but without oftending their ears by the 
sound of the detested name. For Samos was but a poor 
little island, in itself altogether innocent of making 

• See aUo " Edinbui^h Ajtronomical 0\>MTt&UoMr ^oV rC\V vV.*\^, 


aggressions on snoh a combination of states as Gieeoe ; 
and sinoe its invasion by the Laoedaamonians, iros modh 
better known to Greeks, than the continental and some* 
what mysterious country of the Persians themselve& 

Now, the Persian cubit, at and about the times of 
Herodotus, say from 332 b.c. to 600 B.C., according to 
Dr. Brandis, of Berlin, (whose investigations into the 
Babylonian measures, weights, and money before Alex- 
ander the Great, are original and most valuable), was 
somewhere between 20 866 and 20*670 British inchea 

Don Vincent Queipo, in his " Metrology " (VoL L, pp. 
277-280), makes the same Persian cubit to be 20*670 
inches long. M. Oppert establishes the same length for 
the Babylonian cubit in the times of Darius and Xerxes. 
Dr. Hincks makes the cubit, equally too, of the Baby- 
lonian, Persian, and Assyrian empires, chiefly from cunei- 
form inscriptions = 21*0 inches. All of them, therefore, 
within their limits of error, coinciding sufficiently with 
a mean length of 2 0*6 9 inches nearly, for the Persian 
cubit of and about 500 b.c. And that cubit length, 
we may be sure, the said Persians established in Samos 
for as long as they had the upper hand there ; seeing 
that from the same Herodotus we learn (Book VI., 
ch. 24), that no sooner were the Ionian cities under 
Histioeus conquered by Artaphemes, than he took the 
measurement of their whole country in parasangs (a 
Persian measure of length, based on the cubit) and 
settled thereupon the tributes which they were in future 
to pay. 

Hence the Saniian cubit alluded to, was no other 
than the Persian cubit of the day of Herodotus ; and 
that cubit being of the length of 20*69 British inches by 
universal, modem research, we may immediately see how 
close to the truth the Father of History was, in declaring 
the length of the Egyptian and the Samian, i.e., Persian, 
cubits to be the same, — ^when the Egyptian cubit has 

Chaf.XVL] the great pyramid, 289 

been found by all modem Egyptological explorers to bo 
within a few tenths, or even hundredths, of an inch, 
the very same quantity ; or, say for shortness, 20*7 
British inches. 

Thus Sir Gardner Wilkinson in his " Manners and 
Customs of the Ancient Egj'ptians*' (Vol. IV. pp. 24 
— 84, third edition, 1847), expressly declares against 
the idea of there having been intentionally two dirt'erent- 
lenji^hed cubits in Pharaonic Egypt ; and gives the 
follovking as meiisun^s of aeeideiitid variations of the 
one and only Egyptian cubit belonging to any perioil 
between 2200 b.c. and 320 b;c. : 

Lilt *3 ^\ 

yf C V^. . 

20-47 British inches, 


»» !♦ 


»♦ »» 


1* »t 


»♦ »» 


»» »» 


«• ♦• 

And other more recent measures by other investisfators, 
some from cubits, and sonie from ancit^nt monuments 
where ccrtaiin i)arts seeuuHl to have been laid out, so 
as to be even multiples of 2, 4, or more cubits, — have 
yielded 2073 and 20 OG British inches. 

In all these cases then, we s«je indeed inevitable small 
practical variations, but only <»f one and the siime cubit- 
length ; no approach is manifested to tbe (Jrerk and 
Roman len^rth of 1824 inches ; onlv a dniwiiii' to<^cthcr 
round alxnit a most notable and notorious mean (piantity 
of 20 "7 inches ; and that tendency too was just as 
eminently observed in Ribylon, Nineveh, and other 
Mesopotainian cities as in Memphis, Hdiopolis or Thebes, 
on the Nile. 

Tliere was thus something e<piivalent to a grand 
metrical combination among cerUiiu Eivstern nations of 
early times ; a combination exceodiug m \X,^ v^uVvayX* ^ 



duration all the spread and vital powers of language 
and race, of politics, war and peace amongst them ; in 
a large degree, no doubt, because the metrical matter 
concerned, was bound up not only with their religions, 
but with the one primitive foundation of all those 
idolatrous religions alike. 

What' then would have thought any of those nations, 
but more especially the Egyptians (of whose spiritual 
life we know most), of this recent most uncalled for 
attempt by an Ordnance Surveying General at South- 
ampton and a Standards administration official at 
Whitehall, not only to degrade that grand 20*7-inch 
standard of all the several great empires of the ancient 
East, but incontinently to cut it down to the petty 
size of the long subsequent cubit of the " impure 
Greeks ; " as every Egyptian who lived do^\Ti to their 
times had the pleasure of terming them. What, too, 
more especially would have thought the Egj'ptians, 
when in their " Dead Book " (the souls' vade mecum 
inserted in the coffin of every subject of Pharaoh), — 
there appears in black and yellow, — the most distinct 
ejaculation to be made by such souls when standing 
before the Judge of the dead ; viz., " I have not 
HhorUned the cubit." And when one of the first sights 
which " a justified soul " is supposed to behold after 
passing the terrestrial bounds is, " the god Thoth with 
the cubit in his hand " ? ^ 

I will not even attempt to say what those ancient 
Egyptians would have thought of our two modem 
official giants, whose carriages, in trying to stop the 
way of Great Pyramid research, have done them, the 
Egyi)tians, so hateful an injury ; for I am horrified to 
remember the Pharaonic pictures of human souls sent 

♦ See ** Seven Homilies,'' by the Rev. J. T. Qoodair. Appendix, with 
tranflhiticn of the '< Dead Book," by W. Osbum. Williams and Norgate^ 


back from heaven to earth, in the boilios of pigs, for 
fiu* lighter offences than *' shortening the national cubit.*' 

OrigiTUxtion oftlie Profane Cubit of the East. 

A imrticular length, then, and that soiuothing within, 
probably or even certainly, a tenth of an inch of iO*7 
inches, did undoubtedly and intentionally characterise, 
and for many ages, the ancient cubit both of Egypt and 
the far distant Ikbylon, Nineveh, and Persia, together with 
all the great kingdoms hi^4torically nrniyed in religion 
Against Israel ; and such cubit length was made a sacred 
matter amongst them. 

But in what else were their sacred ideas, i.e., chiefly 
of Eg}'pt and Ikbylon, connnon or similar ? 

That verj' part of the " Dead l^ook '* which enables 
the Egj'[)tian who has bought it from his {jriests, to 
declare in wonls readv cut and drv for his use, that he 
is free from that sin (into which the Ordnance Surveyor 
and the Warden of the Standards have in these latter 
flays tumbled headlong), viz., oi short* nimj the cubit, — 
jmts a long string of other declarations into his mouth, 
l>rotesting him to be also perfectly free from any and every 
other possible sin, great or small, that was evir heard of. 
And whether such unhajjpy being also brlieviil and 
tnisted, as most of them did, in itlols of animal-headed 
gods, of whom there were sometimes \\\o\\\ wuA some- 
times less, in the Egyptian Tantheon, all that — dnadtul 
as it is for human beint's with souls to be >a\\«I, and 
special instruction from the Creator — sinks into com- 
{larative insignificance before this unblushing assertion 
of absolute self-righteousness. For tlmt princi[>le lasii-d 
through all their varying theogonies ; and n<it only 
shows the innate, settled Cainitt^ directi«>n of their 
thoughts, but their continual antagf»nism also to tVvi 
reUgion oi Ahc\ and to the whole llevc\uVWv ^XocXxvaa 


of the lost condition of man, with the consequent Chris- 
tian necessity of an atonement by sacrifice and pardon 
through the blood of a Mediator. 

All this doctrine is of course to be found in the 
Bible, and something of it in Josephus's account of 
(Genesis times also ; but where he obtained his further 
particulars of Cain, and how far they are to be, or 
should be, trusted, I know not Yet they are pertinent 
to the present question, and run thus ; viz., that after 
Cain's expulsion from a more blessed society, and after 
the mark was put upon him, he went on fit)m one 
wickedness to another until he at last invented '' weights 
and measures :" not so much, apparently, that they 
were sinfiil in themselves, but that Cain employed them 
as instruments of rapacity and oppression : or as, in 
fact, the officers of the Assyrian king afterwards made 
use of them in exacting cruel tribute from conquered 

In self-defence therefore, implies Josephus, the descen- 
dants of righteous Seth, in whose line afterwards came 
Noah, Shem, Meleliisedec, Abraham, and Moses, betook 
themselves to studying astronomy, with the special 
approval and help of Almighty God ; and when they 
had perfected those discoveries, they set forth from their 
own land (which was probably in Mesopotamia), to the 
land of Siriad (that is the Siriadic, or Dog-star, land of 
Figj'pt), and inscribed their discoveries there on two 
pillars, one of stone and one of brick. 

ITiey did not therefore seek either to teach or enforce 
these things on the Egyptian people whom they found 
there ; they merely recorded their astronomical dis- 
coveries in their own way, to their own satisfaction in 
that land, because it was a more suitable land for that 
purpose than their own ; and they recorded them by 
means of masonry, most certainly illegible to all un- 
scicDtiiic natives around. And what such discoveries in 



astronomy could have been, to enable them to have a 
counter effect to the bad weights and measures of Cain, 
unless they were connected with a princii)le of earth 
and heaven commensurability adapted to a people's 
measures in length, capacity, and weight, leading their 
souls therefore, and therebv, to think lovin<;lv, svm- 
]>athetically, harmoniously, and Abel-like, of God, — it 
is difficult to conceive. 

In fact, according to the miitfrc of the things said to 
be inscriWd, the above alluded to sionr pillar, or monu- 
ment (which Whiston, wholly ignorant of hieroglyphic 
intcq)retation, pro[)osed to identify with a Cainite 
obelisk of an idolatrous king of Egypt in Thebes during 
the 19th Dvnastv), — can be no other than the Great 
Pyramid. While the similar Inivk monument, ereettnl 
by the Siime Sethite i)arties (tleseendants only of Seth 
through the Flood), must, if ever finished, have gone 
the way of all the briek pyramids of profane Kgypt ; 
viz., subsided into a heap of decaying mtaild. 

But I do not ask any one to ihpciul solely, for any 
one important thing, on Josephus ; though, fmm the 
Lirge amount of accordance between him and tin* Bible 
in numerous other ]K>iuts, it would not be wise to alto- 
gether reject a whole argument in all its pM-ts and 
ramifications, merely because it is found in Jose]»hus 
and in no other jjreservrd v^rUnnj of olden times. 
The passage, however, <}Uoti'd abovr, does, even when 
considerably pruned, open \\\\ a vury suggrstive view, 
of a metrologieal contrast, entinly agreeablr with Biblical 
charactenstics, though dfprnding on mieroseopic* re- 
finements onlv understoo<l bv modtTU scii'iiet* within 
the last centur\'. It tells us, I vinture to sav, <»f a 
metrologieal contnist between (ain and Alu-l having 
been carried by some of thrir deseendants through the 
Flood: and of these parties having bern distingiushe' 
by tbo most ojqtositv kinds of we\y\il^ vxuvi Aiiv:vs&>XP 


And when we further find by later researches that the 
anti-Israel, and decidedly Cainite nations, spread abroad 
even from the Nile to the Euphrates, though often waning 
vehemently with each other, were yet banded together 
to employ one and the same cubit length of 20*7 inches, 
we must look upon that measure as the Cbdn-invented, 
Cain-descended, cubit. When, too, we find that that 
length is totally incongruous to the measurea of both 
the earth and the heavens, and not evenly in any way 
commensurable thereto, or conforming therewith, — ^it 
opens up the most intense anxiety to ascertain whether 
the cubit of the descendants of Seth, in the line of 
Abraham, and representative^)f the cause of righteous 
Abel, had any of the admirable earth-commensurability 
and nature harmonious properties which have been dis- 
covered in the standards of the Great Pyramid. 

ThA Sdcred Cuhit of the Hebrews. 

And here, alas for the Church of England ! from the 
time of Bishop Cumberland of Peterborough, down to 
the Bible dictionaries of Kitto and Smith, the annotated 
Bibles of the Government printers, and the maps of Jeru- 
salem prepared for the Palestine Exploration Association 
by the Ordnance Survey establishment at Southampton. 
For all these supposed unquestionable authorities merely 
indicate, lazily, ignorantly (both as Christians and 
scientists), " The Hebrew measures are impossible to 
find out by the mere words of the Bible, so we go to 
the (Cainite) Egyptians : and take, and give you, their 
(self-righteous, God-defying) measures as representing 
(the Inspired sacredness of) the Hebrew ! " And such 
numbers of inches too as these blinded men give, under 
that guise, are more often derived frt)m mediseval or 
Grecianised, but still idolatrous, Egypt, than the Egypt 
after most ancient, or even Exodus, day. 

Chap. XVI.] THE GREA T PrRAMII). I'r.s 

In this ilileniniji ot' tlio Hocks (U'sortion, or uiislcailing, 
by its proper shepherds, liow thankful shouhl we be, 
that it pleaseil Goil to raise up the spirit of Newton 
amongst us ; and enabled him to make it one of the most 
important discoveries of his riper years — though the 
opposition of the Church of Enghmd has caused it to 
remain unread nhuost to the present day, — that while 
there undoubtediv was in ancient times a cubit of 20 7 
inches nearly, characterising the nations of Egjpt, Assyria, 
Babylonia, and Pha^nicia, and which cubit Newton ciills 
unliesitatingly " the profane cubit ; " there was another 
which he eijually unhesitatingly speaks of as the aacred 
cubit ; and shows that it was decidedly longer than the 
above, and most earnestly ])reser\'ed, treasured up, and 
obeyed, among some very limited bmnches of the house 
of Shem. The exact daite of its promulgation Newton 
does not attempt to fix, but alludes to the certain fact 
of its having lx»conie the ** proper and principal cubit '* 
of the Israelites, long before they vrnt down to Eijypt.^ 

Now the precise size of this remarkable cubit, and 
which seems eventuallv to have remained in the sole 
possession of the Hebrews, and to have been, after 
the Egjrptian captivity, employetl by them for sacred. 
Biblically sacred, pur|K)ses only. Sir Isaac Newton 
attempts to ascertain in various modes thus : — 

1. By notices from Talmudists and Josephusin terms 
of Greek cubits, which on calculation give, as limits, 
something between 31*24 and 2430 British inches.t 

2. From Talmudists by proportion of the human 
hody, giving as limits, from 2704 to 23*28 British 

3. From Josephus's description of the pillars of the 
temple, between 27'IG and 23*28 British inches. 

* Bee " Sir Imac Newton's DiMcrtation on CubitA," reprinted in vol. ii. 
of vjr '* Lifo mnd Work at the Great pyramid." 

t On the mean deteimination by many aiithorB that \ Xllvc i<Ma)\'=. VI 
Bdtiib incbaf ; Mod one Komaii nnm = 0*97 UhUi^ uv«:^«ft. 


4. By Tahnudists and "all Jews' " idea of a Sabbath 
da/s journey between 27*16 and SS'28 British inches. 

5. By Tahnudists' and Josephus's accounts of the 
steps to the Inner Court, between 26'19 and 2S'28 
British inches. 

6. By many Chaldaic and Hebrew proportions to the 
cubit of Memphis, giving 24*83 Briti^ inches. And, 

7. From a statement by Mersennus, as to the length 
of a supposed copy of the mwreA cubit of the Hebrews, 
secretly preserved amongst them, concluded = 24*91 
British inches. 

Now in all these seven methods any one may observe 
that that heathen length of Egypt and Babylon, viz., 
20 '7 inches, has no standing-place whatever; neither 
beside the single determinations, nor within the widest 
limits of the double determinations. What i^ indicated 
by the numbers, appears to be, — either 24 inches with 
a large fraction added to it, or 25 inches with a small 
fraction, or something between the two ; and if we say 
25 inches with an uncertainty of a tenth of an inch 
either way, depending on the rudeness of the references, 
we shall probably be borne out by every one who 
examines Sir Isaac Newton's original paper ably, care- 
fully, and without prejudice. 

Most triumphantly, then, ended Sir Isaac Newton's 
researches, in showing that the cubit, or rather the 
linear standard, of that peculiar people who were 
religiously representative of Abel, was absolutely and 
totally different, in the radical and governing feature of 
length, from the cubit, or linear standard of all the 
unhappily numerous and powerful empires representing 
Cain, in the ancient world. And there he stopped. But 
now, with the new ideas opened up by John Taylor 
from his researches, literary though they were only, at 
the Great Pyramid, we find that a length of 2 5 02 5 
Biitisb inches, or a length abundantly within the limits 


of the conclusions to be drawn from Sir Isaac Newton's 
numbers for the Hebrew sacred cubit, — is not only 
earth commensurable, but earth comnicnsurublo, and 
nature harmonious, according to Sir John Herschel, in 
the best conceivable manner ; or with the earth's astro- 
nomical axis of rotation. So accurately, too, and in so 
difficult a subject, that as we have already shown in 
the first part of this book, no such conclusion could 
have been intentionally arrived at ])V anv nice or nation 
of men in the earlv aji'e when the (ircat Tvraniid was 
founded, — without their being favoured by sonu» super- 
human and supranatunil, that is, Divine, assistance. 

That the Hebrew race u-oahl have received such 
a.ssistanc6 from the Ahnightv, if thev reallv needed it, 
no true believer in the Bible will doubt for a moment. 
And now when we fin<l, and shall afterwards be able to 
confirm from other sources, that they had the very thing 
amongst them which, as the highest modern science 
testifies, could only have been a supninatural gift in that 
age, the further question is answered, as soon as it 
arises, — viz., whether the gift may really aftiT all have 
come to them in the manner indicated by Josephus ; 
!.«., through primeval Divine assistance a<*corded to 
Seth, as represented in his earlier descendants ; and 
that it was granted to them, not merely to improve 
them in astronomy, but also to strengthen them against 
the religiously opposed descendants of Cain. 

Now the Eg}q)tians were Cainites, not only from what 
has alreadv been shown from their own ** Dead Bijok,'* 
but from Biblical history indicating that tluT had, like 
Cain, refused the sin-ottering lying at the door, and 
Iiad scomfullv banded themselves tt>;rether to consitler 
the Dinnely-appointcd means of reconciliation *' an 
abomination unto them." ^'' Therefi)re, when Israel w;is 
in Eg}'pt, Abel and Cain typically met once agiiin, and 

• John TdylwB " Gm at TyTttmid;* p. 1\1 . 


we all know with what results of cruelty within the 
power of Cain to inflict We also know in a parallel 
manner, by metrological research, that that Mizraite 
edition of Cain held then, and continued to hold 
through all his national existence, to his 20*7 inch 
standard measure ; while, through Sir Isaac Newton 
the astounding information first came, that the Hebraite 
Abel at the same time likewise kept true, through 
all his persecutions, to his oppositely derived, Seth- 
descended, 25*025 inch, better standard. 

These two opposing standards, therefore, clashed 
together in E^fypt, B.a 1500, and God gave the victory 
in the end to Abel's. 

But they met together again, as Sir Isaac Newton 
himself points out, after the Exodus, and even in the 
very presence of the Tabernacle in the wilderness ; for 
the Israelites wovXd employ the Egyptian cubit of 20*7 
inches long for many of their ordinary purposes ; though 
Moses was always most precise, and apparently successful, 
in seeing that in their sacred work they employed only 
their sacred cubit, i.e., " the cubit of the Lord their 
(jod ;" viz., the earth-axis commensurable cubit of 
25*025 inches long. 

The Mixed Presence of the Two Cubits, Sacred and 


But it may be asked, Why did the Israelites con- 
tinue to employ two cubits ? K, as Sir Isaac Newton 
states, they brought their own sacred cubit, which they 
had possessed of old, down with them into Egjrpt, pre- 
served it when there, and took it out with them again, 
— why was that one not enough for all their purposes ? 

The first answer to this question is by Sir Isaac him- 

''They, the Hebrews, brought," «aya he, " their own 


sacred measure to Egjrpt with them; but living for 
above two hundred years (four hundred according to 
some chronologists) under the dominion of the Egyp- 
tians, and undergoing a hard service under them, 
especially in building , where the measures cavie daily 
under consideration, they must necessarily learn the 
Egyptian cubit." 

The second answer is, " Did the Israelites succeed in 
freeing themselves at the Exodus from every other 
taint and sin of the Cainite people they had been 
sojourning amongst ? Nay, indeed, were they free from 
the sins of many innate, bom, and predestined Cainites 
among themselves? Search the Scriptures, and the 
answer comes up too plainly. 

It was not, apparently, the purpose of God to create 
even his chosen people absolutely immaculate ; or to 
make it impossible for them to sin, even if they should 
try. Therefore was it that temptations to evil (though 
in a measure only) were left to prove tliem ; and amongst 
other forms of seduction, the -insidious Cainite 20'7- 
inch cubit, as well as the true cubit of Abel of the 
25-025-inch length. 

Now, exactly as these two cubits were contending 
with each other, and either ensnaring or saving men's 
souls in the very camp of the Israelites ruled by Moses, 
so is it still in that wondrous erection in I^'pt, the 
Great Pyramid, to this day. 

Sir Isaac Newton showed from the measures of Pro- 
fessor Greaves in 1G38, that various minor parts of the 
Gr^t P}Tamid were laid out in terms of the 2()-7 inch 
cubit of Memphis, i.e., the Cainite cubit sacred to £g}'pt 
but profane to the Israelites ; and I, having gone over 
some parts of the P}Tamid, measuring-rod in hand, have 
testified, in Vol. II. p. 340 of my " Life and Work," 
that Sir Isaac Newton is there perfectly correct \ ^wd 
the instanosg may partly have been \>iou^t t^MVi^rj 


the necessity, even of a Seth-descended architect of the 
Great Pyramid, employing the idolatrous natives of 
E^pt with their one and only cubit familiar to them, 
as bis working masons and mere hodmen in the grTt 
work whose ultimate object and purpose they were per- 
fectly ignorant of, and would have opposed if they had 

But that does not destroy, nay, it rather rivets atten- 
tion to, the grander Pyramid fact which had escaped 
the understanding of all mankind until after the days 
of John Taylor; (escaped them, too, though it was 
prominently in their midst, and with nothing to hide 
it from any one, even from the beginning of history) ; 
viz., that if you subdivide the base-side length of the 
Great Pyramid by the number of days in a year, you 
obtain, by such api)lication of an astronomical time- 
measure, — the sacred Hebrew, earth-commensurable, 
an/i-Cainite cubit, and find that Sethiie rod to be a 
ruling feature of the ultimate design of the whole vast 

The Sdcred in Thiie, as well as Space. 

Now this conjunct employment in the Pyramid, of 
sacred measures of length and true measures of time, is 
all the more noticeable, because during their national 
slavery to the hardest of taskmasters, the Israelites got 
inevitably into the way of using, for secular purposes, 
something else besides the profane measures of length 
of the Egyptians ; for they adopted their imperfect 
mode of measuring time as well, or of telling off the 
days, first by lunar, and then by reputed solar months. 

Yet of all the Mosaic institutions, nothing is better 

appreciated, in our country at least, than that Moses 

contended gloriously with his countrymen for the noni- 

Egyptian time-measure of, a week of six days, followed 

by a Sabbath of rest ; and l\iat. \iQ ^o contended because 

Cbaf.XTI.] the great pyramid. 301 

such a time-measure was an original ordinance, not of 
man, but of the Lord his God, and to be observed by the 
£EUthful and God-fearing of mankind for ever and ever. 

Has the Great Pyramid, then (Sethite as we may call 
it now, though not Mosaic), any allusions to that most 
distinguishing time-measure of Revelation, the week, as 
it is in the Bible ? 

Alas ! how little do we yet know of the Great P}-ra- 
mid : and how much there is still to learn. To learn 
indeed; but not from our many modem Eg}'ptologists, 
as they proudly call themselves. For surely by this 
time we should have acquired a wholesome fear of those 
who, instead of studying the Great Pyramid from a 
truly religious and Christian, or any, point of view, have 
rushed headlong into a Cainite desire to know more 
about the sanctified bulls and cats, crocodiles and 
ibises, snake and beetle gods, and all the other un- 
holy holies of that imi)ure Egyptian nation ; — a people 
answering more closely than any other to St. Paul's 
description of the ancient worl<l ; as composed of 
those, who are without excuse, — because that, " wh(»n 
(in primeval and patriarchal times) they knew (i(»d, 
they gloritied Him not as (iod, neither were thankful ; 
but became vain in their imaginations, an<l changed 
the glor}' of the incorruptible God into an image made 
like to corruptible man, and to birds and four-fi><)ted 
beasts and creeping things. A people who changed the 
truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served 
the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for 
ever. Amen." 

To those, then, who are happily freed, but not by 
human learning, fnmi this dreiulful hankering of modtTii 
Egyptological scholars, and keepers of Egj'ptian museum 
galleries, to become wise in old idolatry, — how grandly 
rise in noble aspirations, the thoughts of any fair, hone 
mind, on merely beholding the cxlcrtioX \xi«cs>^ vA S! 


Great Fyramid I For thus writes a recent traveller, a 
plain and simple styl» of working-man almost, but with 
the higher feelings which spring firom Christian edu- 
cation and the improving sentiments which labour of 
head and hand, in company with his brother men in 
an appointed path, irresistibly teaches, — ^thus he writes, 
(without, however, as might too probably be expected in 
a stranger, unfurnished with any scientific instruments 
of measure, sufficiently distinguishing the Great lyamid 
from the other pyramids, its copies without souls, or 
minds cither, in the inmiediate neighbourhood) : — 

" To view them merely as gigantic monuments is a 
novelty productive of impressions of sublime grandeur, 
of which words fail to convey any accurate conception ; 
but when they are viewed in connection Avith the history 
of the human race, as older than the oldest records, and 
marked with the antiquity of those ages long gone by, 
when the earliest of the patriarchs entered Egypt, the 
mind becomes absorbed, and I felt as though I could 
have lain, not for hours only, but even for nights and 
days, indulging in the sight of the greatest of these 
pyramids." " With the Hebrews, to look back beyond 
the time of Abraham, was deemed a glimpse of eternity; 
and the passage, " Before Abraham was I AM," is at 
once i^resented to the mind in connection with this view. 
Yet even in Abraham's time, it is sui)posed that these 
pyramids were works of venerable antiquity." ^^ 

True, most true ; and in the Great Pyramid we have 
found enshrined, established in the solid architecture, 
but yet unseen from those prc-Abrahamic, down to 
these latter days, that identical sacred, earth-commen- 
surable, measure of space, which, according to Sir Isaac 
Newton, the leaders of the Hebrew race had received 
J/yag before they went down to Egypt 

• **Noie$ on Egypt," by T. Sopwith, Esq., C.E., privately printed. - 

ghap.xvl] the great pyramid. 


Is it possible, then, let us fear not to nsk again, that 
any allusion to the earliest luritten Divine command, 
the measuring of time by a sabbatical week of seven 
daj's, may be found in that grandest, and most purely 
Sethite, of stone records also ? 

Search may be made ; but even the best of us should 
pray in the course of it, to be guarded against being 
led away by mere coincidences, by mistaken obser\'a- 
tions, and even intended stumbling-blocks and rocks of 
oflfence : for surelv things exist in the CSreat Pyramid 
very much as they do in the world outside, and even 
as they did in the sacred camp of the Tabernacle under 
Mount Sinai itself, — to try us, and prove whether our 
fiaith be correct as well as strong. 




ON this important question there is but one mode of 
inquiry, viz., attention to the measures of the whole 
and its parts ; coupled with the quality of the work con- 
cerned, and followed by the theory, whatever that may 
ultimately prove to be, which explains the greatest 
number of facts. 

Now one fim^-measure has already been indicated in 
the circumstance that the sacred, Hebrew, or pyramid 
cubit is of such a length that it measures the base-side 
of the Great Pyramid by the number of days, and frac- 
tions of a day, in a year ; while another, includes a 
practical demonstration of our modem leap-year arrange- 
ment in the exhibition of the four sides, or years, which 
make up a cycle of years complete to a day ; or, as the 
symbolism of the ante-chamber indicates, almost a day ; 
for, of the four grand grooves there, of w^hich three are 
hollow, and the fourth only, filled, that fourth one is not 
equal in breadth to the other three. (See Plate X.) 

But a still grander time-measure is obtained by view- 
ing the whole Pyramid's base periphery in the light of 
its equivalent circle, struck with a radius equal to the 
vertical height of the Pyramid; which, by its sun-distance 
commensurability, symbolises the sun in the centre of 
that circle ; for then the interval of twenty-four solar 
hours, or the time elapsing between the sun apparently 

Chaf.XVU.] the great pyramid. 305 

leaving tho meridian of any place and returning to it 
again, by virtue of the rotation of the earth on its axis 
before the sun, i.e., a mean solar day, — is measured ott* 
on that circles circumference by 100 pyramid inches 

French Savants on five Passages of ilce Great Pyramid. 

But if the time s\anbolism of the exterior of the 
Pyramid is thus clear and simple enough, that of the 
intmor presents many difficulties. 

The entrance passage has indeed already been else- 
where shown ♦lO b»^ connected with the meridian transit 
of a circum-]X)lar stjir ; but why did th(j buiWors make 
both that passage and the tirst ascending passiigt; so 
excessively low, that a man can hardly pass tlirough 
them, even crawling on his hands and knees ; and 
another, the Grand Gallerj-, so astonishingly high, that 
the blazing torches of Arab guides seldom sutiice, in its 
mere darkness rendered somewhat visible, to show the 
ceiling to wondering visitors ! 

No approach to a sufficient answer to these questions 
has yet been given anywhere ; and all that violent, and 
apparently unreasonable, contrast of heights, remains 
the most mysterious thing in its origin, at the siime 
time that, in its existence, it is one of the best ascer- 
tained facts about the whole Great ]^Tamid. 

The French Academicians, tjven in their day, m- 
laigcd much and learnedly on the circumstance ; but 
could neither solve that nor many other points, about 
both the Grand Ciallery and the smuller passages. 
Almost in desimir at litst, but the despair of an 
honest and well-rciid man, unashamed to confess the 
truth that such a case was too difficult for him. 
— M. Jomard exclaims at p. 198, *' Description de 
n^-pte," " Evor}'thiiig is mjsterious, I re\>eal \v/\\i>\v& 



oonstruction and distribution of the numnment ; the 
passages, oblique, horizontal^ sharply bended, of diffiBorent 
dimensions ! " And again, at p. 207 of " Antiquity 
M^moires," " We are not at all enlightened oither upon 
the origin, or the employment, the utility, or any motdve 
whatever, for the gallery and various passages of the 
Great I^rramid ; but do we know anytldng more either 
about the well, or much rather about the 28 -square 
holes or cavities worked with skill along the sides of 
the high ascending galleiy ? *' 

Professor Oreavea describes the Passages of the Great 


Where so many great men have failed, we must pro- 
ceed with caution indeed ; and commencing therefore at 
the beginning, with what has been known to, and con- 
fessed by, most travellers for ages, I will, at present, 
merely call attention to the extraordinary pains that 
were taken by the original builders with the structure 
of all these passages. 

Even with the first, or entrance passage, the most 
used and abused of the whole, both in mediaeval and 
modem times, — ^yet the regularity and beauty of its 
fabric composed of whiter, more compact, and homo- 
geneous stone than is to be seen anywhere else, and in 
enormous blocks admirably worked, seems to have been 
ever the admiration of all beholders. Professor Greaves, 
in 1638, exclaims (with almost a Tennysonian feeling of 
the romantic belonging rather to 1860), on beholding 
this passage some 3,800 years after its builders had 
been laid in the dust, and their spirits had returned to 
God who gave them, " the structure of it hath been 
the labour of an exquisite hand." 

Yes, truly ; but to bring back the " tender grace of 
a day so very long since dead " and receive a clear intel- 


lectual explanation of wherefore these things came to 
pass, — ^how rain it would bo merely to sigh, and ever so 
anxiously wait, for — 

*' The touch of that vanish'd hand, 
And tho sound of a voice that is still." 

Nor does the Savilian professor abandon himself to vain 
regrets ; but goes on methodically to describe the 
mechanical elements of the excellence which he had 
noted ; such as, " the smoothness and evenness of tho 
work," " the close knitting of tho joints," and tho 
accuracy with which the exact breadth of 3-463 of 
the English foot,* is kept up through a length of 
9 2 '5 feet. But when Greaves comes soon aftrrwards 
over against a portion of that rough fragment of 
a side-passage forced in barbarous timers of spolia- 
tion by Caliph Al Mamoun, he correctly <lescribes 
that as " a place somewhat larger, antl of a ])retty 
height, but lying incom2)osed ; an obscure and broken 
place, the length 89 feet, the breadth and height 
various, and not worth considiTation." And aijain, " bv 
whomsoever (among the moderns) it was constructed, 
IS not worth the inquiry ; nor does the place merit the 
describing ; but that 1 was unwilling to i)retermit any- 
thing, being only an habitation for bats, and those so 
ugly and of so large a size, exceeding a foot in length, that 
I have not elsewhere seen the like."f (S^e Plate VIII.) 

* Kiiuivalcnt to 41*51 pyramid inrhon, my m«':i9urrs in ISO) huviiif^ 
g:ivpnforcxtremi>« 41-58 and 4l'4(i, and tho moan ut all. 11 '10 nt th<' same 
iuches ; or difforini^ from my u«tronumi<-ul prtniocosinor, after two ccn- 
tnries, by only ./i.yoth uf the whuk*. 

t Murtwli, an Arabian author, sayn, " An bi^ aR lilark r:)j[;1os.'* Pro- 
fessor Greares evidently did not Tecop:niso in Ki:iS, neithvr inde*^d did 
Dr. Clarke in 1800, that this *^incorii]Mii(Hl hole" was ic.illy tbo rou^rh 
paisMgn of forced (•ntrance made by th<' e.irly Anibian ('aliph: and 
it required Culonel Howard-VyHo's cli'nrin;; away of the rubbisih muund 
outsi'its in 1837i tu prove the fiiot. by exhiltitini; the outer end of the hub* 
u well. But thi; very tirciim^tanrc of rrotVusor (.rreave^ not beinr 
■oqoainted with the«o latter diy facts, inakua his C0TT\:eX dQ%c\\\\iv>^ v>^ 
tha Ulterior iJi iho niorv credittbli) to hiui. 


Whon, on the contrary, the same Professor Qreaves, by 
aid of that yawning hiatus in the niasonry to the west dL 
the portcullis, got round and above that granite block 
obstruction between the entrance, and first ascending, pas- 
sages proper, and reached this latter work of the ancient 
builders, — ^a passage of the same breadth, nearly as the 
entrance or descending passage, — ^he then resumes his 
more graceful imagery, and writes : " The pavement of 
this rises with a gentle acclivity, consisting of smooth 
and impolished marble (limestone), and, where not 
smeared with filth, appearing of a white alabaster (cream) 
colour ; the sides and roof, as Titus livius Burretinus, 
a Venetian, an ingenious young man, who accompamed 
me thither, observed, were of impolished stone, not so 
hard and compact as that of the pavement, but more soft 
and tender." And I, in my turn, have now, 285 years 
after King C3iarles the First's professor of astronomy left 
the Pyramid, to report, as an apparent consequence of 
that tender softness described by him, that the upj>er 
part of the walls, and more especially the roof of much 
of this passage, have exfoliated or decayed to the extent 
of a foot or more in many places, — while the floor, on 
the other hand, has rather hardened to the feet (usually 
naked feet, though) of Arabs, and exhibits a peculiar 
change of the limestone actually verging upon the 
consistence of flint, yet keeping nearly true still to the 
ancient test marks of the floor level on either side wall. 

And then when he arrives in the far freer and more 
elevated space of the second ascending passage, or the 
Grand OaZleryy the fine old Oxford professor, who well 
knew what architectural beauties were, speaks of i^ as ** a 
very stately piece of work, and not inferiour either in 
respect of the curiosity of art, or richness of materials, 
to the most sumptuous and magnificent buildings." And 
again, " this gidlery or corridor, or whatsoever else I 
may eall it, is built of white and polished marble (lime- 



stone), tlio wliich is very ovmly cut in spacious s(iuan*s 
or tables. Of such materials as is the pavement, such 
is the roof, and such are the side walls that flank it ; the 
coagmentation or knitting of the joints is so close, that 
they are scarce discernible to a curious eye ; and that 
which adds grace to the whole structure, though it 
makes the passage the more slippery and difficult, is the 
acclivity and rising of the ascent. Tlie height of this 
gallery is 26 (more nearly 28) feet ; the breadth 0*870 
feet, of which 3 4 3. 5 feet are to be allowed for the way 
in the midst, which is set and bounded on both sides 
with two* banks (like benches) of sleek and polished 
st^ne ; each of these Imth 1*717 of a foot in breadth, 
and as much in depth."* 

" Upon the top of these benches, near the angle 
where they close and join M'ith the m'mII, are little 
spaces cut in right-angled parallel tigures, set on each 
side opposite one another, Itifnufetl^ no qucnilon, for 
w)7ne other end than ornamftit.'' 

" In the casting and ranging of the marbles (lime- 
stone), in both the side walls, there is one piece of 
architecture in my judgment veiy grjiorful, and that is 
that all the courses or rangi^s, which are but seven (so 
great are these stones), do set and riag over onci anotlier 
about three inches ; the bottom of the upi)ennost 
course overflagging tin* top of the next, and so in order 
the rest as they desctMid." 

In the edition of CSreaves's works bv Dr. Birch in 
1737, from which I quote, then* is an attempt to 
represent these things graphically, by tlu» book being 
" adorned with sculptures,'' and *' illustnited with cuts 

* By my measures in l8Go, in p^ininid incho^, and taikinp: a mean of 
all the variations cauteod by the tilo-8cttini; of tho titoiicri fnrmini; the 
ceiling or roof, the vcrticHl h<-ip:ht Ii(Mw«><mi slopini; t1iM>r, and paraUel 
sloping roof, was = 339*2, and the computed tnin8v< ivt* hoight — 304*1, 
the whole breadth boini? 82*2 ; tho lower brcadt)) bft wi*on thi> raiii]i8 = 42*0; 
and the ramps thomaelros 20-07 broad, and 20*90 hxgVv \i\ \.Yi« \.\^\\vi«EVI 
or ahortesl^ dmeUon. 


by a curious hand;" and in the great French work 
some efforts in a high class of design are engrayed in 
line, to represent perspective views looking both upward 
and downward in the Grand Qallery ; but they are all 
of them to some extent failures. The circumstances 
are above the scope of orthodox pictures by reason of 
the narrow breadth, the lofty vaulting height, and the 
very peculiar sloping angle of the long floor ; a floor, 
when one looks from its north end southward, ascending, 
and ascending through the darkness apparently for 
ever ; and with such steepness, that no artist's view of 
it, painted on a vertical plane, could ever -hope to 
represent more than a small part of that floor, rising 
upward through the whole canvas and going out at the 
top. While on looking northward from the south end 
of the gallery, you lose the floor instantly, and see on 
the level of your eyes in the distance, part of the 
steeply descending ceiling ; descending, too, still further 
and going out at the bottom of the picture, if your 
means of illumination extend so far. (See Plate XII.) 
Otherwise, it is the solemn overlappings of the high 
dark walls, passing you by on either side, to draw 
together in dim and unknown perspective beyond, 
which encase you in on every hand ; but all on an 
uneasy slant, speaking of toil in one direction, danger 
in another, and a mountain of strength for a prison 
house, if so required, everywhere. 

Modem Measures of the Passages. 

In the first edition of this book, I was positively 
puzzled to make out, let alone the mysterious Grand 
Gallery, the simple sizes of the smaller passages ; and 
erred considerably in choosing among the conflicting 
testimonies of former travellers. But a four months' resi- 
dence on the spot, most com^^lelely settled all that class 

ckaf. xvil] the great pyramid. 


of difficulties ; and enables me now to speak confidently 
thus : — ^Although there are some pieces of horizontal 
passage in the Great Pyramid, their length is as nothing 
compared to the length of the inclined passages. The 
angle of inclination in a vertical plane of these pas- 
sages is 26° 18' nearly, being the same whether the 
passages are ascending or descending (within errors 
of construction amounting to 1-1 20th of the wliole) ; 
and the transverse size, that is, breadth and height, 
excepting only the utterly diverse Grand Gallery, being 
also the same ; or at least, having certainly been so, 
before the abrading and exfoliating of the more " soft 
and tender " of the stones began. Confiuing my- 
self however, to well-preserved portions of the ancient 
surface, and just now to the entrance-passage alone, I 
obtained the following measures for its breadth and 

Kntkancb Pahsage. 
Breadth and trannvirKt height ax nhanitred in 1806. 

PIbm where the 


■Bade referred to 
the flour-jointe. 

4Ch Joint from 
Borth end of 

7th do. . 

Bthdo. . 

nth do.. 

net do.. 

Breadth from emet 
to went. 

Tranererse hoiifht. 



top of 


of waiU. I walLi. 

Eaet Hide ■ We»t side 

of I of 
paesagc. I piMittige. ' 


Brit. ine. ■■ 











Chipped 47*14 



TTho pionliar little 
' lioli'ff uf niu^b 
'. di-oiiTod Rurfaee 
L avoiucd. 

■ rSuppoHcd to be Pro- I 
' It'wor On-avee'e ' 
' J pVin* of mvarare, ' 
\\ whioh fravi' him 
I I 4r.'i6 of hia KngUah 
L inrhfs. 

rBmkm holpii in thin 
' p.'iit of tlio fluor I 
; from 12 to 18 inohee ; 
I flwp. j 

' f The top of Willi mea- I 
I ■iin-<l.w.iii what waa j 

< indirnti-d by the I 
I plttne of tlui roctf 




The maimer in which these numbers ran, will indicate 
to any practical man the dqpree of opportmiity which 
the Great Pyramid still presents for respectable accoiacy 
of measure, by those who will trouble themselyeB to 
seek out the best-preserved parts, and endeaTOur to 
do them justioa But what is the meaning of tibe 
word Imgld in the above table being qualified as 
" transverse height " ? 

These Pyramid passages being all of them inclined, 
have two sorts or kinds of height ; 1, franatwrM Aet^M, 
or the shortest distance between floor and ceiling, and 
which was the easier kind of height to measure accurately 
with the sliding scales which I had had constructed for the 
purpose ; and, 2, veriUcal height, or height in the direc- 
tion of a plumb-line, and the more usual, indeed almost 
the universal, mode of measuring heights in masonry 
structures elsewhere. 

Now, putting all the observations together, I deduced 
47*24 Pyramid inches to be the transverse height of 
the entrance passage ; and computing from thence with 
the observed angle of inclination the vertical height, 
that came out 62*76 of the same inches. But the sum 
of those two heights, or the height tiiken up and down, 
= 100 inches: which length, as elsewhere shown, is 
the general Pyramid linear representation of a day of 
24 hours. And the mean of the two heights, or the 
height taken one way only, and impartially to the 
middle point between them, = 60 inches : which 
quantity is, therefore, the general Pyramid linear 
representation of only half a day. In which case let 
us ask, what the entrance passage has to do lii'ith half, 
rather than a whole, day ? 

Astronomy of the Entrance Passage, 

If you descend at night a certain distance down the 
slbpiDg AooT of the entrance passage, and then turn 

Chap. XVII.] THE GREA T PVR A MID. 3 1 3 

round and look upwards and towards the north, to its 
open mouth, you will see any large star whose distance 
is S"" 42' nearly from the Pole, if it should chance to be 
crossing the meridian at that moment in the lower part 
of its daily circle : — always supposing that there is at 
this present time a star at that distance, bright enough 
to be easily seen by the naked eye ; and indt^od there is 
such a one very nearly in the required position, viz., 
S Ursae minoris, 3** 24' from the Polar point. 

But that star was not always there ; being carried 
on and on through an immense celestial round at the 
rate of about 1 2 degrees nearly, for every thousand years, 
by that grand mechanism of the earth and the heavens 
called amongst astronomers the precession of the equi- 
noxes ; — the most important too of all celestial pheno- 
mena for fixing the exact chronology of the earlier periods 
of man upon earth. It was Sir John Hersclu^l who, in 
answer to a letter from Colonel Howard- Vvse on his 
return from his immortal Pyramid exj>lonitions in 
Egypt, in 1837-8, first laid down the application of 
that essential a.stronomical law with regard to the ( Jreat 
Pyramid. And, indeed, he did more ; for, assuming 
the pre^nUing idea of his (hen time, that the (Jreat 
Pyramid's foundation was somewhere about 4,()()() years 
ago, he searched the starry heavens, as moving under the 
influence of precession, and found that, for all the last 
5,000 vears, onlv one notable star had been at the re- 
quired Polar distance, so as to look exactly down the 
descending entranc<vpassage of the Great Pyramid at its 
— the star s — lower meridian culmination ; and that 
star — a Draconis bv modern name — was in that critical 
|K)sition somewhere about 2100 u.c. That date there- 
fore made up with 1838 (and excluding for the time 
four possibly unrecorded years at the beginning t)f our 
era), 3,908 years ago as the epoch of the passagii ang^' 
being laid, to suit a chronological \A\ot\ow\o\\v>\v q\! 


cellent astronomical kind, and peculiar to the Pyramid 
builders' day. 

This near agreement of general Egyptological theory, 
as it was in London in 1840 A. D., with the result of 
computations by modetn astronomy when adapted to 
measures of stiU existing jEetcts at the Great Pyramid, 
seemed to take the English world by a storm of 
admiration ; and eveiy one allowed, for a while, that the 
whole afi^ was quite settled. But, alas I those were 
simple, innocent days under good Eang William and 
the quiet Queen Adelaide. The up-springing of German 
theology in this country, and the demands of natural- 
history science overleaping itself, and calling out every- 
where for long dates, were scarcely begun ; and the 
only opposition then ventured was from certain literary 
Egyptologists, who protested that the astronomy of Sir 
John Herschers paper was only an accidental coincidence 
with the passage-angle ; because said passage, having 
been made, as they knew, merely to slide a sarcophagus 
down to its resting-place, and having been filled up 
choke full to its mouth, after that was done, with solid 
blocks of stone, it could not have been used as an 
observatory by astronomers. 

The first answer to this Egyptologic protest, was easy 
enough. Sir John Herschel had not said that the pas- 
sage was intended to serve as a permanent observatory ; 
but that its cream-white, stone-lined, long tube seemed 
to menwrialize a particular phenomenon of the day when 
it was being built, and of that day only ; a record, 
therefore, by memorial astronomy (whatever other prac- 
tical use the passage may, or may not, have served), 
of a special sidereal fact, to become increasingly impor- 
tant in distant ages for the purpose of chronology. 

That explanation holds perfectly true still. But 
with regard to the other part of the question, as to 
whether Sir John HerscheVs astronomical conclusion 


is still to be held as confirming, and confirmed by, the 
date arrived at by the very latest studies of the Egyj^to- 
logists among the uncertain documents of profane and 
idolatrous Egypt (generally too, long subsecjuent to the 
Great Pyramid's foundation) ; alas ! what a change had 
passed over London society by the time that it had 
come to be my turn to go out to the Great Pyramid 
in 1864, and print upon it in 1867» 8, and 9 ! 

Thtn to talk of 4,000 years ago for the Great 
Pyramid's date of foundation ! All Egyj)tologists of any 
pretension had learned to sconi such a petty conception ; 
and had begun to assert entirely new epochs, ranging any- 
where between 5,200 and 0,600 years ago. Where- 
upon, one-half at least of Sir John Herschers hitherto 
applauded grounds of confinnation, for his astronomical 
date of the Great Pyramid, fell to pieces at once ; and 
ha was left, wdth his astronomy alone, in enormous 
opposition to, and violent discrepance from, instead of 
singular agreement with, the idol-studying Egyptologists 
of our universities and nniseums. 

Moreover, as soon as I came to extend Sir John 
Herschers computations, it appeared that when the star 
a Draconis, had in a manner chanced to come to that 
passage-angle distance from the Pole in about 2160 u.c., 
— it was from a nearer, instead of a further, polar distance 
which the star had previously occupied. In which case, 
the said star must have been at some still earlier age 
at the passage-angle distance once again. Indeed, instead 
of merely approaching the precession circle from the out- 
side, it had pas.sed through a small segment of it, and 
so made a double appulse ; but the star s first occasion 
of being at the Pyramid passage angle distance from 
the Polo was earlier still, and had taken place some- 
where about 3440 B.C. 

Here then was a most divided duty : 3440 B.i 
might satisfv somo of the Noo\og\aus a\\\o\i^ owx ^ 


learned Egyptologists of the last ten years, though 
certainly not all. But then, what case could be made 
out, independently of all Egyptology of the profiEUie 
order, for choosing 3440 B.C., as better than 2160 blc, 
or vvce verad t There were no astronomical reasons 
then known appl3ring to one occasion, more than the 
other; Colonel Howard- Yyse was dead; Sir John 
Herschel remained silent ; a noisy military man would 
persist that Sir John now agreed with him in main- 
taining that the peculiar passage-angle was chosen for 
easy sarcophagus sliding alone; and the astronomical 
world, whatever the reason why, would give the subject 
no attention. 

The Great Pyramid! 8 Use of a Polar Star, 

But there was happily more in the ancient Great 
Pyramid than any one had suspected, and it began to 
manifest itself thus, — 

Did not the very entrance passage, chiefly concerned 
in the affair, speak by its 50, in place of 100, inch 
height, to a half, and not a whole day ; or a 1 2-hour 
interval for some purpose unknown ? And did not the 
axis of the passage point, not to the one, central pole 
of the sky, where, if visible at all, the upper and lower 
culmination of any close polar star would be equally 
seen, but to a region of lower culmination only ? 

This was indeed the fact ; and no one had yet asked, 
" Why did the builders memorialize, out of the two 
meridian passages of their circumpolar star in every 24 
hours, only the lower, less visible, less important culmin- 
ation of the two ?" Neither had any one yet inquired, 
" What did any reasonable man, whether of the Pyramid, 
or any other, day intend or mean, if tiTne was his object, 
by observing the transit, whether above or below the 
Pole, of a cloae circumpolar star ; and of that kind of 
star only ?" 


THAI'. X V 1 1 . 1 TIIK GRI'L I T P) 'A\ I MID. 3 1 7 

Why ! such a star moves so slowly, by roivsou of the 
very small size of its daily circle in the sky, that the 
iiistant of its passing the meridian is ditHcult to observe 
and decide on even with modern telescopic power ; and 
no observer in his senses, in any existing observator)-, 
when seeking to obtain the time, would observe tlie 
transit of a circumpolar stai* for anything else than to 
get the direction of the meridian to adjust hin instrument 
by. But having done that, he would tlicn turn said 
instrument round in the vertical plane of the meridian 
so ascertained and observe an equatorial, or at least a 
zodiacal, star : such star luoving diurnally at gi-eat si)eed 
througli the sky, by reason of its large circle extending 
through the heavens above, and the heavens below, the 
earth. And then such astronomer would obtain the 
time with proper accuracy and eminent certainty. 

Now to myself, who have been an astronomical transit 
observer for a great part of my life, it inmiediately 
occurred, that the nan*ow entrance-passage of the Great 
Pyramid directed up northward, looked verj' like a jwlar 
pointer ; while the grand gallery rising ui> southwards 
at an opposite angle, and with its high walls scored 
with long and broad bands, looked amazingly like a 
reminder of the equatorial zone ; though being a closed- 
iu passage it could be only for memorial, and not at all 
for observing, astronomy. And as iu the meanwhile 
my daily a{)prentice work in 18G5 to the original 
builders, by measuring every joint of the stones wluTe- 
vrith they had constructed the Pynimid's interior, had 
inevitably led me to see, that wherever there was any 
size, sha[>e, or |)osition executed in sujjerior workman- 
ship and better quality of stone, there was a reason for 
it, — why then I ventured to argue thus, — 

The ancient architect's reason whv the entrance- 
|)assage {>oints to the lon^r or less important cuhniua- 
tion only of lis polar star, a Dracouis, i^ Wcwu^v: ;x AStfW 


important star was at the same moment 12 hoars 
distant from it ; and therefore at its upper culmina- 
tion, or crossing the meridian above the Pole; and 
for chronological purposes such more important star 
must be a zodiacal, if not absolutely an equatorial, one. 
Was there then at either the date 3440 blc, or the later 
2160 B.C. (at each of which dates, but at no other for 
26,000 years, a Draconis was, when crossing the 
meridian each day below the Pole, equally at the 
entrance-passage angle of height), was there any notable 
zodiacal or equatorial star in the general southern direc- 
tion of the grand gallery, rather than in the northern 
one of the entrance-passage, and crossing the meridian 
at that moment high in mid-heaven there ? 

Now here was a question put by the Pyramid's actual 
construction, and to be answered by astronomy alone ; or 
without any of the Egyptologists, with all their lore of 
false gods and animal idolatry, having anything to do 
with it. 

The answer too might have come out, either that 
there was no signal zodiacal star in such a position at 
either date ; or there might have been such stars at both 
dates, and then no discrimination could have been 
effected. But the answer that did come out was, that no 
such star existed at the circumpolar star's lower transit 
of 3440 B.C., but that there was one most eminently 
and exactly in position at the 2160 B.C., or rather 2170 
B.C., circumpolar transit ; and that well-fitting zodiacal 
star was t/ Tauri. (See Plates XIV., XV.) 

The Pleiades Tear, 

Now rj Tauri is not a very large or bright star in 

itself, but then it is the centre of a group of stars more 

bound up with human history, hoi)es, and feelings than 

&Djr other tliroughout the sky, viz., the Pleiades ; and 



r„Ai-. XVII.: 77//-: (U^7':AT 7'y7^AMin. ^ig 

tborc have been traditions for long, Avlionoo arising I 
know not, that the seven overlappings of tlio gniiid 
galleiy, so impressively described by Professor Greaves, 
had something to do with the Pleiades, tliose proverbially 
seven stars of the primeval world, though already re- 
duced to six (i.e., six visible to the ordinary naked 
eye), so early as the time of the Latin poet Virgil. 

Here then is what those overlai)pings had to do ; viz., 
to symbolize the Pleiades in the memorial, not obsen'ing, 
astronomy of the Pyramid in an earlier day than Virgil's; 
for the Pleiades evidently were, th facto, the su])erior, 
equatorial, or time, star to be taken in concert with the 
inferior transit of the circumpolar a Draconis on the 
opposite side of tli<^ sky. And how well they performed 
their part, and how capable thoy were of it, appeared 
from this further result of calculation, that whrn they, 
the Pleiades, crossed the meridian at midnight above 
the Pole, while a Draconis was crossing below the Pole, 
for the second cosmical occasion, <it the pavt'iriilur dis- 
tance frorn the Pole iiu1lcat*'i1 hy the entnivrr-jHisstif/e, — 
that night was the evening, or autumnal, beginning of 
the primeval year, and iHraimp the Ph'iadt's wrre then 
at 0** right ascension, or in the celfstial meridian of 
the equinoctial point. Or again, th(\v were by the same 
fact at the eommencrment of that grand celestial cycle 
of the precession of the equinoxes, wherein and wliereby 
they are destined, in apparent movement, to progress 
onward and onward at the rtite t)f a little more than 3 
seconds of time in a year, until after not li*ss than 25,8^7 
years they return to the same position again. 

Tliis grand (piantity, or ])eeuliar celestial cycle, is 
further IVramidicallv defined bv, ami>nirst other inten- 
tional features, the lengtli of the diagoiuils <ir the base, 

which so emin«»nt]v lav i>ut the whole (Sreat IVramitrs 

• • • 

position ; when their stim is reckoned up in Ituhftf, at 
the rate of a Pyramid inch to a veur. 


In the little portion of history which iB all that 
modem astronomy can daim to have flourished in, the 
following are some of the principal determinationB of 
this period of the precession of the equinoxes : — • ' 

By Tyoho Brahe — 26,816 yean. 
H BioBibliif —25,920 „ 
,, QMdni —24,800 „ 

,9 Bndlinr —26,740 „ 
„ Bevel —26,868 „ 

No one whateyer amongst men, from his own, or 
school, knowledge knew anything about such a pheno- 
menon until Hipparchus, some .1,900 years after the 
Great Pyramid's foundation, had a glimpse of the £ftct ; 

— and yet it had been ruling the heavens for ages, and 
was recorded in Jeezeh*s ancient structure. 

Virgil, 200 years later still than Hipparchus, just as 
might be expected of a poet, was greater in tradition 
than astronomical observation ; and when he uses the 
phrase,* that it is " the constellation of the white Bull 
with the golden horns, which opens the year," many of 
our own scientific commentators have wondered what 
Roman Virgil could mean, by claiming as a phenomenon 
for his own day, that which the precession of the 
Equinoxes had caused to cease to be true 2,000 years 
before his time, and had given to Arit% instead. 

No profane philosopher or academic observer of any 
country in the world is known to have lived at the epoch 
when that Virgilian phrase about Taurus vxis true. 
How and wherefore then came such an appearance of 
the heavens, true only in the Pyramid's age, to become 
fixed in the minds of the Romans, and Etruscans too, 
not themselves much given to observing science of 
any kind, for twenty centuries ? How also came it 
about, according to the documents collected with so 
much rare skill and research (and partially published 

* Quididus auntie apetit cum coniibu« amiuui TMurui. 


many years ago) by Mr. R. (}. Halibiirton, of Halifax, 
Xova Scotia, that amongst the orUjines of ahnost all 
nations, and among many unaltered savage tribes still, 
sucLas Australians, Fijians, Mexicans, and many others 
(peoples never reached by the Romans), a similar 
beginning of the year to that described by Virgil 
is still peri)etuated ; the Pleiades, or the star group 
chiefly characterising the constellation of the Hull, being 
annually appealed to ; and in Australia, most stnmge 
to say, by precisely the Pyramid method, in so far that 
the natives there be«/in their vear on the night when 
"they see most of the Pleiades ;'* otherwise, when they 
continue to s^^o them all the night through, from their 
rising at sunset to tlu'ir setting at sunrise ; and that 
must be when they, the Pleiades, cross the meridian at 

But, just as the Romans stuck to those stars in them- 
selves alone, and saw not that th^'V ha<l left the fiducial 
test of the equinoctial j)oint by .'U)', — so the Australians 
stick to them still, imi)licitly, not seeing that the same 
point is now 54** removed from th(^m ; and that the 
Pleiades stars themselves, from the ett'eut of 4,000 vt;ars 
of precession, never now rise high in thost* southern 
skies. But that is a test, in so far, of ^rhen those 
peoples first received thnt system of sidereal chronology 
to hold, which is only found in all its completeness, 
and with testimony as to the date of its beginning, and 
fitness then for all inhabited lands, laid ui) in the (Jreat 
Pyrami<l building. (Set? Plates XV. ami XVI.) 

Tran^endenf alliums of the Great Pyntmhl At<froi}omy. 

Now the onlv source from whence on»» uniform system 
of sidereal chrouolo<'v, and whieh, though endued with 
a change in respect to the s«»asons, yet changes so .slowly 
year by year and generation after go\\ot\\.V\o\i «a \*i 



require 26,000 years before it passes through all the 
seasons, — the only source, I say^ from whence it could 
have emanated in that early age of the world, and been 
impressed upon the origines of all races of mankind, is, 
was, and can only be. Divine inspiration. Not the in- 
&llible Divine power in itself : that would have created 
stars for such purpose alone; and then they would 
have been absolutely perfect for such end : but Divine 
inspiration accorded to more or less Mlible men. 

Here, accordingly, what we are called upon to 
observe, may rather remind one of that which Josephus 
records of the descendants of Seth, viz., that they studied 
astronomy of themselves first, though eventually under 
the approval of, and with some peculiar assistance from, 
the Almighty. The Sethites then, as men, only sought 
to make the best use, and turn to the most practical 
account, whatever was already created and existing in 
the sky, in the shape of stars suitable for observa- 
tion: — ^and which stars we shall find, in the present 
day, on pushing both observation and calculations to 
the extreme of modem science, were by no means in 
themselves absolutely perfect. The orbs of heaven had 
indeed been created long before the foundation of the 
Great Pyramid, and doubtless for many other purposes 
than defining the Pleiades year to mankind upon 
earth. But, take those stars 4,000 years ago, as they had 
been already set in motion by the Divine power a^ons 
on seons of ages before the Pyramid day, — and you will 
find that they did, at that epoch, come quite near 
enough to form an excellent practical chronological 
system of the kind indicated ; and no better mode of 
utilizing those actual phenomena of the starry sky, nor 
any better choice among the stars, ever has been 
imagined since then, in any country of the world 

Thus, to moderate observation (and with far greater 
accuracy than the annals of profane history of mankind 


have been kept to), all these hereinafter following fea- 
tures may be said, in ordinary terms, to obtain ; — 

1. The Great Pyramid is astronomically oriented in 

its sides ; and its passages are in the plane of 
the meridian. 

2. The entrance-passage points 3° 42' vertically 

below the Pole of tlie sky. 

3. In the year 2170 b.c. a Draconis was 3** 42' from 

the Pole of the sky, and tlicrefore looked riglit 
down the axis of the entrsince-passago, when at 
its lowest culmination. 

4. When a Draconis was so looking down the 

entrance-passjige, >/ Tauri, the cliiff star in the 
Pleiades group, was crossing the l«)cal tciTCStrial 
meridian, at a jioint high up in the sky, near 
the equator, and simultaneously with the celes- 
tial meridian of the vomal equinox. 

5. That whole stellar combination had not taken 

place for 25,000 years j^reviously, and will not 
take place again for 25,000 years subsetjuently. 
It has not consequently repeated itsilfyet in all 
the history of the human race, as tlu' Sothiac 
cycle, the Pha^nix cycle and other cliroUDlogical 
inventions of the profane Egyptian priests, long 
after the P}Tamid day, have done again and 
again, to the lamentable confusion of dates in 
the Pagan world. 

But if the calculations on which the above Pvmmid 
results are founded, shall be pushed to nimh greater 
refinement, or to portions of space invisible to the 
naked eye, — it then apix^ars that (1) the Pole-star, when 
it was 3** 42' from the Pole, (2) the e<iuatorial star 
opposite to it, and (3) the celestial meridiaw o( \ktf 
equinox^ irere not all of them on tlie Vvrauuv^ ^ TStfn 



dian, below and above the Pole, predady at the same 
instant, either in the year S170 B.a, or in any other 
year ; and this from fedlure of the phyidcal stars to be 
mathematically accurata 

But our present difficulty is n6t by any means entirely 
confined to the stars, in their places, not being as exact 
as if they had been created originally for no other than 
the above purpose ; for there are hindrances also to 
modem astronomy, in precisely realizing everything 
that has taken place in Nature during the last 4,000 
years. Two astronomers, for ii&tance, using the same 
data, may compute back the place of a given star 4,000 
years ago from its present place, and they shall agree 
to a second in the result ; but it does not therefore follow 
that the star was as precisely there at that time, as though 
a contemporary chronologist had observed it then ; for 
proper motion, and variations of proper motion, may 
exist, quite unknown to the short period of surveillance 
over the stars yet enjoyed by modem astronomy, and 
totally overturning the physical accuracy of the calcu- 
lations. Some of the quantities, too, of the celestial 
mechanics concerned, such as the precise amount of the 
very precession of the equinoxes itself, may have been 
erroneously assumed, and never can be ascertained per- 
fectly by man. The numerical values of such quantities 
do, in fact, vary at the same time between one astro- 

' nomer and another (unless both were brought up in the 
same school), and also from one generation to another 
of astronomers at diiFerent times ; just as most of the 
living directors of Observatories are disputing at this 
present moment as to what is the precise distance of 
the earth from the sun ; and all of them differ, even by 
a large total quantity, from what all their brethren, and 
themselves too, used to hold only twenty years ago. 
After, therefore, doing my best with the Pyramid stiir 

calculationa, and publishing my Tesvilt, together with a 


repetition of Sir John Herschers, so far as it went, I 
advertised, after a manner, in the name of science, for 
help from other astronomers, — ^in the way of each of 
them computing the whole of the quantities with the 
data he now thinks best, and also with the data most 
approved in the astronomical world of his youth, as well 
as with the quantities thought correct at the end of the 
last century. 

But none of them have ventured to expose to modem 
society the weiiknesses of their favourite science, mul- 
tiplied by 4,000 years ; and I should have been left 
without anything whatever to show from other modern 
quarters, but for the kindness of Dr. Briinnow, Astro- 
nomer-Royal for Ireland, who, kindly and without 
needing any second asking, perfonned the first jiart of 
my request : that is, witli the quantities whicli lie now 
thinks should be adopted as correct, he most ably, and 
by special methods of astronomy which no one in all 
the world understands better than himself, computed 
the following numbers : — 

(1) m, Draconis was for the fint timo at the dlBtanco of 

3* 41' 60" from the Pole in the year . . =» 3443 B.C. 

(2) It was at the least distance from thu Polu, or 0'* 3' 25 ', 

in the year = 2790 „ 

(3) It was for the M'cond time at the distance of 3' 41' 42^ 

from the Pole in the year = 2136 „ 

(4) 9 Tanri (Alcyone of the Pleiuden) was in the same 

riffht ascension as the equinoctial |>oint in the yoar == 2248 „ 
when' it crossed the meridian above the Pol»*, 3** 47' 
north of Uie Equator, with a DmconiH cri»ti.Hing^ beluw , 

the Pole, nearly, hut not exactly, at the same 
instant, and 3* 3' from the Polar p >int. 
(6) m, Dxaoonis and q Tauri were exactly opposite to each 
other, su that one of them c<»uld be ou the m 'Hdian 
ahovo the Pole, and the other on thenu'ridi)tnb<'l>>w 
the Pole, at the same abaolute imslant, only at the 

date of ' . . = 1574 „ 

but when aU the other data diverged largely. 

We have now to deal with the three lust dates. Of 
these three, the two first evidently include betweer 
them my own j>tq\\o\x^ mean nuaullly ot ^YlVi T^^ 


but the third differs extravagantly. NeverthelesSy the 
visible effect in the sky of that one apparently very large 
difference in absolute (2a^, is merely this, according to 
Dr. Briinnow's computation ; viz., that when 9; Tauri, 
or the Pleiades, were crossing the meridian above the 
Pole, at my Pyramid date of 2170 B.C., a Draconis was 
not doing the same thing, exactly beneath the Pole, at 
the same instant ; for the star was then at the distance 
of O"" 1 7^ west of the meridian. But it would have been 
doing the same thing perfectly, according to an entrance- 
passage observation of it, if the northern end of that 
passage had been made to trend 17' westward, still 
keeping to its observed angular height in the vertical 
plane ; viz., 26** 18'. 

Whereupon comes the question whether, — granting 
temporarily that Dr. Brunnow*s excellent calculations in 
modem astronomy replace everything that has happened 
in Nature during the last 4,000 years, — whether that 
17' of the Pole-star s west distance from the meridian 
was a thing of moment ; — and if so, is this the first 
occasion on which it has been discovered ? 

Seventeen minutes of space, or less than the thousandth 
part of the azimuthal scale, is but a small quantity for 
any one to appreciate in all the round of the blue 
expanse, without instniments ; and the first effort of 
Greek astronomy 1,800 years after the Pyramid was 
built, is reported to have been the discovery that the 
Pole-star of that day, then 6 degrees from the Pole, 
was not as they, the Greeks, had previously held, €<cactly 
on the Pole. 

Greek and other profane nations, then, had been in 
the habit of overlooking, long, long after the epoch of 
the Pyramid, an error twenty times as great as this 
which is charged on the Great Pyramid astronomy by 
the science of precision which has now been elaborated 
amongst men after a lapse oi 4&,QQQ >}%»x%. 

Obap- XVIL] the great PYRAMID. 327 

And yet it was not all error either, on the part of the 
Great Pyramid. For here we should take account of 
the result of my observations in 1865, when I succeeded 
in comparing the directions of both the outside of the 
Pyramid, the axis of the entrance-passage, and the axis 
of the azimuth trenches"*^ separately and successively 
with the Polar star. These observations were made 
with a powerful altitude-azimuth instrument, reading oft' 
its angles with micrometer-microscopes to tenths of 
seconds ; and the results were, that everything trended 
at its north end towards the t«;c^^, — the azimuth trenches 
by 19 minutes, the socket-sides of the base by 5 minutes, 
and the axis of the entrance passage by more nearly 4 
minutes and a half 

What could all these features have been laid out for 
with this slight tendency to west of north ? was a 
question which I frecjuently pondered over at the Great 
Pyramid, and sometimes even accused the earth's sur- 
fiwje of having shifted with resj)ect to its axis of rotation 
during 4,000 years. Ikit now the true explanation 
would appear to be, that the Seth-descended architect, 
knowing perfectly well the want of exact correspondence 
between his polar and equatorial stars (thougli they 
were the best in the sky), had so adjusted in a minute 
degree the position of the Great Pyramid wlien building 
it, as to reiluce any error in his Pleiades system of 
chronology, arising out of the stellar discrepance, to a 
minim UTii. Whence the fact of the ivettteni divergence 
of the north pointing of the entrance-passage as detected 
by the modem astronomy observations in 18G5, com- 
bine<l with the computation in 1871, — becomes the most 
convincing practical proof of intention, and not accident, 
having guided all tliese time-arrangements at the Great 

• See "Life and Work," vol. ii. pp. \%h \» \^^, 




IN the circles of those very learned men in modem 
society who go on continually studying the idolatrous 
contents of the Egyptian galleries in the British, and 
other, museums (and are known as hierologists, hiero- 
glyphiologists, Egyi)tologists, anti-Biblical archa)ologists, 
&c.), are found the doughtiest of those champions who 
are so ready in these days to insist, that "whereas 
Gtenesis was written by Moses, and Moses was for many 
years of his life a priest among the Egyptians, who were 
a wejdthy and civilized nation when the progenitors of 
the Israelites were still merely wandering shepherds, 
always on the verge of starvation ; while moreover, 
according to the New Testament itself (Acts vii. 22), 
Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," 
— that therefore Moses must have copied all the best 
things he has put into Genesis, and his other books 
also, from those deeply wise instructors he had lived 
¥dth for forty years, viz., the Egyptian priests. 

On this question, much defence of the Divine in- 
spiration, verauLS the Egyptian education, of tlie re- 
sponsible author of the Pentateuch has been written in 
the world, from the literary side ; but not always with 
so much special point as might have been done from 
the mechanical, or rather the scientific, point of view. 

Mere literature, for mstance, \^ non'^VwsafeA o.t once 


cmvi. xviii.; Tin: i^REAT PVRAMin. :,i<) 

by the liitTologists when tlnn^ oonteud with positivism, 
by methods where ehussic book-leiiriiiiig is powerless, for 
a civilized Egypt during 13,000 years and more; some 
of them even mounting up to 300,000 years, and 
declaring tliat they are just as firmly convinced of its 
history so obtained (and therefore of the gnidual 
human growth, and natund progressive develojjment of 
all that knowledge, utilized at last so happily by 
Moses) as of any event in fJnfjlinh history under the 
reigns of the Stuarts. Tliese men also allege points of 
community between the laws of Moses and those of 
ancient i^ypt; w^hich laws they say he must have 
read, because they were actually written and in books 
long before his time, together with a vast amount of 
literature, including even novt.'ls, and something very 
like the story of Joseph, in the highly-i>olislie(l society 
flourishing, according to them from time truly imme- 
morial, on the quiet banks of the Nile. 

The refuge here (and in so far, a very ]»r<)per one) 
of the Biblical literarv men, set;ms to bi» chii^tlv, that 
those tremendous hierologist and Egyptologist dates 
have never been provetl to the satisfaction of others 
than the dimgerous, if not m)i-*l}santy hierologists 
themselves ; while, its for the points of community, or 
rather, merely similar comph^xion, between the Ei^^yp- 
tian and the Mosaic laws, thev exist onlv in certain 
subsidiary fonns required for social order and politicid 
indei>endence ; and are such as a common human 
nature, with a like geographical position, clironologiwd 
epoch, and tnulitional information from Uibel, would 
have infallibly pn>duct»d, mort» or less, amon^^^st any 
set of people endowed with brains, and some little 
desire to amend their position in th<^ world. And then 
there comes also, to everv real believer in the funila- 
meutul doctrine of Christianitv, this furtlu'r vuvd 
gnmder result, Howin^f from a philosoYAv\eu\ uvwi^Vv^^- 


tion of the two systems as wholes ; viz., that the real 
essence of the Mosaic law is as totally distinct firom 
that of the Egyptian, as any two anta^nisms in the 
world of man can possibly be. For while they are both 
founded on, and for, religion, — ^the Egyptian system 
bases on Cainite assertions and. re-assertions of self- 
righteousness, and a multitude of gods, half animal 
and half man — some of them, too, not a little obscene 
(to an extent which makes us wonder at several modem 
European govemments reproducing their portraits one 
after the other in costly folios and large-sized plates, 
for the information of the public of the present day), — 
who is there, of those who have felt the saving grace 
of Christ's sacrifice, who cannot see, as the ruling prin- 
ciple in Moses, the most magnificent, and particular, 
rebellion against all that would-be power of man in 
the high places of the earth ; and a grand assertion 
both of the one, true, and only living God, the Creator 
of all things, and the sinfulness of man in Hia sight ? 

The holy zeal, too, of Moses, and his earnest self- 
sacrificing for the cause of God, and his anxiety to 
show Him at once accessible by prayer, through an 
appointed method of sin-offering and mediation to everj' 
one both rich and poor, are the liveliest contrasts that 
can well be imagined to the sordid routine of an 
Egyptian priesthood, placing itself immovably, for its 
own gain, between the people and their gods, such as 
they were. 

Of the Number Five. 

But the most decided overthrow of the modem 
hierologists comes involuntarily from themselves, when 
they attempt to handle the mechanical part of the 
question ; for, to a great extent, what they, the hiero- 
logists, have long been contending for, and have suc- 
ceeded at last in proving, — -Va ^^^^^1 ^^^ 'which 

C»tf . xvni.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 331 

enables us to say most positively that a cubit measuring- 
rod of the Mosaic, and Newton-proved, length of 25 
I^rramid inches, and which has such extraordinary 
scientific value in its earth-axis commensurability, and 
was made so much of by Moses in the Tabernacle of 
the Wilderness, — was no j^art or parcel of the wisdom 
of the profane Egyj^tians during any portion of their 
historical career ; and could not, therefore, have been 
learned or borrowed from them by any one. 

And though the best ethnological theory of the 
Egyptians be tliat which makes them, not Ethiopians 
descending the Nile from the interior of Africa, nor 
Indian Aryans migrating by sea from Ik)mbiiy, but 
Asiatics and Caucasians entering by the Isthmus of Suez 
into Lower Eg}'pt, and ascending the course of the river 
—there seems no reason whatever to conclude that 
they had previoiiKly, wherever their previous existence 
had been passed, either received or adopted that peculiar 
measure of 25 inches, which Sir Isaac Newton considers 
the laiXLelites possessed, long before their going down 
into Eg}7)t. 

Not only, too, may it be further said, from this cubit- 
measure side of tlie question, that recent researclies hiivo 
proved the astonishing vitality of standards of measure 
through enonnous intervals of time ; and that an invo- 
luntary change of a people's standard from the Egyptian 
20*7 to the He])rew and Pvmmid 2 5 inelu's, or vice 
ttrsd, was never yet seen in the history of the world ; 
but it may be argued, that the ancient Egj-ptians, 
whatever faults they nuiy have had, were Irnth j^olitieally 
and socially a most conservative, mt^thodical, an<l or- 
derly people, with an immense taste for mechanics, and 
a marvellous appreciation of measure ; so that they 
vould be the last nation in the world, let alone their 
religious ideas on the topic, to lose or mistake tlv&vt 
hereditary standards. In fact, one oi lYi^^ vXmi ^>f!fiSO 


tions wliich a late French writer brings against those 
ancient Egyptians is, that they had no genius, no in- 
vention ; that they were only dull plodders at routine 
work ; and, besides never having had a great poet or a 
great warrior, they were actually so low in the scale of 
humanity, as never to have had a revolutionist of any 
kind or degree amongst them. 

We may therefore with perfect safety, and hierolo- 
gists' support too, regard the length of 20*7 inches as 
the veritable and admitted hereditary measure of all 
Pharaonic Egyptians ; and the one which, if they had 
been copied from by any other nation or mere indi- 
vidual, would have been the length imitated and faith- 
fully reproduced. 

Moses, consequently, in making the distinguished use 
which he did, not of that length of 20*7, but of the 
very dififerent length of 25 inches, was decidedly not 
taking anything out of the knoA^Ti msdom-book of the 
Egyptians ; or anything which their amount and species 
of learning would have enabled them intentionally to 
arrive at and perceive the cosmical virtues of 

And not only so, too ; for if, with the absolute 
length of the Pyramid • standard, Moses adopted its 
Pyramidic sub-division also into 5x5 parts, he was 
adopting something which was particularly hateful to 
the Egyptians. Why it was so, does not appear ; but 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson speaks of 5 as being the " evil 
number" in Modem Egj'pt* still; it is marked by 
on their watches ; and 5 x 5, or anything made up of 
5, would seem to have been always repulsive there. 

Particularly galling, therefore, to the old Egyjitians it 
must have been to have seen the Israelites, when they 
escaped from bondage and went out of the country 
** with an high hand," itself a symbol of 5, — especially 

• Murray'B 1864 "UandXwoVloi^^^V' ^. U2. 




giiUing to tlicir spirits to sre their lato slaves ^o up, 
marshalled by " 5 in a rank," out of the land of Egypt ; 
for so is the literal translation of the word expressed 
" harnessed/' in Exodus xiii. 18 of the English Bible. 

The whole of that affair must, no doubt, have been 
hateful, as well as disastrous, to the Egyptians ; and 
they indulged themselves afterwards in some very con- 
temptuous phrases about it. Tliey said, for instance, as 
appears from the relics of Manetho,* handed down to us 
firom various authors, that some persons, under a rene- 
gade priest of Heliopolis named " Moyses," had been 
thrust out of Egypt by the king ; and they were a very 
abominaV)le set indeed, for not only were they all lepers 
and unclean, but their number is given as the very evil 
one of 250,000, or 5 x 50,000. 

Their real number is giv(*n by the Bible as something 
very different from this, as well as their sUite ; but it 
was a mode of blackening them to the Egj'ptians for 
E^'ptian puq)Oses in more ways than one ; and simi- 
larly, when the ** Hyksos," or ** Shepherd Kings," t also 
much abominateil by the Egyptians, established them- 
selves in Avaris, in a remarkablv inconvenient manntT 
to Egyptian polity, they were described as men '* of an 
ignoble race," and in number also ** 250,000." 

Of the Booh of Joh. 

But Moses had none of this unwis*^ and anti-Pvramid 
hatred of 5 and times of 5 ; and though his first 
arrangement of years was the Sabbatical one of a "week 
of years," his m»xt, and by far tht? most important onr, 
the grand standard, in fact, of sacred time, was the 
jubilee of 5x10 years; a number which, with the 

• "Penny CvrloprtHlia/* p. \\K 

f GUddoliB *' Aiiciout Kgypl,'* p. 0^. 


similar arrangement of days fiNr the feast of Ftoteoost, 
brings up again the number of inches frequently 
referred to as an important standard in the Eing*s 
Chamber and the passages of the Great Pyramid. 

It is also worthy of note, that the whole of the sacred 
law was arranged on a system of five books ; five, too, 
expressly so called in the " Pentateuch ;" and this over- 
shadowing of Israel, in this place, by the number 6, 
seems even to have had some special intention in it 
For when the best critics have pronounced so decidedly 
as they have done, and on completely other grounds, 
that the Book of Job was either completely written, or 
finally put into its present shape, by Moses, and by no 
one else, in spite of some modem theories, — yet cannot 
find the smallest reason for its anomalous position in the 
Bible, far away from all the other books of the same 
inspired writer, — it may be suggested that one reason was, 
to prevent the unity and proportions of the five books 
of the " Pentateuch," as a system and symbol of 5, being 
interfered with. 

Each of the books of the " Pentateuch " depends on 
the other ; or, at least, Deuteronomy refers to Exodus, 
Jjeviticus, and Numbers, and they refer to Genesis ; but 
not one of them refers to Job, and Job does not l-efer to 
any of them. 

Yet surely the Bible itself would have been incom- 
j)lete without the Book of Job, and all its lessons of 
supreme piety, humility, and wisdom. In the " Penta- 
teuch," somewhat fettered to a particular purpose, the 
full genius of Moses and the whole of the wisdom he 
was privileged to receive from on high, had not their 
full range ; but in the Book of Job there came an 
opportunity, which was not lost or slighted, of alluding 
more clearly to the immortality of the soul, and the 
necessity of a divine redemption. 

Again, to return to mote Tciod^T^\A ^ub^ects, it was 

Cmmt. XVin.] Tffi: GREAT PYRAMID. 335 

not tall lately that any one scientifically understood, and 
thoroughly appreciated, the full tenor of some of the 
concluding passages of that remarkable book. In Job 
xxxviii., the Lord, "with whom is terrible majesty," 
proceeds to answer Job out of the whirlwind ; confound- 
ing him in a moment with the grandeur of elemental 
phenomena, the form and size of the earth, the laws 
of solids and fluids, of light and darkness, of sea and 
air, of clouds, simshine, rain, frost, and lightning ; the 
series of wonders is appalling, their magnitude and 
duration verging on the infinite. But then, though 
softened by a gradation of truest descrij)tions of the 
tender herb springing forth all the wide world over, — 
there had seemed, to every exact scientist's ideas, some- 
thing like a descent from sublimity, in the Biblical 
account coming down to, and concluding with, a de- 
scription of two or three particular animals. 

What the Egj-ptian wisdom, with its infantile know- 
ledge of physical science and cosmical relations would 
have said to that, is hardly worth a serious inquiry ; 
but this is what modem wisdom in the scientific age of 
the earth has involuntarily illustrated very lately, or in 
the last-published number of one of those large ]>ook-sized 
Reviews, which undertake to show existing intellectual 
society, through the medium of the ablest writers, what- 
ever the best minds have been producing within the 
latest few months of time. 

The author reviewed on the occasion alluded to, 
treated of the new science of thermo-d\niamics ; show- 
ing that heat is a form of motion ; and, from that simple 
banning, enumerating the laws of the earth's atmo- 
sphere, and the medium filling space ; calculating the 
store of useful mechanical and chemical work still in the 
world ; predicting the duration of sun, moon, and all 
material things ; and then boasting, quite in the pro- 
&ne iJsTptjiui manDcr, that now thai l\v\% u^v; \vfv\v- 


ciple In natural plulosophj — i.e., mere solar radiation, 
computed by a particular formula — ^is proved to be 
the one principle which supports everything we see,— 
that it may be said to "create the muscle and build 
the brain of man ; to be heard in the roar of the lion, 
and the song of birds ; is seen in the gliding of the 
serpent/' (Sfc, &c. 

Whereupon comes down the reviewer, with a higher 
philosophy and more religious truth, regretting that 
the author does not see that, to whatever extent he 
can compute some few changes in the form of mere 
dead matter, or inorganic elements, — extending though 
they may through space, — he has not made the smallest 
api)roach to accounting for a single organic pha^no- 
menon : the mystery of life is left wholly untouched 
by him ; so is any attempt, even, at an explanation 
of how tibre is joined to fibre in the animal structure ; 
and infinitely more, wise Job's idea, " how wisdom is 
put into the inner parts," and by what means the 
different created beings take up their appointed cha- 
racters in life's varied drama. # 

In fact, tlie best and latest of modem science has here 
represented the difficulties of nature for man to explain, 
to be culminating, precisely in the manner they were 
described to do, in the sacred liook of Job 4,000 years 


Moses, then, in that inimitable work, instead of copy- 
ing anything from the profane Egj^ptians of his day, was 
rather anticipating the mju'ch of science in the Christian 
ages of the world. And when we further find that in 
other important things, ho was likewise going directly 
against the standards of the Egyptians, but coincidently 
with those of the Kosmos of God and the Great Pyra- 
mid ; of those inner parts, too, of the Great Pyramid 
which the Egj^ptians knew nothing about, and wliich 
he, Mosos, as a man, could uevei have seen — ^Ai^^hen we 


meet with all these telling circumstances, and so many 
parallel features between the inspired writings and the 
Great Pyramid vers^uA all Egyj)t, it certainly would 
appear that we must bo coming close to the Biblical 
source of the wisdom of that mighty fabric. 

Yet there are some additional points of contact be- 
tween the Great Pyramid and Mosaic metrological sys- 
tems, which it will be well worth our while to study 
in their detail, before venturing to proceed further 
with the grand question of the whole. 

Of the Sacred Ark of the. Covenant. 

The length of the Great PjTamid's cubit having been 
25*025 British inches cannot, I presume, now l)e ro- 
usted ; and to all minds capable of grasping the sub- 
ject, Sir Isaac Newton s testimony for the Mosaic cubit 
having also been close to that length, is probably (Mpially 
conclusive ; yet at the same time, these able minds may 
desire to hear, if there is anv further direct Biblical 
evidence for that end, over and above what Sir Isaac 
Newton adduced in his invaluable Dissertation ? Now 
something of this sort there does a])})ear to 1)0 in the 
Pentateuch^s account of the Ark of tlie Covenant, the 
most sacred feature of the whole of the Tabernacle's 
arrangement under Moses. 

That Ark was kept in the Holiest of Holies, occupied 
its chief place of honour, and was never to be looked 
on by any but the High Priest alone, even during a 
journey. Near it was placed an ephah measun; ; and 
immediately outside its compartment, as Miehaelis has 
shown, were various other standards of mea.sure ; 
though no metrologieal purpose, that I am aware of, 
has been hitherto a.ssigned to the Ark itself 

As its original name, " area" im})lies, the Ark vro^ tk 
box or chest ; and ita /irst-stated purpose as ^\ic\v vi^^^, 



tx) hold the Divine autograph of the law written on 


This Ark-box, then, made of shittim, or acacia, wood, 
was further lidless, so £ur as anything attached to it was 
concerned ; though a crown of gold was afterwards 
added round about the rim, and a separate or loose lid 
was made for it of pure gold, called the mercy-seat 
The actual seat, however — said to be occasionally occu- 
pied as a throne, by an expression of the Divine 
presence — ^was not that lid, but was formed by the 
wings of two angels, constructed in gold at either end 
of the lid ; which lid, at such time, together with the 
Ark below, then formed the footestool,* 

With the lower part only of this arrangement, or the 
Ark itself, have we now to do ; and the Ark, on its loose 
lid of gold being removed, was merely a box — a lidless, 
rectangular, rectilinear box, made of a hard and tough 
wood common to the hills of Sinai. 

Now in so far, there was nothing new or peculiar in 
this arrangement of Moses ; for of boxes there was an 
abundance in the world, even in the very temples of 
Egypt, when time had waxed so late in human history 
as 1500 B.C. In fact, those very purposes of "rapacity," 
in subservience to which JosejJius relates that Cain 
invented weights and measures, would seem to require 
that he should have made big and strong chests, as 
treasuries wherein to keep the fruits of his spoliation 
and oppression ; as well as the stone strongholds, banks, 
or " oers," of which more presently, for the custody of 
the said chests. 

The only feature, therefore, of distinctive importance 

* '* llie lid, or cover of the ark was of the same length and breadth, and 
made of the purcat gold. Over it, at the two extremities, were two 
cherubim, with their four feces turned towards each other, and inclined a 
little towHtds the lid (otherwise called the mercy-seat). Their wings, 
which were spread out over the top of the ark, fomiod the throne of Ood, 
the King of Israel, while the ark itself was the footstool." (Exodus xxv. 
10—22; xxjivii. 1— 9.)— Kit;to*ft"BVbUC^<iloij«dia;' p. 214. 


which we need expect to find in the particular box con- 
structed by Moses for a sacred iniq>ose, should be some- 
thing akin to that which distinj^'uishod his sacred cubit, 
from the profane cubit of the Egj-ptians : uuto measur- 
ing sticks, both of them ; and yet one, not only of a 
diilerent length to tlie other, but im}>lying by that 
diflference a commensurabililv with the Divinolv «rii^nd 
in nature, far too difficult for man to have discovered 
for himself in that age. Now tin? size of that Ark -box 
of Moses is given in Holy Scripture as being, iri cubits 
long, and 1 o cubits broad, and 1 -5 high ; which mea- 
surt*s lx?ing reduced to Pyramid indues, on Sir Isjiac 
Xewton*s and our o>\ii, evolution of the sacred cubit 
of Moses, = 62*5 x 37o x 37*5 of those inches. 

But was this outside measure or inside measure ? for ■ 
that must make a ver\' material difterence in the cubical 

Outside mea.surc, without a doubt, and for the two 
following reasons : — 

1st. IfccAUsc the vertical component is spoken of as 
height, and not dt»})th. 

2nd. because the lower lid of irold. or tin* mercv- 
seat, being made only of the i^amv. statc«l length anil 
breadth as the Ark itself, it would have stood insecure. 
and run a chance of tumbling down to the bottom of 
the box, if that length and breadth hati signitied the 
top of the box's inside, and not its outside, area. 

Hence, with the tnie length of the sicjred cubit 
(obtained after so many ages of error), ami the above 
understanding how to api)ly it, we may now approach 
the cubical contents of th<; Ark. AVi? are not, imlecil, 
informed in Scripture what was the tliickiiess c»f the 
sides, and therefore do not know exactly how much to 
subtract from the outside, to give the insiile dimen- 
sions ; but the outside having Ik^cu j^\vv*\\, wwvV xSm 
mBteiial stated, the limits witliin w\ue\\ swv:\\ \\\\v:VT«fc 


must be found, aro left very nairow indeed. Let ihe 
thickness, for instance, be assumed 1*8 ^fiamid 
inches; then the length, breadth, and depth will be 
reduced fix>m an outside of 62*5 x 37'6 x 87*5 to an 
inside of 58*9 x 33*9 x 357 ; which gives 71,282 cubic 
inches for the capacity contents of this open box with- 
out a lid. 

Or, if we consider the sides and ends 1*75 inch 
thick, and the bottom 2 inches, — also yery &ir propor- 
tions in carpentry for such a sized box in sucli a 
quality of wood, — then its inside measure would be 
590 X 340 X 35'5 ; which yield for the cubical con- 
tents 71,213 cubic Pyramid inches. 

Thu§, in any mode almost of practically constructing 
the Ark-box, on both the name and number data given 
by the Bible, and the Hebrew cubit value first 
approached by Sir Isaac Newton, we cannot avoid 
bringing out a cubical capacity result almost identical 
with that of a still older box, known for several cen- 
turies past to modems as a lidless box, but never 
known at all to the ancient Egyptians ; viz., the coflfer 
in the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid. 

Wherefore, with that coffer s cubic capacity, the Ark 
of the Covenant immediately acquires all the commen- 
surabilities of that coffer's interior with the capacity 
and mean density of the earth as a whole : a some- 
thing both utterly distinguishing it from any profane 
Egyptian^ box yet measured; and most appropriate to 
the Scripture-stated use of the Ark under circumstances 
of Divine presence, as a footstool ; agreeably with the 
words of the Lord in Isaiah and Acts, " the earth is my 

Of Solomon* 8 Molten Sea. 

Such, then, looked at in the light of science, 3,300 
jrears after its day of conslrxxctiioii, tclm^I have been the 


sacred Ark of the Covenant built according to the in- 
spiration commands received by Moses, after he had 
left Egypt for ever ; — and that was the Ark which 
subsequently overthrew the idol gods of the Philistines, 
and was a source of safety to Israel on many and many 
a national occasion. Yet what eventually became of it, 
or what was its latter end, Scripture does not inform us. 
The Eastern Churches have their traditions, but I do not 
care to occupy time over ihvm. And this only further 
piece of solid information luus been made out by the 
metrological reseju'ches of John Taylor and others in 
recent years ; viz., that within narrow limits of un- 
certainty, the bmzen lavers of Solomon's Temple were 
also of the same cubic capacity as \\\\> coftor in the 
Great Pyramid ; and measured, on the Hebrew system, 
40 baths, or 4 homers. Those lavers, then, through 
the coffer, were — what no human scitaice could have 
intentionally made them in that day — earth com- 

But there was a still larger capacity vessel in the same 
Temple of Solomon ; was it also, earth eoiiimensurable, 
and liarmonious with the world of (Jotl's creation \ 

Tliis vessel, by name the " Molten St*a," was grandly 
cast in bronze, though of a shape and size wliieh hsis 
defied all essayists hitherto to agree uj)on. Even in 
the Jiible, something of what is then* said about it, is 
stated variously in ditferent books thereof ; as that in 
Kings, the cubic contents are giv«ii as 2,000 baths, 
while in Chronicles they are set down as 3,000. Tlie 
latter account being but fragmentary, I adhere to the 
former ; and then find, according to th«* simi)le state- 
ment in baths, that the '* Molten Sea " would have 
contained the contents of a laver 50 times ; or a 
Pyramid number at once. 

Next wo are told (1 Kings vii. 23 -^S<\ iW 
Che "molten sea " " was ten cuViU troia \-\i^ oxisi ^sc 


to the other ; it was round all about, and his height 
was five cubits \ and a line of thirty cubits did compass 
it round about ; and it was an hand-breadtli thick." 

The first point here, is to realise the shape. Some 
good men have imagined it cylindrical ; some of a 
swelling caldron form ; but the greater numbers, a hemi- 
spherical shape ; and this, perhaps, is most agreeable 
(1) to the phrase " round all about," (2) to its diameter 
being twice its height, and (3) to the traditionary tes- 
timony of Josephus that it woa hemispherical. 

This point settled, are the measures inside, or out- 
side ? By the rule established for the Ark, the breadth 
and hjexgld are outside, of course ; but in that case, 
what is the moaning of a circle of 10 cubits in diameter, • 
having a circumference of 30 cubits ? That is a total 
impossibility ; and wholly against the chief part of the 
teaching of the Great Pyramid itself, which proves in 
various ways that the circumference of a circle having 
10 for diameter cannot be less than 31 '41 59, &c. 

In this dilemma, I ventiu'e to conclude (especially as 
here an indication of the thickness of the vessel is given, 
viz., at a hand-breadth) that the inside circumference 
was alluded to. 

Take, then, a hemisphere Tidth an inside circum- 
ference of 30 Pj^ramid cubits, its diameter would Ix^ 
238*73 Pyramid inches, giving, with an outside diameter 
of ten cubits, nearly 5*5 inches for the thickness (or a 
space which the hand of a strong man spread out would 
easily cross). The cubic contents, then, of such internal 
hemisphere will be 3,562,070 Pyramid cubic inches ; 
and divided by the Pyramid number 50, give 71,241 of 
the same cubic inches ; i.e., within a seven-thousandth 
part of the same, as either the Ark of the Covenant or 
the coffer of the Great Pyramid. 

But why did Solomon go to such pains and expense 
ID making the " molten sea" «.o nctj tclmcIi larger than 

Cbaf.XVIIL] the great pyramid. 343 

his already large brazen vessels, the layers ; and larger 
too, by the exact multiple of 50 ? 

No profane I^'ptian would have chosen that number, 
as we have already seen ; but in the Great Pyramid, 
planned certainly by a Seth-descended, Abel-following, 
God-inspired, man, and by no Cainite Egyptian, — the 
lower course of the King's Chamber has been so ad- 
justed in height, by the removal from sight of its lower 
5 inches, that the cubic contents of that Iowi.t course 
amount, as already shown at p. 150, to 50 times the 
coffer's contents ; or, as we now see, were exjictly equal 
to the contents of Solomon's molten sea ; unless we 
should rather say that Solomon's molten seji was made 
to be equal to the lower adjusted course of the King's 
Chamber of the Great Pyramid. 

Yet if we have been already obliged to conclude that 
Moses, though he lived long in Kgypt, could never have 
been inside the Great Pyramid, and had, tlu*n;fore, no 
opportunity of humanly copying the cubic contents of 
the coffer; vastly more certain may we be that King 
Solomon was never inside the Pyramid either, or in a 
position to note the exact amount of cubic contents of 
the lower course of the coffer's containing chamber. 

Whence, then, came the metrologioal ideas common to 
three individuals in three different ages ; and involving 
reference to deep cosmical attributes of the earth, under- 
stood by the best and highest of human learning at 
none of those times ? Ami the answer can hardly 1m> 
other, than that the God of Israel, who liveth for ever, 
equally inspired to this end the Seth-desoendcnl architect 
of the Great P}'ramid, the prophet Moses, and King 

Of Stone Sanvtuaries and Pyranud*f. 

So far, for the vessels contained in the several 
saDctUATie^ whether Pyramid, TabemacYe, ot T^\\i^<^ 


But something now requires to be said, touching these 
sanctuaries themselves ; and chiefly on account of the 
new light thrown on them by Mr. Henry Tompkins.* 

The chief instrument with which he tw2u7»toriZy 
works, is indeed linguistic only, and therefore rather 
outside • my methods of procedure ; but int;o{untortZy 
he brings to bear certain necessary business features 
essential to the very existence of any, and every, com- 
munity of men, whether large or small. All such,- for 
instance, must have amongst them, in whatever age 
they live or have lived, something approaching to a 
safe, or treasure-stronghold; even, and perhaps much 
more so, if they be a community of robbers, rather 
than of peaceful men. 

Now the first builder of such a safe, according to 
this new author, was Cain ; and Moses told us of it 
long ago, though bad translations have hid the fact 
from our eyes, by speaking rather of ** the city " which 
Cain built in the land of Nod. Yet Moses, only said 
an " oer," meaning thereby, some chambered tumulus 
of earth and stones, which one man might possibly, or 
even easily, have built single-handed ; and might then 
with full right " call it after liis son's name." Such an 
"oor" was rude probably, yet exactly adapted to serve 
both as a stronghold and strong room, or a neces- 
sary practical ad<lition to what Josephus tells us of 
Cain, at that very period of his life too, when "he 
invented weights and measures, and used them only for 
the purposes of rapacity and oppression." 

Hence every few Cainites might well have an " oer " 
amongst them, but not ** a city ;" and in freeing us from 
this latter word, where Moses wrote "oer," Mr. Tompkins 

♦ "The Pyramids and the Pentateuch,'' by Henry Tompkins, of 
2, Augusta Place, Lansdowne Road, Glapham Bom, Loudon, Oct. 22, 187^ 

Chai'. XVIII.j TIIK GREAT PyRAMin. 345 

seems to have done excellent service ; though when he 
proceeds further, to call every "ocr" a Pyramid, he 
wanders from the provable stone facts. 

The word Pyramid (by sound of course, rather than 
by letter) is not read in any of the Pharaonic hierogly- 
phics, nor proved to have been known earlier than the 
visit of Herodotus to Egypt in 445 b.c. There too, it 
was applied to a particular fonn of the " oor " seen 
nowhere else ; and the j)rogress of niatlu^niaties since 
then has still more strictly confined its apj)lication. 
Hence, when we read in Genesis of tluj rebellious and 
Cain-following men, after the flood, uniting together to 
build " a city and a tow(»r whose top may reach unto 
heaven," according to King James's translators, — and 
when Mr. T. tells us rather to read, ** Lt»t us build a 
Pyramid, and one of great extent, whose top,"&c., — let 
it be our part to endeavour to ascertain mochanioally 
what VXI8 built. 

Nor is this very difficult ; for though RabeFs old 
structure may long since have hvvw buried in the soft 
alluvial earth of its foundations, yet the researches of 
Layard, Ifettii, I^ftus, and others in Mesopotamia, all 
unite in showing, that th(» buildings which sen-ed the 
purposes of ** oers " next in order of tinu^ to Kjibel, in 
that iMirt of the world, were invariably oblong, elevated, 
terraced temples, and not to be called j)yraniids in any 

Similarlv too the chamben^d tunuili of the Lydians, 
Etruscans, Pelasgi, and many otluT early people, were 
all of them " oers," and many of them treasurj' '* oers " 
too, but not one of them a pyramid. In Kgypt only 
did the " oers " become truly pyramidal ; and though 
in that land, their primitive Cainite purpost* of strong- 
holds for treasure ra])aciously acquired, was gradually 
overshadowed by sepulchral service, yet they wct^ Vksi\* 



always wholly merged therein^ whatever the modem 
Ilgyptologists choose oraoularly to deokra* 

To the intense Ounites, that all I!gyptiaiig wera, some 
form of '^oer" was most neoessazy in their early 
national life ; and though they did peihape h^gin in 
two or three smaU examples widi chamhered tumuli, or 
Babel terraces, or eyen round toweis^t the captiTating 
example of the Great Pyramid soon led them off into 
that shape alone ; and they put tto mark* so effiwtually 
on themselyes, that the really Sethite character of the 
Great Pyramid was lost to general view among newly 
pyramidlsed Cainite '^ oers." 

And yet to a deeper insight there was, even in the 
mere putting together of the^ material, the most essen- 
tially different character in the ene Great Pyramid 
original, and all its supposed copies. 

The Egyptians, for instance, according to Dr. Lepsius's 
law of their Pyramid building (pages 76 and 77), pro- 
ceeded in exactly the same exogennmis manner as all 
Cainites with their chambered tumuli ; i.e., beginning 
with a chamber centre, and extending the structure 
around and aboye, more or less, as opportunity offered 
or accident determined at last. 

But the Great P}Tamid, as testified through the 
whole of this book, and by the accoimts of Herodotus 
also, was commenced on the opposite, or endogenous 
method ; yiz., by the lajing out of a long preyiously 
settled plan, and building up within that outline only. 

* Besides the many earlj local traditions, which must have some 
foundation, of treasure having been deposited in the Egyptian Pyramids 
by kings who lived close before, or after, the flood, — Colonel Howard- 
V^se and Mr. Perring (on pp. 4^, 46 of tke former's 3rd vol. of ** Pyra- 
mids of GuKth"), give an account of a chamber in the Great Terraced, 
and rather oblong, Pjrramid of Saccara, closed by a granite stopper of 
four tons weight, and deolared by them to have been " a treasury," " a 
■ecure and secret treasury," and one that had certainly "never been put 
to tombic use." 

f The round-towers standing beside Christian ohurohes in Ireland are 
an aivlutectaral picture of Cain and Ikb^ oi «c aiisKOi. 


While, therefore, the Cainite Eg^-ptian Pyramids were 
" Epimethean," or speaking to one hasty act and too 
late thought afiewcanli^^ — the Great PjTrainid was essen- 
tially Promethean, or the result of eareful act following 
upon previous wise and provident thought. 

The former, even according to classic tradition, 
brought infinity of ills on all humanity ; but the latter 
told mysteriously, from far earlier ages, of one who 
voluntarily sacrificed himself in ord(»r that ho might 
(in antagonism to the false gods of heathen idi>latry), 
bring down sacred fire, or regeneration life, from heaven 
to men. 

But of this primeval phase of the Promethean myth, 
long before the Greeks polluted its purity and truth in 
deference to all their own obscene rout of gods and 
goddesses of Olympus,* we shall have still more posi- 
tive evidence, on studying more advanccil features ot* 
construction found only in the Great Pyramid. 

• Soe ** Soven Homiliea on Kthnic Innpimtion," by tho l?ov. J«>8e]ih 
Tiylor Goodfeir ; and '* The iieligions of the World," by Williuui Osburn. 




Avr Cham/Mile. 

FROM time to time in the modem history of the Great 
Pyramid, faults have been found, or improTements 
suggested, or difficulties raised with regard to its con- 
struction ; and, where such remarks have been the 
produce of able minds, it is well for instruction's sake, 
in the present day, to turn back to their very words. 
Also, if such criticisms have, since they were uttered, 
been answered by further discoveries at the Pjrramid, to 
note Iww they have been answered. 

A case in point is offered by the conversation of Dr. 
Harvey, the learned discoverer of the circulation of the 
blood, with Professor Greaves, in or about 1640. The 
doctor, unable to leave his patients in tliis country, had 
revolved at home in his truly capacious mind, and from 
his own peculiar scientific point of view, one of the 
descriptions given to him by the great Eastern traveller 
of that day, and had seen a difficulty which had not 
struck Aim. 

To one so well versed in biological phsenomena (though 

living long before the day of a knowledge^ of oxygen, or 

the nature of gases, or, indeed, any sort of scientific 

chemistiy), it seemed strange to Dr. Harvey, " how 

several persons could bavQ ooutrnwod ^ msay hours in 




the pjTainid and live. For," said he, *' sooing that we 
never breathe the same air twice, but still new air is 
required to a new inspiration (the s\ic<ms alibilis of it 
being spent in every expiration), it could not be, but by 
long breathing, we should have spent the aliment of that 
small stock of air within the Pvramid, and have been 
stifled ; unless there were some secret tunnels conveying 
it to the top of the PjTamid, whereby it might j^ass out, 
and make way for fresh air to come in at the entrance 

Now that was a remark full of wisdom in every way, 
and if duly received and respected, might have led to 
invaluable discoveries at an early period, — but Professor 
Greaves, a good linguist, and with eminent dexterity 
at solving algebraic equations, iinfortunately could 
not see the vital importance of Dr. Har\x»y's auccus 
alibilis mixed up in common air ; neither had he con- 
sidered very accurately the motion of aeriform fluids, 
when he thought that both the old air might so easily go 
out, and new air as easily come in, by one and the same 
lower entrance passage, of small bore and crooked, almost 
" trapped/' in the course of its length ; and finally he 
was certain, as one who had been at the Pyramid, and 
was therefore not to be lightly contradicted, that, " as 
for any tubuli, or little tunnels, to let out the fuliginoiis 
air at the top of the Pyramid, none could be discovered 
within or without.*' 

To this Dr. Harvey replied most discreetly, "They 
might be so small, as that they could not bo easily 
discovered, and yet might be sutiicient to make way for 
the air, being a thin and subtile body.'' 

But poor Professor Greaves on this occasion would not 
listen to such homely reason, and only answered con- 
futingly, he himself having chronicled his own words, 
that, " The less they, the tubuli, were, the sooner they 
would be obstructed with those tcuipesU oi ^au^^ V) 


which those deserts are frequently exposed ;*' and with 
these and similar positivisms he obliged the stay-ftt-home 
medical doctor, in a phrase of that day, and which may 
then have been classic and aristocratic English with all 
the elder dons of Oxford, " To shut up alL" * 

Yet what would Professor Greaves have thought, if 
he could have known before he died, that 200 years 
after his remarkable conversation with the discoverer of 
the most important anatomical and physiological £Etct 
even yet known to science, — Colonel Howard-Vyse 
would actually have proved the existence of, and found, 
two such tubvU, leading to the upper parts of the 
Great Pyramid : and formed for no other purpose than 
that which Dr. Harvey had indicated, i.e., to serve as 
ventilating channels : and that he, Professor Greaves, 
had himself actually seen their lower extremities in the 
walls of the King s Chamber ; and proved the fact, by 
inditing the following almost photographic likeness of 
them : — 

" Tlie ingenious reader will excuse my curiosity,t if, 
before I conclude my description of this Pyramid, I 
pretermit not anything within, of how light a consequence 
soever. This made me take notice of two inlets or 
spaces, in the south and north sides of the chamber, just 
opposite to one another ; that on the north was in 
breadth 0700 of the English foot, and in height 400, 
evenly cut, and running in a straight line six feet and 
further, into the thickness of the wall. That on the 
south is larger, and somewhat round, not so long as the 
former, and, by blackness within, it seems to have been 
the receptacle for the burning of lamps/* 

Upon which he indulges in a classical speculation 
upon " the eternal lamps, such as have been found in 

• Page 161, voL i., of "Greaves," by Birch. 

f The exact meaning of this woxd has altered greaUy within Uie last 
two hundred jean. 


Tulliola's tomb in Italy ;" and regrets (in so far, just like 
a medieval scholar, rather than a modem physicist), 
actually regrets to think how much bettor Pliny might 
liave filled his pages, if he had described therein the 
composition of one of those lamps of " noble inven- 
tion," rather than occupied them with lesser matters of 
natural phaniomeua. 

But the blackness adverted to at the P\Tamid, would 
seem to have been caused mainlv by the tires which 
were occasionally made in the hole, since Cali})h Al 
Mamoun s time, by Arabs with an inquisitive turn of 
mind, and merely for the chance expectation of seeing 
what would come of it. During the two following 
centuries, also, the fashion grew u}) for each visitor and 
tourist to conclude his sight-seeing of the (Jreat Pyra- 
mid, by firing his pistols into these holes. 

>\liat for ? 

Even the decorous Dane, Captain Norden, who wrote 
in 1740 to explain how young men going out to the 
(ireat Pj-ramid " should join in a company with their 
seniors, that, by the discourses they hear on the road, 
they may be more emulous to observe ever}thing in a 
better manner, and make more exact nnnarks ; " — even 
he, the worthy countryman of the leame«I Arabian 
traveller, Niebuhr, explains, — " when you are in the 
saloon (the King's CTiamber) you commonly make sonu^ 
discharges of a pistol, io give yoHrstlf the jthutsfirf of 
lieariny a noi^e that reseinhh'H thitndrr: and tlion, as 
there is no hope of discovering mon» than what othrrs 
have already remarked, you n»sume the wav bv which 
you came, and return in the same mannrr, as well as 
with the same difficulty." 

Innumenible persons, then^fore, besides Professor 
Greaves, had portions of the air-channel systi'ui in their 
hands; but, through not rcsjiecting suHieii-ntly thf 
deaiffu of the Great Pyramid, and tW duty ol was 


the best of their own intellect, they went away no wiser 
than they came, and the realizing at last of the best 
ventilated, or rather ventilatable, room in the world 
remained to another age. 

Ceiling of King* a Chamber. 

Again, certain early authors of a critically mechanical 
turn, looked up at the ceiling of the King's Cihamber, 
roofed with horizontal beams of granite blocks, and ex- 
pressed their thoughts in the manner of a judgment and 
condemnation, that " those beams had a vast weight to 
bear ** (all the weight of the upper two-thirds of the 
Pyramid above them) ; and, with some allusion to the 
" arch," and no knowledge of any of the numerical and 
physical symbolisms required in this chamber, they 
rather hinted " that they could have made a better dis- 
position of the material." 

It has been supposed that the boastful legend in- 
scribed by King Asychis on his pyramid of brick at 
Dashoor, one thousand years after the building of the 
Great Pyramid, referred to the invention or earliest 
construction of arches in brick : — " Compare not me witli 
the Pyramids built of stone, which I as far excel as 
Amun doth the other gods. For striking the bottom 
of the lake with long poles, and gathering the mud which 
stuck to them, men made these bricks, and formed me 
in this manner." 

Contemporary science applauded that invention, and 
thought it perfect ; but contemporary science, even up 
to the present hour, is always marvellously well pleased 
with its last and latest performance, however imperfect 
the next generation may find it to have been ; and in 
the case before us, 4,000 years have reduced nearly all 
the brick pyramids to rubbish : giving us reason for 
thanks, that that scientific ixm^Toyement was not invented 

Cmap.XDC.] the great pyramid. 353 

early enough to have been adopted in the Great Pyramid. 
By itself no doubt the arch was good, and a brick arch 
stronger than a brick beam ; but neither a brick arch, 
nor an arch of little stones, lijis stood so long as a beam 
of solid granite in circumstances similar to those of the 
King s Chamber. 

If the roof of that chamber had at any time fallen in, 
and crushe<l the cotter below, which it was meant to 
preserve, — then all the scientific critics might have 
started up with reason, to propose a more durable mode 
of rooling ; but in presence of that roof's j)erfect jjerfor- 
mance of its duty, for a longer j)eriod than any other 
human building has lasted, it was strange, to sjiy the 
least of it, that such a readiness to tind fault and protter 
advice should have been manift^sted ; for, jis M. Jomaril 
most admirably expn^sses it, "und^r this vii'w of the 
perfect sUite and condition of the whole room, the archi- 
tects have eminently attained tln^ end which they pro- 
posed to themselves more than .S, ()()() yi*ars ai^'o." 

" Ah ! but if thev have onlv saved themselves bv the 
skin of their tei^th," urges another writer unabashed ; '* if 
they have been indebted to happy chance for a rt\sult, 
of which the precise contrary might have at any moment 
befallen them ! *' Well, that is an objt^rtion whieh would 
have been perhaps excusabit* in IVot'essor (J reaves' day, 
when men knew nothing of what the means for streuLfth 
employed by the architects were ; or even, whether they 
had luul their attentitm directed to tht* importanet* of 
the point. But ever since the iliscoverv in 17<).S of 
Davison s Chamber (s<» called, but reallv onlv a hollow 
in the masonrv not inten<lcd to be troil bv the fot)t of 
man), — the learned must have sei«n, that stnni* of the 
requirements of the case had been skilfully eiiteretl into 
by the builders ; though no person had any idea, until 
Colonel Howanl-Vyst» made his celebrated ex\\VoTA\\vA\s 
in \ S37, of the still further measures of e^UtiioYsiA\\\wrs 

A A 


completeness with which this scientific mechanical object 
had been carried out ; a completeness so striking, that 
we have never heard since then, of any more complaints 
or fears for the safety of the ceiline. 

Besides the large, and pyranudally typical, number of 
five hollow, closed spaces or j>0et£d!o-chambers, one over 
the other, and the topmost one roofed with opposed 
sloping plates, — it will be observed that the upper 
surface of every set of long horizontal blocks, in place 
of being formed into a flat floor, is left rough and 

This is a feature, the truth of which, and perhaps the 
importance also, entirely escaped the French savants of 
1800, even in such limited part of the whole scheme 
as they had before them ; whence it came, that they 
represented the floor-surface of Davison's pseudo-chsanher 
or hollow, as absolutely level, and also parallel to the 
King's Chamber true ceiling below, in the otherwise 
beautiful and microscopically finished engravings of 
their great work ! 

Yet, had the Pyramid architect so prepared and cut 
away the upper original surface of each set of horizontal 
granite beams, he would have notably weakened their 
strength, and not have done good to any one ; for as 
those hollows of construction were, with one proble- 
matical exception indicated in the plate, built up solid 
all round about, and therefore not intended to ' be 
entered, it signified not in the least whether their floors 
were even or uneven to any degree. 

The whole arrangement was indeed a similar exhibi- 
tion of meclianical genius, looking for efficiency rather 
than show, to that one described by Professor Rigaud 
in an early transit-instrument of the Oxford Observatory ; 
where the artist optician had left, for strength's sake, the 
rough, original skin on lYie oMl^iAa ^Mxfejc^ of the bras^^, 

Chaf.XIX.] the great pyramid. 355 

though he had planed the under surface true, wherever 
a joint had to be made, or a bearing secured. But in 
the Pyramid, there was ultimate symbology also. 

Modem Promiscuous Quarrying, 

Then again, no one seems hitherto to have had any 
respect, and that because no underetAuding, of why the 
mass of solid masonry was so overwhelmingly large, 
compared with the hollow portion of the Pyramid ; the 
latter being only about l-2()00tli of the former. 

Firmness of construction, they thought, would have 
been given by a far less amount of solid substance ; 
wherefore, and for that mi're fancy, bred of their own 
brain alone, feeling sure that there must bo many 
chambers still undiscovered, they immediati»ly began 
ruthlessly boring and cruelly blasting here, there, and 
everywhere into the exquisitely-arranged, squared, lime- 
stone blocks, and to a depth often of a great many feet, 
merely to see what blind chance might possibly lead 
them to. Forgetful, also, of a really very sage })iece of 
advice, said by an Arab tradition, shaming Herodotus, 
to have been engraved on the ancient casing stone 
surfiEU^ of the Pyramid by its unknown architect : " I 
have built them, and whoever considers himself 
powerful may try to destroy them. Let him, however, 
reflect that to destroy is easier than to build.'* 

Had Mehemet Ali been inclined to intellectual 
tyranny, what sport to him to have had up before his 
judgment-seat each of these quarrjing geniuses, and made 
them render forth, if they could, a presentable reas«m, 
based on Pynimid knowledge, for the dark ht)i»e that 
was within thttm, as to whv thrv sluniUl have met with 
success by making a hole in the [^articular direction 
they did. And if they could not give such a rea 
clearly and conviijcingly, order them lo \)UX.\>^*^^ 

stone they had pulled out, precisely eis it was before ; 1 
more than sufficient oceu£)ation for the remaining tee 
of their natural lives." 

Who too, among Egj-ptologists, would escape such J 
judgment ? Not even the excellent Sir Gardner ' 
kiuson ; who, when describing the Queen's Chamber 3 
the Great Pyramid, says with the most inimitable c 
ness, and without » ping on his conscience for t 
mischief he hatl done to so precious a work, "I i 
cavated in vain below in quest of a sepulcliral pitT 
And a pretty pit, indeed, I found he had made of J 
when I vieited the place in 18C5 I 

The Key-signs of the Great Pyramids Architect. 

Yet infinitely more blameable were those before hiiq 
who made similar, but yet more destructive, excavations, 

• Connected with thin view, the following; i* givon from the ArBbiin 
nutbor, Abd Allatif, who wrote more tban live hundred yean aiac«, and 
who, in limes of boasting and romance, described hia own exploila in u 
maAenl tertna, but terrible truth, u thii: — " When I again visited H 
Pp:&mids, I enUred tliii paiaaice wilh several people, bat having ptf* 
tmltd about twu-lhirdi into tho interior, and haviiui lArangA JW M 
ItUtily loit my nnsa, I retocned half dead.' ' 

A bnd explorer, thm, but an unJUnching histoiiaa, Abd Allatif n 
in the latter oai>aii'y :^ 

'■ When Malic AUziz Othmon Ben TuuMnf ancoeeded hie bthnj 
waa prevailed on by some pereotia of his court— people toUJtjr davoK 
■ante and judKmtmt — to attempt the demolilion of the Pynmida. 
nccordiiigly sent miners and quarr}'men, under the auperiutendeiiea fl 
KOme of ihe offivura and emira of his court, »ilh orders to doalrof tfaa iT 
pyramid, which it the bent of the three. They vncamped nanr it ~' 
ieoud labourers from ail pails of the country at a vaat expnue, _ 
endeavourc^d, with great aamduity for eight monlhi, to execute the OOB~ 
miiftion with which thoy were entrusted, removing each d«y, with gn»i 
difficulty, oMi or tao anch Blanee. At length, having eihaueled all iheit 
petiroiury reaourcoH, their resoliilion grew proportioiiallv wpaker lu ihuc 
labour and difficnlliea increaaed. and they were at lut obliged to gin u 
the undeitalcingoabopeleas. While they were ali 11 engaged ii '' 
nbcerving one day the eilrome Inbour it required to remove 
MochB, I aaked an ovciaeer, who was eaperintending the a 
whether, if a thousand pieces of gold was offered to him, he woul^ 
irifce to replace the block in its original position ; he answered, thftl il9 
were lo be given many tiuiea that Bum, he could not do so." — OoL Howitd 
V'yae's second vol. of " Pyramids of Gizeta." 

t JIurray'B " SaaibooV lot ^.gj'jfc,"' <;■ 187. 


with the absurd idea of finding a passage leading to the 
Sphinx ! As if there was any community in science or 
religion, feeling or age, between the built Great Pyramid 
and the carved stock or stone called the Great Sphinx. 

As if, too, I may add, there was anything of original 
importance in the Great Pyramid's structure which had 
not had both a proper and a regular access prepared 
to it, requiring no smashing with sledge-hammers or 
cannon-balls, when the proper time should arrive, to 
open it up to view and use. 

The passages lined, or rather built, with blocks of 
whiter stone diflferent from the bulk of the masonry, 
and leading thereby right on to the ultimate point 
required through the whole mountainous mass of the 
building, are a case directly in point ; and are admitted 
by, and known now to, every one, even including the 
Egyptologists. But there are more minute features also, 
not so generally known ; yet showing equal design and 
intention, in these very Pyramid passages. 

Thus every one has been told how Caliph Al Ma- 
moun, after blasting his way through the solid fabric 
for six weeks, was just about to give up the research 
when he heard a stone fall in a hollow space close 
on one side ; and breaking his way in that direction, he 
presently found himself in the entrance-imssage ; and 
the stone which had fallen at that precise instimt, was 
a prism-shaped block that had been anciently inserted 
in the ceiling. There it had for ages formed a merely 
ordinary part thereof, and yet was covering all the time 
the butt-end of the granite portcullis at the bottom of 
the first ascending passage, now at last exposed to view. 

Would that first ascending passage, then, never have 
been discovered, if that faithless, perha})s timeous, block 
had not fallen out, whether in Al Mamoun's or any 
other day ? Let the following facts indicate. ' 

When measuring the cross joints in tliQ ^ooit ^i >}[^ 


entrance-passage in 1865, I went on chronicling their 
angles, each one proving to be very nearly at right 
angles to the axis, until suddenly one came which was 
diagonal^ another, and that was diagonal too ; but after 
that, the rectangular position was resumed. Further, 
the stone material carrying these diagonal joints was 
harder and better than elsewhere in the floor, so as to 
have saved that part from the monstrous excavations 
elsewhere perpetrated by some modems. Why then 
did the builders change the rectangular joint angle at 
that point, and execute such unusual angle as they 
chose in place of it, in a better material of stone than 
elsewhere ; and yet with so little desire to call general 
attention to it, that they made the joints fine and close 
to that degree that they had escaped the attention of 
all men imtil 1865 a.d. ? 

The answer came from the diagonal joints themselves, 
on discovering that the stone between them was oppo- 
site to the butt-end of the portcullis of first ascending 
passage, or to the hole whence the prismatic stone of 
concealment through 3,000 years had dropped out 
almost before Al Mamoun's eyes. Here, therefore, was 
a secret sign in the pavement of the entrance-passage, 
appreciable only to a careful eye and a measurement 
by angle, but made in such hard material that it was 
evidently intended to last to the end of human time 
with the Great Pyramid, and has done so thus far. 

Had, then, that ceiling-stone never dropped out at 
all, still the day might have come when the right men 
at last, duly instructed, would have entered the passage, 
imderstood that floor sign, and, removing the ceiling- 
stone opposite to it, would have laid bare the begin- 
ning of the whole train of those subaerial features of 
construction which are the Great Pyramid's most dis- 
tinctive glory, and exist in no other Pyramid in Egypt 
or the world. 

Chaf. XIX.] THE GREA T PYRA MID, 3 so 

JJ%tB of the Queens Chamber, 

But if in this simple manner of a small trap-door in 
the ceiling of the descending entrance-passage, the 
ascending system of the (Jreat Pyramid was so long 
concealed, there was once in that ascending system, 
viz., at or just inside the lower end of the grand 
gallery, and in the floor thereof, — a more extensive 
trap-door, which concealed the access to the Queen 8 
Chamber and the horizontal j)assage leading to it. 

At present, when the traveller enters the north end 
of the grand gallery from the first ascending ])assage, 
he is delighted to meet with a level floor ; but following 
that southward, he finds that it leads presently, not to 
the farther end of the grand gallery, but to a hole 
under a steep escarpment of its floor close by ; in fact, 
to the beginning of the low horizontal passage leading 
to the Queen \s Chamber. (See Plates VIII., XII., and 
XIII.) The floor of the grand gallery itself is inclined 
at the typical angle of 20° 18' (my measures by three 
different methods, with far more j)owtTful instruments 
than ever taken inside the (ireat Pyramid before, 
made it 26° 17' 37); and runs, from the lowest north 
end right up to the great step at the south termina- 
tion of the gallery, in one continued slope, exee]>t for 
the interruption caused by the absolute removal of a 
portion of the floor near the north end, to allow of 
that sub-floor horizontal passage to the (Jueen's Chamber 
being approached on a level. But then! are tnioes still 
visible in the mascmrv on eithtT siile of that hole 
in the gallery's floor, well interpn^ted, first by Mr. 
Perring, and more n»(U»ntly by Mr. Waynman Dixon, 
engineers l>oth ; showing, that a neatly-laid and joist- 
8upi)orted flooring, nine inches thiek, did once exist 
over that hoh», comi)leting thereby the whole louv; slo^ 
of the grand gallery's floor ; and 'm tXmX. eiivftfc v!\\V\x^^ 


concealing and utterly shutting up aU approach to» or 
knowledge torching the very existence dT, the Queen's 


Who amongst medisBval men pulled away that eon- 
ceaUng floor, removed its supporting cross-beams, and 
pushed on into the Queen's Chamber, is not known 
now, any more than why it was so concealed by the 
original builders. Mr. Pening imagined that the 
chamber must have been used as a store-room during 
the building of the Pyramid, for the big blocks of stone 
which were, at the finishing, slided down into the first 
ascending passage until, from the portcullis at its lower 
end, that passage was fiill up to its very top ; and 
the workmen then escaped by the deep well and its 
subterranean communication with the entrance-passage. 

Quite willing am I to allow to the honest working 
engineer, that such a store-room purpose may have been 
served : but was that all that the place was intended 
for ? And if so, to what end are all the following 
features ; features too, which are much more certain 
than that use ; for the features exist still, and can be 
seen every day, but who witnessed the use ? 

1. The central axis of the niche in the east wall 
(and that niche this Queen's Chamber's only architec- 
tural adornment) is removed southward from the centre 
thereof by one scientific Pj'ramid, or sacred Hebrew, 
cubit length. (See Plate IX.) 

2. Tlie top of the niche is one similar Pyramid, and 
sacred Hebrew, cubit broad.* 

3. Tlie height of the niche, multiplied by that 
grandly fundamental quantity in the Great Pyramid, tt, 
and that multiplied by the Pyramid number 10 = the 

* 26'Z inches in each case by meMore, in place of 25*025 ; bot the 
iDecMUTM very rough. 

Chap. XIX.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 3 6 1 

height of the Great PjTamid ; orl85xirxl0==: 5812 
in place of 5813.* 

4. The height of the niche, less the height of its 
iDoer species of long shelf, equals similarly the half 
of the base-side length of the Great Pyrainitl ; or 

185 — 39-6 X 10 7r=456«, in place of 45GG inches.f 

5. The height of the north and south walls of the 
Queens Chamber measured = 182*22 Pyramid inches 
± 1 inch, and assumed 182 02, give — 

(1) = 9131 = length of Great Pyramid'n base-side in P. in. 

(2) 182*62 X 2 = 365*24 = solar days in solar tropical year. 

6. Tlie breadth of the Queen's Chamber measured 
^ 205*6, assumed 205*0, gives — 

182-62 : 205 :: 205 : 230*1 = height of King's Chiimbcr from floor to 


7. The square root of 10 times the heit^dit of the 
north or south walls, divided by the height of the 

niche = tt ; or, 

Vl«2~ei2"x 10 

All the above theorems, save the two first, are the 
discoveries of Professor Hamilton L. Smith (of Hobart 
College, Geneva, New York), who, without liaviiig bren 
to EgA'pt, and without any other IVnimiil mrasurrs tlian 
those containi'd in " Life and Work," lias, bv sucross- 
fully inteq)reting them, constituttMl himsolf in a most 
unexceptionable manner the citizen-king of the Qucon's 

A fuller account of his researches has ap|M^an'd in 
the November number of the American Jifunml of 

* The height of the niche uncertain, by the measures, between 185 and 

186 inchei. 

t The shelf's height is, bj the very rough measuTM, \>qV^<icxv ^"^ isdI^ 


Science ani Art; which number, too, at the time I 
write (Dec. 187S) seems to hare reached London, but 
not Edinburgh. And I must beg my readers to refer 
to his very paper for themselTes ; for, while the said 
London journals merely and most miserably say of the 
memoir, " Professor H. L Smith finds that the arrange- 
ments of the Queen's Chamber were scientific," — he 
wrote to me positively and particulaily some time ago, that 
his conclusive arrangement of the whole of what he had 
discovered took the form of the two horns of a dilemma^ 
on either of which he left the opponents of the sacred 
and scientific theory of the Gr^t Pyramid to impale 
themselves, as they preferred. 

" Either," said he, " there is proof in that chamber 
of supranatural inspiration granted to the architect ; 

" That primeval official possessed, without inspiration, 
in an age of absolute scientific ignorance, 4,000 years 
ago, scientific knowledge equal to, if not surpassing, 
that of the present highly-developed state of science in 
the modem world." 

Tliis is so radically dififerent a state of things to what 
is implied in the London journals, that, in the absence 
still of his own printed paper, I refer to some of Pro- 
fessor H. L. Smith*s private letters of last summer ; 
and would direct attention to the remarkable number 
of characteristic angles which he has discovered in this 
chamber, and all of them well within the limits of some 
of my measurements ; a few of them running thus : — 

Casing-stone angle, ag^in and again 



Upper culmination of a Draconis 
Lower culmination of a Draconis 
Upper culmination of i| Tauii . 

bV 61' 

26° 22' 
4<'21' North of Equator. 


Nevdy-di^overed Air-cliannela in Queens Cltawber, 

Now here we have seen a whole series of connections 
between the actually existing measurable facts of the 
Queen's Chamber, and scientific portions of the ulti- 
mate, and originally secret, design of the Great Pyramid ; 
a design utterly unknown to the ancient Egyj)tians, 
and alien to everj'thing that belonged to them and 
their "wisdom," such as it was ; d'ste the Egyptologists 
themselves ; — features, too, all of them entirely un- 
necessary to a mere store-room for stone blocks, or to a 
chamber for holding a simple sjxrcophagus. Tlierefore, 
although some of the early travellers have spoken fear- 
fully of " the gnive-like and noisome odour of this 
room, causing them to beat a nipid retreat," the room 
must have acquire<l that odious character from modem 
vilifying, rather than ancient construction ; for what its 
builders put into it, as we see above, is not of a nature 
to experience any fleshly corruption. 

Indeed, in its ancient 'j)lanning, the Queen's Cliamber 
would appear to have been, still further, hitviuhd Home 
day to be ventilated. For the chief item of latest 
discovery at the (ireat Pyramid, is that one whieli was 
made last winter by ilr. Waynman Dixon, in company 
with his friend Dr. (irant, and witb tin* assistance of 
one of his English workmen from tbe bridge he was 
then enMJting over the Nile ; and is to the etVivt, that 
this Queen's Cliamber has two ventilating ebannrls in 
its north and south walls, nearly similar to those in the 
King's Chamber. 

Perceiving a crack in the south wall of th(» Queen's 
Chamber, which allowed him at one j^lact* to jMish in a 
wire to a most unconscionable length, Mr. W. Dixon 
set his carpenter man-of-all-work, by name Bill (irund; 
to jump a liole with liammer and iron c\\\svA \\\ \3d 
pkee. So to work the faithful fcWovf vfewl, wvOi HiVi 


will which soon began to make a way into the soft 
stone, when lo ! after a very few strokes, flop went the 
chisel right through, into somewhere or other. So the 
party broke away the stone round about the chisel hole, 
and then found a rectangular, horizontal tube about 
9 by 8 inches in breadth and height, going back 7 feet 
into the waU, and then rising at an angle of about 32**. 

Next, measuring off a similar position on the north 
wall, Mr. Dixon set the invaluable Bill Grundy to work 
there again with his hammer and iron chisel ; and 
again, after a few strokes, flop went the said chisel 
through, into somewhere; which somewhere was pre- 
sently found to be a horizontal pipe or channel like the 
other, and rising at a similar angle, but in an opposite 
direction, at a distance of 7 feet from the chamber. 

Fires were then made inside the tubes or channels ; 
but although at the southern one the smoke went away, 
its exit was not discoverable on the outside of the 
Pyramid. Something else, however, was discovered inside 
the channels, viz., a little bronze grapnel hook ; a por- 
tion of cedar-like wood, which might have been its 
handle ; and a grey granite or green-stone ball, which, 
from its weight, 8,325 grains, as weighed by me in 
November, 1872, must evidently have been one of the 
profane Eg}^tian tnirtm weight balls, long since valued 
by Sir Gardner Wilkinson at 8,304 grains.* 

These relics approached so nearly in character to the 

* A month after I had mado the above measure and deduction, and com- 
xnunicated them to Mr. John Dixon, who had kindly sent nic the articles to 
examine, the ball waa weighed by the Warden of the Standardn, found to 
be 8324*97 grains (see his paper in Xoture, Dtn;. 26, 1872) ; whence it is also 
concluded that the stone may have been an old Egyptian mina weight. A 
cloHoness of agreement, especially in the weight, which is remarkable, if 
the Warden of the Standards had not heard of my previous measuring 
and conclusion, and which he certainly does not allude to. 

Thin flakes of a very white mortar, exuded from the joints of the 

channels, were also found; and on being recently analysed bv Dr. William 

Wallace, of GlaHgow, were proved to be composed not of carbonate^ as 

generally used in Europe, but tutphate, of lime \ or what is popularly 

Snowu H8 "p]aat«r-of- Paris'* mt\i\&co\m\.i7. 


ordinary nick-nackets of most men s archaeology, that 
they excited quite a furore of interest, for a time, in 
general antiquarian circles ; but nothing more has come 
of them* The ball and the hook arc supposed to have 
been dropped down the channels unintentionally by 
some of the mason's labourers or boys at the passages' 
upper ends, when the place of those ends was still open 
and accessible ; but the things thus strangely found, 
belong merely to the forced labourers, the hodmen, of 
profane Egj'pt; not to the architect and head admi- 
nistrator of the scientific and insjnred design. 

An Uiiecrplaiiied Feature in the Queen 8 Cluimbers 


Something of the mysterious, however, still remains 
touching Mr. Waynman Dixon's air-channels of the 
Queen s Chamber. 

When their inner ends, or ports, were proved to 
have been separated from the air of said chamber 
merely by a thin plat(^ of soft limestone (so easily 
pierced by Bill Grundy s chisel), every one leaped to 
the conclusion that thi»y liad originally l>eeu in use, but 
hail been stopped up by some medijeval interloper with 
a paltry stone patch. But this was not the case ; for 
Mr. Dixon has successfully i)roved that there was no 
jointing, and that the thin plate Wits a** left," and a 
very skilfully ami symmetriiuilly left, part of the grand 
block composing that portion of the wall. 

That block, therefore, had had the air-channel tube 
(9x8 inches) sculptured into it, neatly and iHniutifully 
as fiar as it went, btit that distance wiis not ({uite through 
the whole block by a mere finger's breadth. The whole 
air-channel, save that little unmade bit, was in place ; 
but could never have been used. Not, too, that it had 
been tried, found inconvenient, and was xWu ^Vq\j\aA 


up by the original builders ; for they would in that 
case either have filled the port with a long plug, or 
would have replaced the whole block carrying the inner 
end of the chcmnel, with another block quite solid. 

But the arrangement which these builders left behind 
them was one which, if simply described according to 
the facts which have already occurred in history, was 
this ; viz., that after the chamber has been for long 
ages ill-treated and maligned by the idle and ignorant 
of civilized peoples, — ^it should yet be possible for a 
well-informed man to enter, and, by little more than 
pressure with his fingers on a particular part of the 
wall, establish (if the upper ends have in the meanwhile 
remained intiict), a comjilete system of ventilation by 
means of air-channels, extending through solid masonry 
on either side no less than 300 feet in thickness. 

Scheme of the Masonry in First Ascending Passage. 

Besides making this strange discovery, in concert 
with his friend Dr. Grant, of Cairo, Mr. Waynmaii 
Dixon performed a great work in the first ascending 
passage of the Great Pyramid. 

My examination of that passage in 1865, was con- 
fined to little more than its angle and floor length ; 
partly on account of the bewildering varieties of the 
jointing, as they appeared on a cursory examination. 
But Mr. Waynman Dixon, in 1872, applying himself 
long and steadily to this special task, and mapping 
down everything measurable, presently perceived a most 
admirable order pervading the apparent disorder, and 
tending also to good masonic construction. For the 
chief discovery was, that at stated intervals the blocks 
forming separately the walls, floor, and ceiling of the 
passage, were replaced \>^ ^eaA. tiwi^verse plates of 


stone, with the passage bore cut clean through them, 
80 as to form walls, floor, and ceiling, all in one piece. 

As an engineer he admired this masonry. But he 
had not perceived, until I was recently able to point it 
out to him, on his own careful measures, that the 
intervals of passage-length at which these remarkable 
stone plates were introduced, were no other than 
breadths of the King's Cliamber. 

The first interval, indeed, at the top of the passage 
was a double one, and therefore equalled the length of 
the King's Chamber ; but then followed five })lates, with 
that chambers breadth, or 20G inches, between every 
pair of similar surfaces ; and after that, or in the lower 
part of the passage, near the granite l>lugs, the plates 
were contiguous. 

This unexpected illustration of the builders working 
by measure, and in terms of that one chamber which is 
now confessed to be the focus of the whole scientific 
design, but which was not then built iirto fact, may be 
taken as a proof of the Promithmn, or forethought, 
character of the whole of the Grrat Pyramid building. 
And it may justify me, I hope, before my readers, in 
concluding this chapter, intended to be of mere 
mechanical details, Avith some further references to 
structural connections, bearing on deep physical results, 
between the said King's Chamber, and its one con- 
tained treasure, — the coffer. 

Relations of King's Cliamber to Coffer. 

That coffer being loose on the King's Cluunber floor, 
without either niche or socket preparo<l for its reception 
or fixation, there was much fetu* expressed only a few 
years ago, that it might not be the original coffer, or 
sarcophagus, intended for the Great Pyramid by its 


Tet never has theoretic fear been more abundantly 
quieted by actual discoveries of solid fiicts. 

Some of these discoveries have been already stated 
in Part II., but others have come to light since then, 
chiefly through the researches, quite independently of 
each other, of Professor Hamilton L. Smith, and Mr. 
James Simpson ; and may be stated thus : — 

1. The coffer belongs essentially to the Eing^s Cham- 
ber, because it is V shaped (first ascertained by Mr. 
St John y. Day), and after the same manner nearly, 
though in a different plane, as that chamber which is 
also of ir proportions. For while height of ooflEiBr= 
radius of a circle, whose circumference is of the same 
length as the coffer's extreme outer boundary ; so the 
King*s Chamber half breadth (made so much use of in 
obtaining the equations of the " sums of the squares "), 
is radius to a circle, whose circumference = the peri- 
phery of either north, or south wall of King's Chamber 
with their full height, or measured from their own 
granite bases five inches beneath the floor. 

2. The coffer belongs to the Kings Cliamber, be- 
cause its cubic contents are ^ of the chamber s lower 
course contents; and the chamber is also on the 60th 
masonry course of the whole Pyramid. 

3. The coffer further belongs to the King's Chamber, 
because its height is i (Pyramid number) of the cham- 
ber's breadth, and iV (Pyramid number), of its length ; 
and its height squared = A (Pyramid number) of the 
area of the chamber. "^^ 

4. The coffer still further belongs to the King's 
Chamber, because the outside periphery of the coffer's 
base is equal to half the most important line that can 

^ The meaBured height of the coffer, as already g^ven, lies between 
41*23 and 41 '13, and the breadth and length of the chamber are respec- 
tively 206 07, and 4121 3 Pyramid inchev, to within lens than the tenth of 
no inchf which will enable any one to compute how near the above stated 
proporiioDH came. 


be drawn in the room, viz., its solid diagonal ; for the 
half of this is 257*58 inches, and the coffers base 
periphery by measure is 257*24, but with an anomaly 
in the measure of the west side (see p. 137), which 
being corrected would bring it up more nearly to 

5. Again, the coffor belongs to the King s Cliamber. 
because all three of its dimensions, external, arc given 
by the lialf of the chamber's magistral radius (i.e., the 
half of its solid diagonal), 128*79 inches, when tyi)ically 
divided, or thus : — 


— \^ X IT = 40-996 = central height of coffer = 41-13 — jc 


—J-— X 3 = 38-637 = breadth of coffor outside = 3S-61 

• 128-79 

- — X 7 = 90 164 r= length of coffer outside = 8U"92» 

Of which multipliers, while tt is evidently ih' Pyramid 
number, 3 and 7 are very important coadjutors to it.f 

6. The coffer was not nec(»ssarily intended for nothing 
but a coffin, as the Egyptologists assert, merely bcvautte 
it IS long enough for a man to lie down in ; for the 
above is one of its many consistent, numerical and 
scientific features, which demand its actual full length ; 
and another still is shown by Professor Hamilton L. 
Smith thus : — 

Let the number of inch-days in a year, or 3ti5'24 
inches = 360** ; then 

Toflvr^i inaide width measured = 26*73 in. =: 26'' 18' = angle of ryramid 

„ depth ,, = 34-31 in. = 33MS' =: ui)]!*^ culniinatioa 

ot a Prarunia. 
„ length „ = 77*93 ic. == 76^48' = Suiiiiiiit liiigiit of 

PyrHuiid nearly. 

* But 90*09, on tho removal of the anomaly from the went foot, already 

t See a i»ap«r by Williiim Petrie, in my " Life and Work," toI. iii.« 
p. 602. 

B B 


Whereupon, and with reference to previously noted 
oommensurabilities, Professor H. L. Smith remarks, veiy 
happily, if this stone box was intended for nothing but 
a coffin, what a nice kind of a coffin it must haye been ; 
and are there any of our modem mathematicians who 
would undertake to give the dimensions of such another 
coffin, combuiing as many scientific data; especiaUy 
too, in order to make it a parallel case in everything, — 
scientific data not yet known to mankind, but to be 
known 4,000 years hence ? 

7. liRstly, of the coffer's cubic contents, its most im- 
portant element as a vessel of capacity. 

I have already published, as the result of my direct 
measures taken in combination with the earliest com- 
mensurabilities which I had discovered in 1868, t}ic 
following quantities : — 


But all the last three of these should probably be 
slightly increased for that anomaly in the measure of 
the lower west side of the coffer (see p. 1 1 8 vol. ii. of 
** Life and Work,") which has just been brought into 
more evident existence by the light of some of Mr. 
James Simpson's more recent commensurabilities ; and 
he now adds the following results of coffer-contents 
from his own calculations : — 

A First wall course of King's Chamber -^50 . . . ^ 71,470 

B The Bame when height is made to correspond to ir pro« \ -., .^i 

portion J — 7i,4Zi 

C Outside contents of coffer deduced from cubic semi-diagonal \ .. .-.-. 

of King's Chamber, and -T- 2 j — /i,4uu 

D From the same, made to correspond to tt . . . . c= 71f*)88 

K Squareof inside breadth (measured = 26*703) X 10 . =71,307 

F Product of interior measures ^71,318 

Q 8o/ici diagonal of Queen's Chamber X 200 . . . ==71,394 

JET Uiiiied ionglh of the S aim Aiuea oi l\ifi Ofi^eX ?^T\Mi]id . = 71 ,276 


The mean of all the qiiantities, first and last, being 
near 71,310; and the resulting figure for the earth's 
mean density, on the principle mentioned in Part II., 
being 5"705. And Mr. James Simj»son further a<lds, 
that whereas the cube-root of 71,310 = 41 -408 and 
the cube-root of the earth's bulk in cubic Pyramid 
inches* -i- 10^ (the cubit into earth's semi-axis of ro- 
tation number) = 40*389, these numbers inchide the 
height of the coffer b(itwecn them. Whereupon, dividing 
the height of the Kings Chamber 230*4247 by the 
earth-bulk derived quantity of 40*381), — there comes 
out as the number, which we may assume in symlmlogy 
to represent the earth's mean density, 5 705 II ; i.^., 
confirming the previously arrived at 5*705 so far as it 

EariKs Dem^ity, closely approximated to. 

Now these corrections by Mr. Simpson of my earlier 
5*70, I venture to regard as of the utmost practical 
importance : for if the Pyramid weights an<l measures 
haul to be re-enacted by ourselves for national use, we 
should require to know most aceunitely either the eon- 
tents of the coffer, or the mean density of the earth, or 

But the poor cotler is now so broken by mischief- 
mongers (more bn)ken too in 1873 tlian it was in 
1865 A.o.) that no improve<l measun^s will in future be 
obtainable from it, over those wliieh have alreadv been 
procured ; an*l the earth's mean density is too dilHeult a 
sulyect for modern science to deal with to the retpiisite 

From the Great Pyramid, I had deduced for that 

• Compiitod very carefully by Mr. Pt'trie for the pllipff'>iil;il earth, Aiid 
eoirected for thu tiTr-aqiiiroud luvvl, a n>iineiiu>iit nut vi't uiiupto<l vwn in 
the bost gMdt'HV of i\w duv, at 60 j 892.1 IH i 000,0i o'i OUU'UO [ UuO^UOP 
Pytuutid cubic inchvs. (8ee my ** Aulii^uily oi lulcVLKvV>3a\ 'SVxmJ* \. W% 

27> OffX JOmtXITANCX fir " ; pen* T^e 


earth feature, iir 1897/ ihe ^pmlify ff*70\: eacpranly 
sajring that it might be ocHtuddered oartain to -01 of 
unity ; and that it eertainfy was not so aman aa 6*69, 
nor so large as 6*71 ; and now behold* after Mr. James 
Simpson, with admirable skill and qoitie moknown to 
me, has made all the oc»rection he can through hia 
further discoveries of l^iamid data^ his efforts do not 
alter the final quantity beyond 5*706. 

And what has modem sdienee to compare against 

6'700, and 

She has two results ; her two last, and in so far they 
should be her best. One of them is by Sir George Airy, 
Astronomer-Royal, representing the Greenwich Observa- 
tory and all the men and money power of the mighty 
British Admiralty ; and the other is by Captain Ross 
Clarke, R.E., C.B., under the superintendence of General 
Sir Henry James, R.E., representing the Ordnance Survey, 
and all the men and money power of the equally 
mighty British Army War OflSce ; and these two great 
national efforts of modem times stand thus, — 

6-565, and 

Well, these two quantities evidently include a long 
way between them all the Pyramid results ; but are so 
absurdly far, one from the other, that they not only do 
not serve to test the Pyramid's accuracy, much less to 
replace it in any very practical question, but they may 
assist too well in showing some Joseph Hume redivivus, 
that much money of our country has been expended 
rer and over again in getting hod results in science. 

Chap. XIX.] 



They may also succeed in salutarily proving, at least 
to dormt modem science so-called, and in the words of 
my venerable friend, Rev. F. R. A. Glover, — 

" That Science of every kind is after, and not before, 
God (Job xxxviii. 4, 5, G) : and, that the right use of 
all Science is, to make the human mind capable of 
appreciating God, — the God of Revelation — God of the 
Dispersion — God of the Exodus — ( lod of (iilvary — The 
God due to come, — and not by it to attempt to de- 
throne Him." (Isaiah xxix. 14 ; 1 Cor. i. 19). 




THERE was once a well-supported piece of special 
flooring in the Grand Gallery, near its northern end, 
concealing from view the horizontal passage leading to 
the Queen's Chamber. Just so much indeed was stated 
in the last chapter ; but there was also a manner of 
performing the work peculiar to the Great P}Tamid, 
and that still remains for due description, assisted by 
Plates VIII., XIL, XIII. 

Thus the supporting beams or joists, as shown by the 
holes for them on either side, within and telow the level 
of the ramps, were 5 in number; a Pyramid 5, too, 
inasmuch as one of them was larger and thicker than 
the other four. But more noteworthy is the height of 
the Grand Galler}'^*s permanent stone floor at the inner 
or southern end of the hole in it, and where that floor s 
long slope coming down from the south is suddenly cut 
off; or descends vertically to a lower level, to allow of 
a flat approach, from the north beginning of the Grand 
(Jallery to the Queen's Cliamber s horizontal passage end. 

That steep escarpment of the Grand Gallery's floor, 
looks almost like a little cliff, being, together with the 
dark passage mouth it overhangs, 86*25 inches high to 
any one standing on the level area in front of it.* But 
that area is 6 inches higher, nearly, than the very begin- 

• *'U£e aod Work,*' vol. ii., pp. 10 wi^1\\ «2^ Vst\i«i^\.,^. ^^. 

Cbap.XX.] the great pyramid. 375 

ning of the Grand Gallery ;* and the escarpment itself is 
under-estimated by the amount of 9 inches, which depth 
has been removed for a short distance to allow of the 
overlapping of the special floor which once covered the 
hole. The entire height, therefore, of the frontal cliff 
for symbolical purposes is not much short of 101*26 
inches ; and this quantity, though in rough approxima- 
tion only, stands before us here very much in the guise of 
the leading Pyramid symbol for a day : viz., 100 inches. 

But is there anything at this point concerning a day ? 

If of days at all, it should be of seven days, seeing that 
the feature of the Grand Gallerv most usually attractive 
to travellers, next after its commanding height, is, the 
seven overlappings of its walls. 

Now the Pynimid's entrance-passngo has already been 
shown to have something to do with days ; and the 
inclined passage which enters the north end of the (Jrand 
Gallery is very similar in size to it, being by measure 
53'2 inches high vertically. The ]>assa<je, however, 
which exits from the south en<l of tht» (irand (Jallerv, 
isonlv 43 (5 inches hi<fh vertieallv ; and as W(» cannot use 
either one or other exclusively in referring to the Grand 
Gallery between them, wo have to tak(» the mean of the 
two, or 48*4 ; and then find, that that (piantity goes 
seven times, exactly to a hundnHlrh, int*) .S:iOi, which 
is the vertical hei<rht of thi? Grand Gallerv at a mi^an 
of 15 points in its whole hMigth ; specially measured 
too with a grand 3 to 400 inch slider measuring-rod, 
presente«l to me f4)r this vitv purpose by Andrew 
Coventry, Esq., of Edinburgh, in 1S(J4.+ 

Now this result may, or it may not, be intended in 

• " Lifc and Work." vol. ii. p. 61. 

t See ** Life and \V<irk," vol. ii. pp. 84 — 86. Formpr trave^Iera moa- 

•nres of the ht^ivht of tho Gmnd <t:i11»tv vjiry fnnri 270 to "nhoiit fiOO " 

incbeK, and am piven without dotail. The inclined llfH)r length Wini; by 

n J measures 1881 PyrHinitl inrhrfi, th»^ nnp'.o 'iC/* W V\ , uwA V\\* Vw^- 

monUl length computid 1686'i Pyramid inches, ^t. ^ta^m^s^ ^vci\v«MTv'^ 


this part of the Pjnftmid to asrisfc in typifying 7 dAys 
(more strictly 7 half-days taken twiee over); and 
is of only subsidiary importance in itself; because 
7 days merely, is a pagan mystical number which any 
one might hit upon, and without its having anything to 
do with the sabbatical week of Scripture : for that was 
an institution which, though including or spanning over 
7 days in its entirety, was &r more noteable for com- 
memorating 6 working days and one day of rest with a 
totally distinct character, and a special ordination by 
inspired command to be held sacred to Qod the Creator 

Tht BihlicaZ Week. 

We have not, therefore, yet found anything in the 
Great Pyramid touching, in any clearly discriminative 
manner, on the week of the Bible. But if we now 
follow along that level passage with the hundred inch 
day symbol overhanging its entrance, viz., the horizontal 
passage leading to the Queen's Chamber, — the last part 
of that passage is found to be one half nearly greater in 
depth than the rest ; and the length of that deeper part is 
one-seventh of the whole length of the floor from the be- 
ginning of the Grand Gallery up to the Queen's Chamber 
wall itself.* This looks like a beginning of a sabbatical 
week symbolism ; and while the passage, of necessity, 
ends by debouching into the Queen's Chamber, its 
seventh deeper portion, which has a length of 21 6 '9 
inches, is found to be roughly a mean between the 

poioted out that the typical fifth part thereof = 337*3 Pyramid inches: a 
dose approach to the 339*2 measurAd, seeing that the variations, in places, 
amounted to anything between 333*9 and 346*0, bv reason chiefly of the 
tilt of each of the long roof-stones to the general soHpo of the whole roof. 
• See *<Life and Work," toI. ii. pp. 66, 61. The whole distance 
M 1617'9, and the sroaller dibtance with the lower plan level = 216*9 
inohes, with an inch of poittbYtt «rqt» 

Chaf.XX.] the great pyramid. 377 

length and breadth (226*5 and 206) of the floor of 
that chamber on the same deeper level.* 

In that chamber behold we a fair, white stone, 
apartment, exquisitely built originally (except as to its 
present floor, which, for some reason or other, is rough, 
and composed of mere untrimmed building blocks) ; but 
with this special and overriding feature accompanying 
and distinguishing it from the other Great IVramid 
chambers; viz., that by n^asoii of its having for ceiling 
a double inclined slope, the whole room may be said 
to have ncven sides ; of which seven, the floor, which 
has not had a tool lifted up agiiinst it within the building 
(though the others, of more flnished character, had), is 
decidedly larger than all the rest in area. 

Tliose other sides, however, are not quite equal and 
similar amongst themselves, unless reductions an^ made, 
founded on some features which do exist, marked into the 
walls ;t but whose full signification hits yet to be accu- 
rately ma<lo out. It may be better, tluTofore, at present, 
to conclude this part of the argument for the siibbatical 
week of Scripture being indicated in this chamber, from 
Mr. James Simpson's sums of the squares, and which 
are given by the chief proportions of the room to a 
higher, though not an absolute, degree of certainty. 

Taking the room, then, with an artificial eeiling, 
assumed in plan just beneath the angular beginnings 
of the roof (or at the greatest height to leave the ai>art- 
mcnt with six sides, sucli as ordinary rotuns possess), 
the sums of the squares of its radius into every 
dimension amount to GO ; or, says Mr. Sim]>si)n, to 6 
working days of 10 each. But n(»xt take the major 
height, or that centml and sui)erior height which etlec- 

* Siilt incrustations proven! vory accunte mca-tiires in this mon*, but 
the 206' widih is Hlniuvt a rt'pnxluciion of the Kind's ChiiniWr brr:tilth ; 
which fenture would have been lost, if the Chauibur had been mido 216* 
■qiutfe in plan. 

t "Ufa and Work,*' vol^iii. pp. 229—232. 


lively gives the room its seventh side, and the sum of 
the square there, and there alone, is 7;* or typical of the 
divinely-ordained day of rest ; and without interfering 
with what has already been ascertained for this chamber's 
indicating the it proportion of the Pyramid, its angles, 
its absolute size, and the length of the Sacred Cubit. 

Qro/nd OalleTjfs Cubical Cow/mensurabUiiiea, 

Let us now return from this Queen's Chamber, so 
called (which to ordinary corporeal research is a cul de 
mc), and we shall find a certain amount of connection 
between it and the Grand Gallery. Only a small amount, 
but of a somewhat similar kind to what there is between 
a week and a year ; inasmuch as both of them are 
measures of time, though the week does not march along 
evenly and decimally with the year in questions of 
history and the chronological fixation of events. 

In this manner, then, while the Queen's Chamber, 
with its cubit-defining niche, contains cubic inches to 
the typical number for that cubit of ten-millionth 
earth-reference — the Grand Gallerj' contains 36 millions 

* Mr. Simpson's sums of the squares are not quite so cogent in the 
Queen's as the Kinf^'s Chamher, already given in chapter x. ; and his 
radius length for it, 92*17 inches, is not ho well proved. The proportions, 
however, which are more certain than the absolute lengths, run thus : — 

Height, divided by radius of chamber . . = 2* square = 4 

Breadth = 22361 „ = 6 

Length = 2-449o ., = 6 

iSuniit of the squares .... =15 

DiHgon:il oi ond = 3* „ = 9 

Diagonal of side = 31623 „ = 10 

Diagonal of floor = 3 3166 „ =11 

Sums <>t the cquHres .... =30 

Solid dingonal = 38730 „ = 15 

•Sums of the squares ot all the dimentiiuiis, except tiie i ^^ 

msjor, or gable, or centml height of th« chamber . f "" 

Jtfii/or, or gable, or central h«iKUl i . =. l-^Ao^j ^^ = 7 


of cubic inches : or one million to every one of the 36 
inclined stones forming its long sloping roof. 

The number of these Grand Gallery roof-stones had 
been given in 1837 at 31 by Colonel Howard-Vyse, and 
at 30 by the great French work, so that I was a little 
disconcerted in 1805 at finding them 3G. But as those 
authors gave no particulars, and as I took muc^h pains 
(duly described in "Life and Work," Vol.11., pp. 8(5—88), 
there can be very little doubt about the largiT number. 
And in 1872, Mr. Simpson seems to confirm it as an 
intentional feature of the architect, by finding the round 
number of one million cubic inches to be repeated just 
36 times in the contents of the whoh* (^nuid Galler}', 
carefully computed for every overlajniing.* 

T)i€. Rampfiy and the WelVt^ Upper Mouth. 

Let us next attend to the rami)s, or inclined stone 
benches on either si<lc of the Cirand Gallrrv's floor, 
running from the very north end right up to the great 
transverse step which fonns the south <'n<l tluToof. 
They arc alluded to so confli«*tingly in the great French 
work, as containing sometimes 2(5, and sometimes 28 
holes, that I recordrd, in ** Life and Work," srv^ral sets 
of measures of various kin<ls, to set this very simple 
point beyond all dispute. 

If the ramps are suppose<l to include the great stone 
step at their upper or southern end — an*! which sttwir step 
has an almost similar kind of hoh» at ritluT innrr corner 
— then there are acluallv and ijositivelv 28 holes, clt\'ir 
and distinct, alcmg tlu* east«Tn wall of the (Jallery (27 
in the ramp itsi>lf, an<l 1 on the st«»p) ; an*l thtTc are as 
many along the western wall ; for though the lowest an<l 

* Mr. SimpBon han a further rper illation on tho apparently oQ-inrh 
hngth of each roof-ntone; but the lon^thx ha\\i\s( t&ViuvV ii\<i^ >ft\. >2^<^ 
MB JiT^ulur, I did not atUmpt to mcusuTQ t\\uiu. 


northernmost hole is not very dear, that is merely firom 
part of the ramp which held it having been broken 
away. Of these 28, too, on either side, 25, viz., all 
except the lowest two, and upper one, are distinguished 
by a piece of stone 1 3 inches broad and 1 8 high, being 
let into the wall vertically and immediately over them ; 
while certain of them are crossed by another piece, giving 
them a fednt approach to an oblique cruciform aspect 

Something may come of that, in the hands of future 
explorers ; but meanwhile we have to notice another 
feature, and a most important one, already established 
or brought to light by the removal of part of the ramp- 
stone in the lower north-west comer of the Grand 
Gallery ; for the removal of that mass just there, long ago 
disclosed a constructional secret of the original builders ; 
viz., the upper end, — or rather a small and low outlet 
leading to the upper end, — of a very deep and solemn 
kind of shaft, usually called ** the well,*' in the annals 
of early Pyramid exploration. 

At those times nothing was known of the Pyramid's 
entrance-passage further down than its junction with 
Caliph Al-Mamoun's forced hole and the entry to the 
first ascending passage. Therefore, when men ventured 
to look into the well mouth from the north-western corner 
of the Grand Gallery, at, or near, the broken ramp-stone 
as above, they found themselves not far from overhang- 
ing a dark and dismal abyss, no one knew how deep or 
where leading to. 

What Caliph Al-Mamoun and his immediate followers 
thought of it, is not recorded ; but soon after his time, 
" the well " begins to figure in Arab accounts, as an open 
pit of preternatural depth and fearful qualities. A 
party of twenty men, from the Faioum district, was once 
formed to investigate the mystery, but was frightened 
hy one of their number falling down the aperture such 
a terrible distance, that Yie Nvaa mdi \a \i3K^^\i^^\i<!at^'^ 


hours in the act, uttering horrible cries all the time ; 
and he was never heard of again except in an apocryjihal 
manner, and as having become an enchanted being. 

Again, a Sultan of Cairo, of impatient character, and 
determined to know all the secrets of the Great Pyramid 
in his own day, elected to blow it up by filling this same 
well with gunpowder : and only rclimiuished the design 
on being assured by his Italian architect, that the explo- 
sion of so vast a (quantity of powder would endanger the 
safety of all the buildings in Cairo. 

Again, at a later age, the Cambridge traveller, Dr. 
Clarke, visited the place with a large military pJirty, and 
on throwing a stone down the well, and hearing it end 
by splashing, as they all considered, in water, — he called 
impressive attention to the faithfulness of classic jiuthors, 
for had not Pliny mentioned that there was a water-well 
in the Great Pyramid, 80 cubits deej) ; and lu*re it was, 
if not before their eyes, at least within range of their 
fidlacious ears. 

Again, in 1818, Signor Caviglia cleared out the 
entrance-passage of the Great Pyramid throughout the 
whole distance right down to the deep subtornmean 
chamber ; and lo, near the bottom of it, on the western 
side, was a low door-way leading into a dark passage : by 
pushing into which and following its lead, and clamber- 
ing in the darkness higher and higher and yet higher, 
or 170 feet vertiwil altogether, he at length found him- 
self at the well mouth, and entering the lower north- 
west comer of the Grand Gal]fr\'. Verv thirsty, too, as 
well as hot and tinnl wils he, for not a particle of water 
existed in any portion of the so-called well : tht» whole 
of which, including the lower end of the entrance-pas- 
sage and the subterranean chamber is far above tlie 
level of the Nile inundation, the only source of water in 
that scorched and almost rainless land. 

Agnin^ in 1 830 and 1 837, came iu t\\e u^je ol ^T.\\ox»r 


tions, i.6., Egyptological and builders' explorations with 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Colonel Howard-Vyse, and Mr. 
Perring. For they set forth, as abeady indicated, that 
the ancient workmen who had filled up with stone plugs 
the first ascending passage, must have aOerwards escaped 
by this long and deep well-like hole, or vertical shaft, to 
the lower part of the entrance-passage, and so attained 
to the outward air once again. 

The Miaamg Bamp-^toTU. 

Perhaps they did. But in that case let us ask, " in 
what state would they have left the ramp-stone over the 
well*s mouth ? " 

Certainly not blown from within outwards, as if by 
uncontrollable explosive force, breaking off part of the 
wall with it, and leaving the hole's mouth exposed ; for 
that would have defeated their whole object. They would, 
on the contrary, have contrived a temporary support for 
the stone when in a position impending over the hole, 
partly in the floor and partly in the wall ; or a support 
such, that when the last man had come away, the prop 
would be easily withdrawn, and the stone would fall 
neatly into a seat already cut for it and cemented round 
the edges with freshly-applied lime to make the work 
permanent and secure. For then such stone would 
be flush with the rest of the ramp, and would utterly 
conceal from any one who should ever enter the 
Grand Gallery by the regular method of the first 
ascending passage, that there was any well-mouth what- 
ever behind the surface of the ramp. (See Plate XIII.) 

The original builders, then, were not those who 

knocked out, from within on the well side, that now 

lost, ramp-stone, and exposed the inlet to the well 

mouth as it is presently seen, near the north-west comer 

of the Grand Gallery. l^e\\\xct Nstsa ^-'iSaxaoun the 


party, for no one could have done it except by entering 
the well from the very bottommost d(?pths of the 
subterranean ro<][ion ; au<l he, tlie son of f iiHph Htirouii 
Al-Raschid, and all his crew, did not descend further 
down the entrance-passagt> than merely to the levi.'l of 
Ills own forced hole, which is n*)t subt«*rranean at all. 
Nor is the credit claimed for anv of his Arab sue- 
cessors, who rather allude to the well as an already 
existing feature in tht-ir earlit»st time, and on^'* they 
did not understand ; in large part, too, becausti tluy 
Iiad only seen, and only knew of, the upper end of it in 
the north-west conier of the Grand CJallery floor. 

Who tluai did do it ? 

Who iudfcd ! For the wh<)l*> ])and of Eirvi»tolotrieal 
writers we have mentioned, appear to be eonvintud that 
ages before Caliph Al ilamoun made his way by blun- 
dering and sma.sliing, long ag*'s too before Mohannaed 
was bom, and nither at and about the period of Judah 
being carried captive to liiibylon, — the Egyptians them- 
selves had enteri'd the (ireat Pyramid by eunninj? art. 
and tolerable iind(»rstanding of its uktc methods of 
construction, and had cl*»stMl it again when they left. 

Either some fanatics of the late dynasties of Etliiopie 
intruders, or the following Persian e4»n4juen)rs, are con- 
sidered to have been those spoilers and si'alers-u]> again : 
and not only of the (Jreat, antl all the tithrr Pyramids 
too, but of evcTv r<»yal tomb throiii^diout E'^ypt in what- 
everstvle of architeeture it may have Invn biiilr. whether 
subterranean or subaerial. The sjMjilcrs al^) and at the 
same time of those far more r«*i>nlsive tinnbs and biggrr 
sarcophagi, the profan«'ly saen-d ones of iln* deified 
Egyi>tian bull Ajns ; recently brought once more to the 
notice of man by Mariette IJtv's too sueces>fnl exeava- 
tions of ancient id4>latrit\s. 

PrecMf/ who tliost* men were, as (\»lonrl Uoward- 
Vyse wdJ rcnuirks, wJio commit led \\\vvl V\\>\. ^\jv\^wv; 



'' will now never be known ; " bat that the royal tombs 
were spoiled, and that both early Mohammedan and 
later Christian explorers throughout both Upper, and 
Lower, Egypt, equally found nothing but emptied sar- 
cophagi, is positive matter of fact. By the aid, too, of 
features still existing, it can be mechanically demon- 
strated how those far earlier men may, in the case of 
the Great Pyramid, have descended to the subterranean 
depths of its entrance-passage, entered the bottom of the 
well, ascended the said well to its mouth, knocked out 
part of the closing ramp, ascended the then dear and 
open Grand Gallery, entered the King's Chamber, made 
what changes they could there ; and then, descending 
again the same way, closed all the passages behind 
them so effectually that no one else ever attempted to 
follow their steps, until after a lapse of 2,000 years, or 
close within our own times. 

Of the Sacred, touching the Great Pyramid, 

That is the end then of the first use which the Great 
Pyramid's Grand Gallery, deep well, but not a water- 
well, and entrance-passage served. But that was evi- 
dently not all which those features were intended for. 

In the course of the summer of 1872, in a correspon- 
dence with Mr. Charles Casey, of PoUerton Castle, Carlow 
(then preparing his work " Philitis "*), that straightfor- 
ward and vigorous thinker considered himself called on 
to tell me, that while he had followed and adopted all 
that I had attempted to explain as to the metrology of 
the Great Pyramid being of more than human scientific 
perfection for the age in which it was produced, — yet to 
call it therefore Divinely inspired or sacred, seemed to 
him to be either too much, or too little. It might have 

* "ThJlWisi A Disquisition.*' Bv Charles Casey, Eeq. Published 
by Canou Brothers, Grafton Btroel, D\i\A\u. \^\1. 


been siifRciont in n previous day, but not in those times 
iu which we live ; for witli rationalism continually ex- 
tending on every side, the only vital question left in 
religion, the only ([uestion really, eiKciently, sacred, is 
" What think ye of Christ ? Whose son is'^lie \ " The 
question to which we must all of us, sooner or later, 
come at last. 

"Now,*' said Mr. Casev, "unless the (Jreat Pyramid 
can be shown to be Messianic, as well as frau«(ht with 
superhuman seit?nce and desi«:rii, its * sacnul * claim is a 
thing with no blood in it ; it is nothing but miTe 
i>oundin<' brass and a tinklin«| cvmbal. That idea 
seized me tluj other night," said ln», ** when I was 
thinking on my bed, and took me with such a giant*s 
grip tliat I havti nevi»r been abU* to get quit of it since." 

You are not the first Pyramidist man, I was obliged 
to reply, to whom the same idea has bt^en vouehsiifi'd : 
for it has long form«Hl a matter of fnM[m»nt and rarnest 
discussion among st?veral of them : but tht-y have not 
published on it yrt, thinking the ntri'ssiiry jnvliminarj' 
part of the subject, or the Pyramid's attestation to 
superliuman scientific abilities for its agf, not yet 
brought up to the retpiiretl degree of exactness to com- 
• niand the respect of, and induce assent from, sci'ptically- 
niiuded men. 

At the time I wrote to Mr. ( 'asfv. the uneiTtaiutit's of 
the base-side measure of tin* (Jreat Pvnimid, by modern 
surveyors, were sinuilv horribh* ; the brst of tlu*m both 
erring to any extent between 1), 100 and IM70 inelus. and 
laying the fault tliereof upon the IVramitl. At that time, 
therefore, the only solutinn of the tlitlieultv >eiiiied to 
be, to beseech sonit* superlativi'ly rich men to expfud ol 
their span* thousands, tirsi in clearing the four ba.M-Niiles 
of the Great Pyramid from their impracticable hills of 
rubbish, and then in measuring between tUvi \v^\\\\\\vA 
Itoints With proiHjr accuracy. And iWte, nV. vWtsal \\A\ 

C c 


men's luxurious doors, the matter stood; and had 
stood uncared for by them or treated with base con- 
tumely for seven long years, until at last the Pyramid's 
purpose could wait no longer. So, partly in 1872, and 
still more signally in July, 187S, it passed them all 
by ; and in reveali^ the reason why the King's Cham- 
ber was made in measured length 412*132 Pyramid 
inches, has shown both the true base-side length and 
the vertical height of the structure, its tt theory and 
the inch and cubit metrological system, to a degree of 
accuracy* too, combined with certainty of intention, 
which leaves nothing more to desire ; and makes Great 
Pyramid studies quite independent henceforth of all' 
those ricli men and their long wasted or squandered or 
unused riches, confided to them for some better pur- 
pose. They had had, in this Pyramid cause, such an 
opportunity of doing high, pure, and noble good to all 
the ages, as wealth had never enjoyed before, since the 
foundation of the world ; but the opportunity has from 
this time departed from them for ever. Wherefore the 
least that can be said is in terms of James v. 1 — 3, 
" Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your 
miseries that shall come upon you. Your riches are 
corrupted, and your garments are moth-eaten. Your • 
gold and silver is cankered ; and the rust of them 
shall be a witness against you." But mankind may 
well rejoice, for the flood-gates of the Great Pyramid's 
sacred history, or the last pages of what it has to tell, — 
and has had to tell ever since the beginning of human 
life and story, — are henceforth open to all. 

Tlie Sacred pronounced to be Messianic. 

It was in 18G5 that a letter reached me at the Great 
Pyramid, transmitted, with some high recommendations 

* Some 700 times more accuTa\e \ibtjv. t\\^ ^reyious measures on the 
ground. (See forward, cbap. xxv.") 

Chaf. XX.] THE GREA T PVR A MID, 3 8 7 

of its author, by that most upright, knightly man the 
late Mr. Kenmure Maitland, Slioriff Clork of the county 
of Edinburgh. " He is a young ship-buiUL'r," said he, 
•* a son of a ship-builder, an acconipHslied dniughtsman, 
and I hear that he lately turned out, from his o\m 
design, one of the most i)erfect ships that ever left 
Tjeith Docks : from his childhood upwards he has been 
an intense student of whatever could be procured 
concerning the (ireat Pyramid; and though his family 
surname is now Menzit^s, he has r(^asons ft)r believing 
it to have been originally Manasseh.'* 

This Israelite, then, but no Jew, it was, who fii-st, to 
my knowledge, broke ground in the ib»ssianic sym- 
bolisms of the (ireat Pyramid, so intensitied sub- 
secpieutly by Mr. Casey : and, after long feeling his way 
in a humble and pniyerful spirit,*" at Inigtli uidiesi- 
tatingly declared that the immense suiK'riority in 
height of the grand galler}' over every other passage* 
in the Oreat Pyramid, arose from its representing the 
Christian i>ispens{ition, while the passagt?s typified only 
human-devised religions, human histories, or little else. 

From the north beginning of the Orand ( Jallery ih)or, 
said Robert ilenzies, tlu»re, in southward [jrocession, 
begin the years of the Saviour's earthly lift*, expressed 
at the rate of a Pyramid inch to a year. Thnc-and- 
thirty in<*h-years therefore, or then.'about, bring us right 

• ** that most mvstorionHoJifice, tho ( Jn at Pvrmiid. wOiich has hcf-n 

a puszle to nil a^.-8. It ifl a vory sfn'ous view iinlt'di w)ii<h 1 t-ntfitain of 
itA purpose, and not one to W approached in a h]iirit ot l«vi:y. I liavo 
endcuvoiircd. l.-iriifoly K>il hy a cari*ful periis^tl of ^Ir. Taylor's honk, and 
your own upon thft Huhjcct, to foll«»w out iimch fiirthor thin y -u du, the 
Scriptural alluMons to tho (ireat Pynimiil. with a result wUiih u]>;)oarfi, 
■lightly as I ha vo dipped into it. truly ast«>nihhin<;. Kxtn-nif cauti'ii in 
rcquixito in Hiblicul res»'«rch, for, as I*rl«T say-*, * No sn ijiiuir ih of 
privuto int4'rpn>tation.* I have humhly and prayerfully fntl- .1 v. Mir«'il to 
mvoid anything whieh may he miseonstnud. and if my huniMo n-'iiarks 
are of anv all8i^t:ln('e to vou in the einridation of tliid 1:^:11 id and holy 
mystery, I shall be truly glad. ** 

*'Sea Cot, Lbith, Fiirnarff 2oth, ISOO." 


over against the mouth of the well, the type of His 
death, and His glorious resurrection too; while the 
long, lofty Grand Qallery shows the dominating rule in 
the world of the blessed religion which He established 
thereby, overnspanned above by the 36 stones of His 
months of ministiy on earth, and defined by the floor- 
length in inches, as to its exact period The Bible 
fully studied, shows that He intended that first Dispen- 
sation to 'last only for a time; a time too y^hich may 
terminate very much sooner than most men expect^ and 
shown by the southern wall imvpendimg. 

Whereupon I went straight to the south wall of the 
Grand Gallery, and found that it vxia impending ; by 
the quantity too, if that interests any one, of about 1° ; 
while the Coventry clinometer I was measuring with, 
was capable of showing 10";* and witere Mr. Menzies 
could have got that piece of infonnation from, I cannot 
imagine ; for the north wall is not impending : he, too, 
was never at the Great Pyramid, and I have not seen 
the double circumstance chronicled elsewhere. The first 
ascending passage, moreover, he explained as representing 
the Mosaic Dispensation. I measured it and found it 
to be, from the north beginning of the Grand Gallery, 
the natal year of Christ, to its junction with the roof of 
the entrance passage northward and below, or to some 
period in the life of Moses, 1,483 Pyramid inches : and 
when produced across that passage, so as to touch its 
floor, 1,542 inches. t 

* See " Life and Work," vol. ii. p. 90. 

t The R^v. W. B. Gallowajr, M.A.,Vicar of St. Mark's, Regent's Park, 
in his "Egypt's Record of Time to the Exodus of Itirael," after deeply 
studying the quenlion, more from Alexandrian Greek than £g}*ptian pro> 
fane, sources, makes the date of the Exodus 1540 ».c. ; see bis p. 371. And 
at p. 429 he arrives at the conclusion, that the hirth of our Saviour was 
actually in the course of our reckoned year B.C. 1, and needs only a 
fraction of a year to make the dates aj[>., as usually given, truly con- 
tiDttOUM with the patriarchal. 


Tht Floor Roll of Human Rvlifjioitfi HiMonj. 

But the chief lino of human history with Rob?rt 
Menzies was the floor of the ontmnee-passng(\ l^*gin- 
ning at its ui>i)er and northern end, it starts at tlio rate 
of A Pyramid inch to a year, from the Dispersion of 
mankind, or from the ]>eri(Hl wlien nuMi dtrlined any 
lon*fiT to live the patriarehul life of Divhie instruction, 
and insisted on goinj^ oft' upon th«'ir own inventions ; 
when they immediately het^^ui to (experience that uni- 
versal *' facilis (lefivfn^ftM ArcrnI " of all idolaters ; 
and which is so sensibly re])resented to the veiT V\U\ 
or death, in the lt)n.i(-contiinied descent of the entrance- 
passage of the (ireat IVramid. more than 4, ()()() inch- 
years lonf', until it ends in the symbol of the bottomless 
pit, a chamber deep in the ro(*k, well tiiiished as to its 
(Veiling and top of its walls, but without any attempt at 
a floor. 

One escape, indei^l, there was in that long and 
mournful history of human dt'cline ; but for a few only, 
when the Exo<lus took place in the tirst-asci'n<ling 
passage, which leads on into the CJrand (lallery : show- 
ing Hebraism ending in its oriirinal ]>rophi'tiedrstination 
— Christianity. Hut another «'sca])t» was also ry«*ntualiv 
provided, to prevent any innnortal soul being neci'ssarily 
lost in the bottondt»ss jdt ; for b«'fore n^aching that 
dismal al)yss, there is a possible entrance, though it 
may ho bv a stmit an<l narrow way, to tht» on«» and 
only gate of sjilvation through the death of Christ 
— viz., the well representing his <l«'scrut into Ha<les : 
not the bottoudess pit of iib»Iaters ;ind tin* wicked at 
the lowest point to which th«» «*utrjiuc«'-]»a<snge sul»trr- 
raneonsly desci»nds, luit a natural grotto rathrr tlian 
artiricial chamlwr in the courst* of the wrll's further 
progress to the other plact* ; while the stouo \v\vvmI\ 
once covered that wdl's U[»por \uov\l\\ \s \^Va\\\ vi>W 


wards into the Grand Gallery with excessive force (and 
was once so thrown out, and is now annihilated), car- 
rying part of the wall with it, and indicating how 
totally unable was the grave to hold Him beyond the 
apj)ointed time. 

That sounds fisdr and looks promising enough, so £Etr, 
said Mr. Casey; but it is not enough yet to be the 
turning-point with me, when interests so immense are 
at stake. We must have more than that, and some- 
thing not less convincing than a proof of this order. 
Measuring along the passages backward from the north 
beginning of the Grand Gallery, you find the Exodus at 
either 1483 or 1542 B.C., and the dispersion of man- 
kind in 2528 B.C., up at the beginning of the entrance- 
passage. Now you have already published, yeai*s ago, 
that you have computed the date of building of the 
Great Pyramid, by modem astronomy, based on tlit* 
Pyramid's own star-pointings, and have found it 2170 
B.C. That date, according to this new theory, must b<' 
three or four hundred inches down inside the top or 
mouth of the entrance-passage. Is there then any mvcirl: 
at that point ? for I feel sure that the builder, if really 
inspired from on High, would have known how many 
years were to elapse between his great mechanical work 
in the beginning of the world, and the one central 
act of creation in the birth of the Di\'ine Son ; and he 
would have marked it there as the most positive and 
invaluable proof that he could give, of the truly Divine 
inspiration under which the building had been planned 
and executed ? 

TU Crucial Teat 

Now it had never occurred to me before to confront 

the sacred and scientific theories in this manner ; the 

idea was Mr. Casey's entireVy. Tiw\. Si^xi-^ \T\ai.^^& ^x^r 

Chap. XX.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. jg i 

to be consiilereil a crucial one, surelv it was this. So 
away I went to my original notes to satisfy him ; and 
beginning at the north end of the Grand Gallery, 
counted and summe<l up the length of every stone back- 
ward all down the tirst ascending piOssjige, then across 
the entrance-passage to its floor, then up its floor-plane 
towards its mouth, and soon saw that the 2,170 B.c. 
would fall verj' near a most singular j)ortion of the 
jyassage — viz., a placid where two adjacent wall-joints, 
similarly too on either side of the passjige, were 
vtrVxcnl, or nearly so ; while every other wall-joint 
both above and below wjis nrfatn/iilar to the li'ugth 
of the passage, and therefore largely indlned to the 

Tliis (h)uble joint fact, in itself most easy to see, though 
not, I believe, recorded before 18(5o, has frequently since 
then been speculated on by various persons as jiossibly 
pointing to some still uiidiscoven*d chamber ; just as 
t.h(j diagonal joints in the flot)r at a lower levfl, are now 
clearly seen to point to the upp<»r ascen<ling passage 
and all that it leads to. 13ut wliih> no such fourth 
chamber hivs yet been discoviTe<l, and no Kgy])tologist 
attempts to give any explanatitm of the anomalous 
joints, tht'V secmetl from their upright posititm, — at least 
to one who believed from tlieorv that th«^v were verv near. 

■ ■ ■ 

and shortly before, the Cireat Pv ram ill's <late of buiKling, 
— to have something representative of Hrtfliuj up, or 
pn}parations for thi^ erecting of a building. And we 
are told l)V Herodotus, that manv i»reliniinarv vi*ars ^/or 
consumed in jireparing the stonrs and subterraneous 
excavations of the Great Pyramid; while l)r. I^'psius 
assures us, in modern times, with all the lights, what- 
ever they may be, of the Egyptologists, that pn'liminar)* 
preparation was never pra<''tised by any ehaiie*'. in any 
case whatever, of all ordinary Egyptian pyramiil builtling. 
For their work was Ejn-miihtmn o\\\\, ot Itomx XvoaA Vft 


mouth, year by year, and each year in itself and by 

itself only. 

Neither of these ^uewi-yertical joints, howeyer, wonld 
exactly suit the 2170 b.c. dat«; they were both of 
them too early. But on the sur&ce of the stone fol- 
lowing the last of them, and containing the 2,170 
distance within its length, Hvert was a more unique 
marking still. Something it was, more retiring, more 
difficult to discover, and yet commending itself still 
more when discovered, though not having the slightest 
approach to either letter of language, or form of drawing, 
and certainly not to any species of idolatry. 

This mark was a line, nothing more, ruled on the 
stone, from top to bottom of the passage wall, at right 
angles to its floor. Such a line as might be ruled with 
a blunt steel instrument, but by a n) aster-hand for 
power, evenness, straightness, and still more eminently 
for rectangularity to the passage axis. I had made 
myself a large square at the Pyramid in 1865, a wooden 
square well trussed and nearly the whole height of the 
wall, and therewith tested the error of rectangularity of 
every masonry joint therein ; and in every case had 
found some very sensible quantity of such error ; but 
on coming to the ruled line, I could find no certiiinly 
sensible error there. If I suspected it occasionally, a 
reversal of the square then and there proved that heat 
or strain had caused some temporary twist in my in- 
strument's wooden frame ; but it could positively and 
permanently accuse the ancient line on the stone, of 
nothing wrong.* 

There was one such line on either wall, the west and 
the east, of the passage ; and the two lines seemed to 
be pretty accurately opposite each other ; while the 
two pair of gt/flwi- vertical joints were not exactly so ; 

• See « Life an^^otk," ^^A.. \\. ^. M, 

Cmip.XX.] the great pyramid. 393 

and the other joints in the walls proten(lo<l to, and 
generally had, no corrrspondence whatever. All things, 
therefore, both in symmetry, boauty of truth, and 
correctness of position, culminated in favour of these two 
thin lines; viz., the one anciently rulrd line on the west 
wall, and the similarly ruled line on the I'ast wall ; and 
I looked at them with still more inter«*st afterwards, 
when there appeared /;(ood reason to considiT them the 
work of the very same hand that lai<l out, in Prome- 
th^an manner, the entire proportions of tin' whole Great 
Pyramid. For when Messrs. Aiton and Tn.Lrlis excavated 
and (with my assistance) laid hare th(» south-west socket 
of the (ireat Pyramiil in April, 1S05, — tln*re, upon the 
fair whit^» flatten<nl face of the sjiid socket rock, while 
three sides were, formed hy niised ed;,'t\s of stone, the 
fourth and outer side was detined simply by a line ; 
but a hnc ruled apjmrently by the very same hand and 
stilfsiime tool which had also drawn these* other truthful 
lines in^the entnmci'-passa;;je. 

Yet thou<,^h I had admired these lin«*s so much,— ■ 
witness the pat^es of ** Life and Work," jMiblisluMl in 
18G7, — I had never thou«,^ht of them btfim* in connec- 
tion with |K>ssible indicati<ms of date, or, indrrd, of 
anythin;^ elst\ by virtue of their pn-tist* and abstiluti* 
pifice ; and h«*TU'e it was, that wlion Mr. < a^'V requireil 
in 1872 to know exartly where, on the lloor. tbe line 
on either side toucht^l that plan*? (measuriMl. too. not 
from the top of the entrance-] »assji<ri» comparsitivrly closr 
bv on the north, but from tli«» iK'jriiniinir df tlir (Jranil 
(■allerv far awav to tin- south\ th«-re was no n-adv 
pn:*pare<l re«*t»rd to say. That is, notliinu^ mon* than 
the r«*aclin»^s of the masonrv i<unts ni'Xt above and 
b^'low the spot, toj^'ether with a nun' memorandum 
that the ruled line was within "a few indus * of our 
of them. Kverv in t erven in^' measure liv joints l>e- 
tween the two c.vtremes, and over scoto^ vA yA\\V-s,\^ 


been procured, printed, and published to 1^ world in 
1867 ; but just the last item required, merely the 
small distance from the nearest joint to the drawn 
line, was wanting. (See Hate XYII.) 

So I wrote out to my friend Mr. Waynman Dixon, 
C.K, then (1872) actively engaged in erecting his 
brother's bridge over the Nile, near Cairo, requesting 
him to have the goodness to make and send me careful 
measures of the distance, whatever he should find it to 
be, of the fine line on either passage wall at the Pyra- ^ 
mid, from the nearest one of the two gtuiffi^vertical 
joints ; not giving him any idea what the measure was 
wanted for, but only asking him to be very precise, 
clear, and accurate. And so he was ; taking out also 
as companion and duplicate measurer his friend Dr. 
Grant, of Cairo ; and their doubly attested figures were 
sent to me on diagrams, where they were written into 
their places, in a manner which left no room for any 

With this piece of difference measure thus happily 
obtained at so late a date, I set to work again on my 
older joint measures of the whole distance ; and was 
almost appalled when, on applying the above difference, 
the east side gave forth 2170*5, and the west side 
2170*4 Pyramid inches. 

"This testimony satisfies me and fills me with 
thankfulness and joy," wrote Mr. Casey ; while I, 
never expecting to have measured so closely as that, 
along either side of those lengthy, dark and sloping 
Pyramid passages (where the measuring-rods, if not 
tightly held by hand to the floor, have a knack of 
slipping away and shooting down to the bottom), I, 
not understanding how such apparently close agreement 
came about, and knowing that it was not my desert, — 
can oxAy conclude this cAiO^Xjet ^\\Xi ^ ^^AtXidensed^ 

Chaf.XX.] 1 he great pyramid, 395 

small-type rei)rtiseiitation of the figure work involved 
in bringing out the results ; results more hiboriously, 
and also, ^HThaps, more rigidly, impartially, and un- 
exceptionally gained, than ean well be imagine<l by any 
one else without going through some coaf<2)eduH of the 
many details. 





The mcaaures of thnvo lines from the ncaroHt mnsonry j'>int, wen* 
kindly sent to nic by Mr. Waymimn Dixon, from Eg:yi)t, with uttt'Stutions 
b7 hii frieod, Dr. Grant, of Cairo, on August 19, lb7i\ Uiuh : — 

•* Eaut trail — Entrance PaBsage. 

*' Distance of Rulod Lino from mattonr}' wall joint north of it, 
at the top ol the wall . . = 13*2.5 Brititth in. 
at the bottom of the wall . . = 4*37 >« 


We»t Wall — Entrance Passage, 

** Dintance of Rultni Lino from masonry whU joint north of it, 
at the top of the wall . . = 17 '80 Hritiah in. 

at the bottom of the wall . . = 7*55 „ 

••The above dihtwnoos wore measured by Mr. Waj-nman Dixon, C.E., 
and checked by Dr. Grant," and were accomjianied by dniwin^.H Hliuwini^ 
that the lines were aasuinfMl to be rectangular (which tlu'v ar*-) to the 
length of the pasfuig«», while the masonry joints they won.' referred to 
were nearly vertical, and were the southernmost member^i of a pair of 
•uch ^UMi- vertical joints uu either wall. 

Examination for AiTuracg. 

The above meatarcs are g<>nerully agre«*able to my own approximate 
indication of the pohition of the lines, though I wan nthi-r purpriited to 
find by Mr. Dixon's nuuibem, that the line on the wfht wall iM tariher Irum 
it« reference joint, than that on the oast wall is frum its reference joint 
there, by so large an amount as nearly 4 inches. 

It booime therefore prudent, before 4.>mbarking' in any sfWH^uIation on 
the wh(de return, to make an independent inquiry into the d*'gn^ of 
accorary of Mr. Dixon's measures, in oue feature at least, where they 
admitted of that whi»lesome scientific discipline. 

Accordingly, if we subtnct, in the case of each wall separately, 
Mr. Dixon's lower difference reading from the up^HT, we attain a ditlen>nco 
of the differences. East = 8'K8 inches, and West = lU"2'i in--hcH. And 
on the aMSumjition of the line* h*iin\^ rectant(ulat V^^ \^\«^ V\\v^v\v vA ^Oaia 
V, tbemt rviudiud quautilids show how lUMcb \.Yi« ju\itts ^^cNVttXA ^xm 


reebmgnlftritsr towardi TartioiUtv, m mMmrad along the top of fho will ; 
or they form the alMntiMt mde oi a piano triangile, of which the lonpoit 
ride IB the ^nMf-Tortical joiiit» and the mediiim aide the tranaTone heigfafe 
of the wall, eqaivalent to the length of the ruled line. 

Now the ahorteet aide of that triangle I did in a manner meaaore in 
1865 ; for in pp. 29 and 80 of vol. iL of "Life and Woilr/' the deviation 
of each of the mid ^naft-Tertical jointa (ihnn lectangnlarity towarda ver- 
ticality) is atated aa being, or amounting to, at the top of tiie wall, — let, 
by an approximate method : — 

The east ^HMf-Tertical Joint . = 8 ± « indiea, 

Andtheweat „ . . . = 9 ± sinohea. 
2nd, by a more aoemmte method : — 

The east ^MMi-Tortioal joint . . . . = 9-1 inohea, 

Andtheweat „ . . . . = 10*4in6hea; 

while the line mled on the eaat wall donated from rectangoUrity by only 
0*04 inch, and that on the weat wall by lesa than 0-01 of an inoh. 
Now Mr. Dixon'a nnmbem for the same two jointa' deviationa being — 

For the east ^tkut- vertical joint . . . = 8 88 inches. 
And for the west „ ...» 10*25 inches, 

they come between my two pairs of quantities, and closer to that pair of 
them which was previously stated to be by the more accurate method. 
The result of examination is therefore highly g^tifying, and shows that 
we may certainly depend on Mr. Dixon's mcssures, say, to the tenth of an 
inch, at least ; and that is no more than the fortieth part of the apparently 
anomalous difference of his absolute distances of each line from its nearest 
joint at the bottom of its own wall. 

That difference, then, of the absolute distances must be a real quantity 
at the Pyramid ; and the line on the west wall must be actually 4 inches} 
or so further from tho joint there, than that one on the east wall is from 
the joint there. Wherefore much may perhaps depend at last on what 
effect such largo difference may have, in modifying the final result on a 
certain whole quantity which has now, after a repose of several years, 
been suddenly required, in order to furnish a test for a new hypotheris. 

Trial of Mr. Ctuey's Sypothesis, 

"Mr. Casey had thus far simply announced, that to fulfil certain important 
theoretical ends, the passage floor distance in the G^at Pyramid (measured 
from the north end of the Grand Qallcry, down tho floor of the first 
ascending, and up the floor of the entrance-paRsage, to where that floor is 
at last touched on either side by the lower ends of these two anciently 
ruled wall lines) should amount to 2,170 Pyramid inches, neither more 
nor less within the pro'bable errors of measurement. 

At present I need only state that the north end of the Grand Gallery is 
a very well preserved and 8hari>ly defined plane ; a good starting-point 
therefore for measures; and that, excepting some rather troublesome, but 
by no means imposrible, features at the junction of the two passages, tho 
whole distance is plain, clear, and perfectly amenable to mcdem measure. 

Indeed every inch of the way (excepting only the small piece now 

nppiied by Mr. Dixon) has been, at one time or another, measured by 

me^ and its chief portion even two ot \2kn«b Nasn»a vrcs^ veA q>ti either 

Chap. XX.] 



side of the pasmges, with rrsults too which have hoen publihhod before the 
world for iive yean. The numerical tactn therefore are, bo far, very firm : 
and if the mvaaures, aa originally taken, have as yet only bH<>n ]ircMf)nted 
Hnywhtre piecemeal, and with numbers increaiting in two different «oriet 
from nurth to south, in place of, as now required, in one long accumulation 
from south to north — that is an additional guarantee that the mc^anures 
taken in 1865 could not have been influenced by any desire to bring out 
the result of Mr. Casey's hyi)othc>His in 1872. 

We pruceed therefore to the first portion of the whole distance now 
demanded, viz., from the north end of thu (rnind GaUer>', down the floor of 
the first ascending passage, uutil that floor produced cuts the oppi^aing 
floor of the entrance-) >a4«age. This poilion wc may call a. 

The elements for the lungth a are given in ** Life and Work/' vol. ii., 
in the shape, — 

lit. Of the floor distances, in British inche.<4, joint by joint, from a 
■pecified joint near the lowtT end, u)) to the terminal joint at the up{ier or 
•outhem end of the flr!*t ascending )>auuge, and they have been measured 
twice over by me on either side of the piuwa^e. 

2nd. The portcullis length, from that lower spocifie<l joint downwards 
to the still lower butt-end of {MrtciiUid, measured only once, and on the 
east side of th<* passage only. 

3rd. llie distance from that lower bntt-ond, slantingly thi- 
entrance-pahS'ige to ila floor, in the dintction of the o)»}iOsing floor of the 
first ascendintf passage produced downwiitds, and given hcio in three 
portions, each of which has bc>en meabur<-d on either side of the passage. 

The following Table contains all thomi distunces n>()uired for a, and 
they are finally reduced from British, to Pyramid, inches in the two right- 
hand columns. 

Tahlb I. 

Floor-joint dintanees from tiorth bty inning of Grand Gallery^ towards lower 
ttid of Jir»t aiteendiHy jHiMage ; or annpinniHtn of thr numbtr* in third 
cdumH* of pages 48 and 49 w/'* Life and Work,** roL ii. 






BrMMATinivii iM 

i:K8 IK 
In< HKil. 

fisiTisii Ikcubs. 


IxilKK. . 

NuiiBia nr Flook- 

JoixT. , 




Kimt side, Went nidi- 

rjyrst— i lanri - 

YmtX Hidi-. 

\Vv»t vide 




Storting jnint of 

flrsi Mc<.-ndin|r 

I'pmiuid ; at the 

t<^ or upper end 

of that puMit^e, 

near the Uraind 


• • ■ 





• ■ * 

6H1I ■ 67*6 

57 -H 





■ • « 

• * ■ 

i;7-s lT«-fl 




2l«-a »)7-4 



• •• 

1 2.'.7-» 




• • 


■ • « 



■ •• 




.11! -fi 


• •■ 







■ • ■ 




^ <-* ;^ 




TuKS I. (cmMmmI). 

KotBm or Fwamf 



nan V 



lffi>iiw V 



1891-t — 

ItOll — 

Shi ride. 



• •• 

















• •• 


■ •■ 









. ff04'4 





• •• 

• •• 

• •« 

• •• 
















Lower part of first 26 

a«cendiiiff pas- 27 

sa^, near the 28 

Portcullis . . 29 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• • • 





Special Additiohs. 

PortcnUiB length (see 
and W.") . . . 


(178*8) • 





To roof of (m^«noe- 
I>as8age, or c/ (soe 
p. 41j_voL ii. of "L. 
and W.") . . . 







To axis of entrance- 
passa^ ; or the 
quantity/ • 







To floor of entrance- 
passage: in direc- 
tion of the first 
ascendinff paiwage 
prodnoed down- 
wards, OT il 







Whole distance from no 
the floor of first asc 
t<> touch the floor of 
quantity A, in pyra 





iningof ( 

les . 

»roduced d< 

• % • 

B'y, down 
«; or the 

• • 



* Not directly measured, only inferred, on this western side of the Passage. 

We next take up the remaining portion of the whole quantity required 

An* Mr. Casey's hypothesis^ or the' distance from the intersection plane of 

the "Boots of the two passages, up tV\Q «iaT«.'iiCft-'^««».^<e'a floor northward ; 

U> where that floor is touchod on e\l\\eT %\^<a Xi'j >^^\w»\.\«iaE q»\ "Caa Nisa^ 

uled waU lines : a portion we Bhall ca!)! b. 

Chap. XX.] 



But this portion b we must noceasarily computo in two stops ; first, in 
Table II. f setting forth the readinf^s of all tho^r/or joint » of the entrnnce- 
paasage on the floor, tho supposed sheet of, or for. hiHtiiic re<'ord; and 
■eoond, in Table III., setting fnrth firi^t for the eust side, and then for 
the west side, the rendingH of every wall j*»int^ on the floor d al>ove do- 
■rribcd record plane ; thin will be the b which we are in sean'h of ; and 
will have a added to it in the two last columns, ho uh there to present the 
quantity a -(' >*• ^^^ ^^^ wall-joints in tlio entrance-itasMive. 

Finally, to the wall- joint rea^ling a -f" ^« f<^*r the imrticulnr joint mea- 
sured fiom by Mr. Wavnman Pixon. we muKt apply hirt measured dif- 
ference of the lower end of the ruled line therefnim. 

Table II. 

Floor- J'^ INT dittaneta fntm mntact pl'ine in jHrnrentiitiy Fnfratife Patnttyf, 



north icard* to itn up/HT north 

*/!'/, or httjiuninif. 


Pi'xxATiox'i nr 






The startinfr - point 




" ^~ 

beinr not a joint, 
but t lie cfintHct plime 
with thtf floor of flrnt 
Mct^ding ptiMtn^f 
produrfvl down - 

Kiint Hide. 



Kimt siJt', 

We«t Hide. 






wanln, or line " 


fH*7-2 — 

}»*«-«— ' 



on p. 4:2. Tol. ii., 



distance. | 




St"*- p. 42, 

+ lW.3-8 

Sf«' i>. 4-J. 

i lM4i> 





1m ^^nnin^' 


dc W."; 


iif (i|:inil 


of' ( f rnnd 


i« III 







Joint from 'W* low 


down in en- 


trance-pMsa^ . 




4»i-:» ■ 







wi-7 1 


1 1:2 12 

li>J41 ■ 


1 1<«-K 


n«tj-:i j 



MA^-A ' 




i4«-:» ' 









17:17 ■;» 





•j:u-,'» ■ 









1 *•■-••;■ 4 



' .^Ci"i 





, lK7ii-7 







1 iifi7-rt 



■ 411-5 

• l!»?»-n 

; 410-1 






21 "ir:* 


2" "'7 '2 







2« >♦'.»■ 7 





1 2122-a 



•Jl'Jii 2 


' The line cm the 



' wall is due Mme- 



vheru belwi-en 


IIm-w two floor- 








' wi-;i 






! 2247-4 


2247 ■:• 

1 221^2 





7« ;'.«■•_» 


LMH :»"-.» 








Ncur boginninfr or 




, hxr.'i 




I iqiiitrr. or burtli 
) m*) of thf fii- 






'1 V. Vx\ 



f fnare-fuvM^ . 


>7-a ," 


' UKvfi 


1 ^ 




N.B. — Had Mr. Waymiuai Dixon metrared tlie lower end of tibe n>lod 
lines from a ./foor-jointi we ihonld now have been in a poaitian* witli tida 
table, to have obtained for each ruled tine the nltiniate reading reqnirad. 
Bat bis measure of a diflbrenoe being from a «Mitf-joint, we moat now 
prepare a further tabular repreaentation of the readings, on tiiefloor^plane, 
of each of the iMi^jointB, and thia for either ^all separately ; or thna : — 

Tablb ni. 

Wall-joikt dittmu§nrt tMr hwfr mtdi ; er wkmr$ tk^if touch tkojhor im ik» 
Kmtbanci PAsaAOi ; rmJumtdfrom tkai floor's eontMipliis with tk$ 
Jloor of frai M$emiin§ ptuta^ (productd dowmomrdt), mid proemdm^ 
upufardt to iko vppor or north ona of Bntromio Fuumgo, 

EAST WALL (bt rrsBLy). 

Floor*! contact plane 987'2 Britinh inches from its beginninff at north end. 1 

(Bee page 42, voL ii., of " 

Life and Work.") 

W* X 

The same + 1648*8; or 



whole distance from the 

Number of Wall-joint, referring 

south from 

distance, or 


north beginning of 
Orand Gallery = A + B. 

only to the bottom tiiereol 


from contact 

(See p. 24| 

British Ins. 


Ist wall-Joint| above, or north 

of floor's contact plane 





' >« >» tt 





^ it it ft 





4 fi »f i» 





*' it tt *t 










■ tt t* ft 





^ ft ft ft 





" ft ft ft 





'^ ft ft ft 





'^ ft ft ft 





1' t« tt t« 





The ^rall line dne somewhere 


18 ! Approximately vertical . 





14 ! Approximately vertical . 





15, half-beiKht .... 





16, half-height .... 





17, half-height .... 





North beginning of basement 

sheet of entrance-passage . 





Ckap. XX.] 



WEST WALL (rr ttsklf). 

Floor eontart pUne ft^S'O Britiflh inchGn firom basement beginning. 
(See page 42, toL ii., of " Life and Work."} 



The same 4- 1644-0; or 

south fhim 


J whole diHtancc fh>iii the 


distance, or 

1 north beginning of 

Number of Wall-Joint, ftc, ftc. 


(8eep. 21, 

Tol. ii.. 

••L.ft W.") 


Grand UaUer>- 

= A rB 

British Ins.! 


lit wnll -joint, aboTC, or north 

of lloor'a contact plane 





S , 








I«ySH-5 ! 


4 ., • ,. 



1687-G 1 






















9 .. n ., 



iH-wro , 





i!H;7r> ' 





2« >«>■-••.'» 





2iU7-.> , 

21 » 15-5 


4-J7 1 


2l«r.»-j j 





2187 -S 


The wall line due somewhere 



15 ! appnizimatf^ly Tcrtical 





18 ! appmziruatoly TcrticoL 
17, half-hnght .... 

2H!r8 1 








IS, half-height .... 



2:177-1 » ! 

•2. i 74-6 

19, half-hei^ht .... 
Xorth beginnin^r of bawment 





•beet of entxance-passagc . 





The abiiolntc place, thon, on tho^'>or'« sc-rtill of history, in terms of our 
A -f- H, of the buM3 of thut wull-joint iroui which Mr. Dixuii iDtMburud thu 
ruled Jino, in on the 

East Bide 

And on the west side 

= 2171-9 Pyfanaid in. 
= 21780 


And Mr. Dixon's measured difference at the base amounting t«: 

On the east side . 
And on the west side 

4*1 incht's. 


And the si^ns of these qimntitit>s lH>ini^ negativo. or showing thut they aro 
tu be sulunictcd, we havti for the absolute niidings or datr^ of th«' iwn 
ruled lincH, in terms of the stxictt'Kt n.^quirimuntb of Mr. L':uM.*y's 
hypothesis — 

On the east side . 
And OS ihu wwt Bide . 

= 2170*0 rvramid inches. 

i> n 


of the vhc 


Bnt I mori 
book'* oontan 
nmple ooiixrib 

uch clDiieT degree of approach thiui I bod eipedtid my 
upable of, or dill thiok tbe^ deurvu ; uid I gboald tiiivu 
le in publiihing tlie cue, uul not tho whole of the Ait^n 
^ imposaible to hjire beea knoBinglf ioQuoaoedat tbo timo 
, printwli and pablisbud. 

jBvait to the candid reader to sny, whether the rost of tiis 
.... .. _t.. .1-. — — J Q^ agreement above or boiow 

L M 

PART v. 






1^0 land has been so variously treated in chronology 
as the valley of Egyi)t ; for even if the early mysti- 
cisms of so-called divine kings during 3G,500 years be 
exploded, there are equoJly extraordinary modem 
theories. By some of the rationalistic writers on, and 
inventors of, history, for instance, in latter times, the 
earliest Egyjitian kings have been pushed forward far 
above all monumental dates up to 10,000, 20,000, and 
even 300,000 years ago ; with the accompanying state- 
ment, too, that even at tliat remote epoch there were no 
signs of any gradual emergence out of a primitive savage 
condition, but only of an already highly organised and 
well-governe<l community, which must therefore on the 
Imman hypothesis, have commenced to run its civilized 
course an infinite length of time previously. 

More recently still, not only have geologists claimed 
to have discovered proofs (in fragments of pottery dug 
up at a great depth in the alluvial deposit of the Nile) 
of an existence of first-rate human manufactures there 
during more than 13,000 consecutive years ; but there 
are many very worthy men who still attach much im- 
portance to the computations made, astronomically, 
from certain configurations of the ecliptic and ei^uator 
in the celebrated zodiacs of the Nilotic lemyles q{ 
Dendem, Esceb, and £' I)ayr. 


The first ckss of authors mentioned, in a great mea- 
sure, either stand or fall with the two latter ; and upon 
the proofe, more or less material, which they have been 
supposed to offer in confirmation of their theories. 

Now, of the geological evidence, it has lately been 
argued by the acute Professor Balfour Stewart, of 
Owen's College, Manchester, that a solid mass of any 
substance of notable size, has an effective tendency to 
work its way downwards through a bed of finely- 
divided particles of both similar, and extraneous, matter ; 
wherefore it is no positive proof, ages after a big bone, 
or piece of potteiy, or flint hammer of comparatively 
lai^e dimensions, was deposited on a certain soil, that 
it should be of the same date as the smaller particles of 
the stratum it is subsequently found in ; for it may 
have worked its way downwards while these particles 
were still mobile. 

This law its author illustrated in the case of celts im- 
mersed in finely-divided silex powder ; and if it is true at 
all, it must be especially applicable to the later Egyptian 
geology. For there, all the valley is not only composed 
of the so-called slime of the Nile (microscopically fine 
particles of granite, porphyry, limestone, and the other 
rocks washed and rolled over by the mighty river in its 
long course from the equator), but is visited every year 
by the inundation ; which may be regarded as a grand 
tide of a secular order, producing amongst the slime's 
small component particles the same sort of lively quick- 
sand effect, but in a superior degree, which is witnessed 
on the Goodwin Sands, whenever an ordinal}^ periodical, 
or only twelve-hour, tide rises there. 

The geological evidence, then, for a very long 

chronology, imder such circumstances, is specious in 

the extreme; while the supposed astronomical, is con- 

fiiderably worse ; having even had a decided refutation 

given to its very esaeiice, \)kco\x^ xckSKc^ c^^ tecent 


hieroglyphical readings, and in this way. The painted 
Egyptian zodiacs abeady alluded to, no matter how 
grossly they caricatured the positions of the stars, had 
been fondly considered, by those who sought a high 
antiquity for Egypt, to have beep invariably constructed 
so as to represent something in the heavens as seen in 
their own day ; and if they were found to have made a 
very badly drawn equator crossing the ecliptic, equally 
murdered, 180" from its present position, that was taken 
as a proof that the ceiling, or the walls containing those 
things must have been sculptured when the equator did 
cross the ecliptic in that longitude ; i.e., 12,900 years 
ago, according to the now known rate of the precession 
of the equinoxes in good Newtonian astronomy. 

But this is plainly no scientific proof ; for any stone- 
mason can at any time, if you give him an order so to 
do, and a pattern to go by, carve you a zodiac with the 
equator crossing the ecliptic in any constellation what- 
ever : and with vastlv more scientific accuracy of detail 
than any of those profane Egyptian temple pictures 
have yet been accused of. 

There was never, therefore, any real stability in the 
groundwork for those pseudo-astronomically computed 
chronologies ; while during the last thirty years the 
whole of such false growth has been felled to the 
ground, by the successive discoveries of the new hiero- 
logists, Young, Champollion, and their followers ; who 
have proved incontestably, by interpreting the hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions mixed up with the pictures, that 
the zodiac templi's were the latest of all the Egjptian 
monuments ; that they dated only from the timt^ of 
the late Ptolemies, and ev«*n some of the Koman 
emperors ; and were the work of house-painters rather 
than astronomers. 

Had hieroglyi>hic study, therefore, done nothing else 
than demolish tlie absurd auUi\u\l\ gvv^iXk, o\\ w\vb\sJ&s2BL 


grounds, to the astronomioo-idoIatroiiB l^gyptian teoiples 
of late date, it wotdd have deserved well of wm«^"<^ ; 
but it has done more than that, though perhapa not 
quite so much, nor always quite so well, as its ardent 
students have claimed for it. 

Egyptians Hieroglyphics veraua Chnek 8ch6la/rMp. 

Commenced by the discovery of the Rosetta stone in 
1802 ; vivified by Young and CShampoUion about 
1820 ; and, since tiben, most ably developed by Rossel- 
lini, Gardner Wilkinson, Birch, Osbum, Lepsius, Poole, 
De Saulcey, De Roug^, Bnigsch, Mariette, and many 
others, — hieroglyphical interpretation has rendered the 
nineteenth century vastly more intimately acquainted 
with the home life of early Egypt, than any century has 
been since the times of actual Apis and Osiris worship- 
ping by the Egyptians themselves. 

The sudden ability thus acquired, to read the writings 
of a people who departed all visible life nearly two 
thousand years ago, infused at the time extraordinary 
enthusiasm into all the hieroglyphic students ; who 
congratulated each other, and ancient Egypt too, un- 
ceasingly, on the treasure-house of human wisdom which 
they had so successfully opened up. 

" Dark,*' said they — 

« Dark han been thy night, 
Oh, Egypt ! but the flame 
Of new-bom science gUda thine ancient name." 

And how does thcvt science gild it ? Not by having set 

forth any grand philosophy or estimable literature; for 

such things are so very far from existing in the hiero- 

glyphics, that at last the \aX» Svc George Comewall 


Lewis, impatient of the Egyptological boastings, and 
judging of what had been produced, from his favourite 
stand-point of G-reek authors, — both condemned all the 
Mizndsms which had up to that time been inter- 
preted ; and concluded from their sample, that there is 
nothing worthy of being known remaining to be inter- 
preted in all the rest of the hieroglj'phics of the 
reputedly v)\m land of Egypt. 

So if there is anything worth gilding at all, it is 
perhaps rather to be looked for in clironology than 
literature ; for the Egj-ptians were, of all men, the 
record keepers of the early world : not only per- 
petually erecting monuments, but inscribing them all 
over with their clearly-cut-out hieroglyphic inscrip- 
tions ; while the dry climate of their countr}'^ has 
preserved even to these times almost whatever they 
chose to iascribe, large or small. 

Yet after years of study, our groat Egj-ptologic and 
hieroglyphic* scholars are agreed on nothing chrono- 
logical, except something like the order of pn»cedence, 
or comparative succession, of old Egyj)tian kin^, and 
dynasties of kings ; — for when they come to give the 
absolute dates of any of the nn<^nis, they ditler among 
themselves by 1, ()()(), 2,000, 3,000 or more years with 
the utmost facility, just as they choose to consider the 
literary dynasties of Manetho more or less successive, 
rather than coexistent, in difiertmt cities or provinces 
of ancient Egypt 

Bui while Manetho, though an Egj-ptian priest, was 
not contein])orary with the most critical tinu»s he alludes 
to (liaving lived un<ler the Macedonian subjugation of 
his countr}', and his work having only come dt»wn to 
us in fnigmentary quotations in late monkish authors), 
certain goo<l (ireek scholars amongst ourst»lves (men 
who would have been thoroughly approved of by S 
G. C lenis), Aave, after studying t\\e \jmt^\^ iA\i3JiM\^. 


writers most deeply and eztensiyely, and at those historic 
periods when they declare hieroglyphics were still inti- 
mately and genmdly understood in that land, — ^they 
have, I repeat, raised the standard of opposition against 
the modem mArdiaami Egyptologists, or ChampoUionist 
interpreters of the monumental inscriptions; and op- 
pose both the order, and absolute dates, as well as the 
names for the early Egyptian kings and chief events, 
as usually given by those gentlemen.* 

Of the whole merits of this grand contest, neither is 
this book the place, nor myself the author, wherein and 
by whom, it should be discussed. But therie are certain 
of the results, from either side, which cannot be passed 
by, in connection with our proper Great Pyramid sub- 

Differential Chrortology of the Egyptologists. 

When the Egyptologists, for instance, confess, as they 
have done most distinctly even within the last year, 
that they know, amongst all their profane monuments 
of Old Egypt, not a single one capable of expressing, or 
giving, in its inscription an ahsolute date, while we have 
seen abundantly from what is already set forth in this 
book, that the Great Pyramid does assign its absolute date 
most distinctly, and more and more distinctly the higher 
science it is examined by, — evidently an invaluable 
type of separation has been ascertained between the one 
Christianly sacred monument in Egypt on one hand, 
and, on the other, the whole herd of that land's 
profane monuments, the only research-ground which our 
modem Egyptologists seem to care for. 

• See " Ei^Tpt's Record of Time to the Exodus of Israel," critically 
MDveetiffAted by the Rev. W. B. GaUoway, M.A., Vicar of St Mark's, 
Begent*8 Park, London. 


Again, while the leading principle, and very sheet- 
anchor, of the best Eg}^tological-chronologists is, to 
seek out and confide in " monuvients ; " to consider 
nothing fixed in Egyptian historj'^ or fact, unless there 
is a monument to show, and that monument contem- 
porary, or nearly so, with the facts to which it relates, 
— they allow faithfully that they know of no monuments 
whatever, earlier by more than a very few years, even if 
by so much, than the Great Pyramid. 

Dr. Lepsius is very clear on this point. In his 
" Letters from Egypt," he wrote from the tombs before 
the Great P}Tamid in 1843 : — " Nor have I yet found 
a single cartouche that can be safely assigned to a perio<l 
previous to the fourth dynasty. Tlie builders of the 
Great Pyramid seem to assert their right to form the 
conmiencement of monumental history, even if it 1k^ 
clear that they were not the first builders and monu- 
mental writers." And again, he says, " Tlio Pynunid 
of Cheops, to which the first link of our whole monu- 
mental history is fastened immovably, not only for 
Eg5T)tian, but for universal histor}\'' And in his great 
work of illustrations, the " Denkmaeler " of subsettuent 
years, the Doctor adheres to the above view, and opens 
that immense chronological series with the (ireat 

Hence' we may dismiss entirely all the 800, 000 years 
of civilised life in Eg}'i)t before the Great Pyramid, as 
rashly asserted by a late rationalistic writer, because he 
has no " monuments " to show for that long prriotl. 
But for such period as the Egyptologists do bring up 
monuments ; ^'iz., from the Great Pyramid downwards, 
almost without a break, — there we can hardly but pay 
some attention to their schemes of the ilifirrt'utial 
chronologic liistorj' of Egj-pt, and which they place 
variously thus : — 


Bionnmn) ~- toB DTSAarr of AjfciBWT En»r 

Dirt* ■HOrdins to tbc Annge 



1 . - 

























and imallet 








































and liook- 






Tomb Builden. 





Now when a scientific pyramidist, on the other 
hand, or from his point of view and sources of informa- 
tion, confines himself to stating relatively that the 
Oreat Pyramid was erected in the times of the " Fourth 
Dynasty," — ^he is evidently in accord with all the 
Egyptologists of every order and degree ; hut when he 
fiinher defines that it was erected at the absolute date 
>f 2170 ac, he is in accoiA'flVCb. oiia («i."3 Ql\i» ^hole 

r • 



i i 

iJ : ■ 


111 lull 


Ciup. XXT.] THE GREA T PYRAMID. 4 1 3 

of them, viz., William Osbum, for he makes the fourth 
dynasty to extend from 2228 to 2108 b.c. 

On finding this solitary case of agreement, in the 
course of 1866, I immediately obtained a copy of that 
author's two-volume work, ** Monumental Historj^^ of 
Egj'pt;" and was so well satisfied with the vigour and 
originality of his mind, his linguistic power, and his 
conscientious labours, that I sought out every other 
work that he had written ; and was eventually rewarded 
with a long correspondence with himself; and found 
him a man who, though he did not please his fellow- 
Egyptologists, yet seemed worthy to be regarded as the 
king of them all. Partly, too, by the light of his 
writings, reading I^epsius and Howard- Vyse over again, 
I am now enabled to give the following conipanitive, but 
still only approximate, view of the Great Pyramid 
among the other pyramids of Eg}'pt, and in pro])able 
date, as well as shape, size, and position. (/SVc Table.) 

Hue, Grveai Sphinx. 

And now it may be remarked by anxious readers, that 
though I have said so much about the Great Pyramid, 
and something touching almost every otlier i»ynmiid 
in Eg)-pt also, — I have said nothing about the S})hinx. 

That was just what the Reviewers wrote against Pro- 
fessor Greaves after the publication of his Pyramidogra- 
phia, 230 years ago. Though indeed one of his querists 
presently answers himself, by supi»osing, tliat tlu> Pro- 
fes.sor must have found at the place, that the sjiid Sjihinx 
had in reality no connection with the (Jn^t Pyramid. 

Exceedingly right, too, was the critic in that sup- 
position ; for not only has the oval of a king, one 
thousand years antl sevend dynasties later tliaii the 
date of the (Jreat PjTamid, been found unexcei»tioiiably 
upon the Sphinx, — but that mouslcx, wi v\ft\ \\i \\w 


with. symptomB ty][afyixig tlie lowest mental OEganuar 
tion, positively reeks with anti-Great ]^nainid idolatiy 
throughout its substanoe ; for when the fragmenta or 
component masses of its colosaal stone beard were dis- 
covered in the sand excavations of ISl?, it was peiv 
ceived that all the internally joining snrfiftces of the 
blocks had been iSgured fuU of the animal-headed goda 
of the most profime E|gypt 

Strange therefore that Dean Stanle/s professional eye 
should have seen in so soul-repuLdve a creature, " witl^" 
as he himself further and more objectively describes^ 
'' its vast projecting wig, its great ears, the red ooloor 
still visible on its dieel^, and the immense projection 
of the whole lower part of its fiwje/'-r-an appropriate 
guardian to the Sethite, and most anti-Cainite, Great 
Pyramid, whose pure and perfect surface of blameless 
stone, eschews every thought of idolatry and sin. 

The Recent Discovery about the Sphinx, 

But the reign of the Great Sphinx over the souls of 
some men, is not over yet. 

Long since I had remarked that there is no agree- 
ment possible between the Great Sphinx and the Great 
Pyramid. Those who admire the one, cannot appre- 
ciate the other. 

As a rule, it is Frenchmen and Roman Catholics 
(though there are happily brilliant exceptions amongst 
them), who get up the most outrageous enthusiasm for 
the Sphinx ; and it was given to one of these lately, in the 
person of the eminent Mariette Bey, to set the whole 
world agog (for a time) with a supposed monumental 
proof that the Sphinx, instead of belonging, as hitherto 
so generally supposed, to the 11th or 15th Dynasty, 
was far older than the Great Pyramid in the 4th 
^Djmasty; and was in fact ^ axident, that it had be- 

Chap. XXI.] THE GREA T PYRA MID. 4 1 5 

come an object of dilapidated, but revered, antiquity 
in the times of King Cheoj)s himself, who immortalised 
his name, in his very primeval day, by repairing it. 

The latest description of this case by llariette Bey 
himself, is at p. 211 of the fourth edition of his Cata- 
logue of the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities at Boulak. 

No. 581 is there spoken of as "a fragmentary stone, 
which may be Hujyposed to have formed once part of a 
wall, of a certain building, or temple, some problematical 
ruins only of which have been found near one of the 
small pyramids on the cast side of the Great Pyramid." 
The stone is abundantly inscribed with little hierogly- 
l)hics ; **in good preservation but of vied iiw re style/* 
euphuistically puts in Marietto B<^y, — but, ''more like 
scratches than anythivr/ elacy' writes my 2>lain-speaking 
friend, Dr. Cirant of Cairo. 

This circumstance of bad, or of no, style, or of an 
idle modem scribble in place of a serious j^iece of deep 
and well-perfonned ancient sculpture, which carries 
great weight with it in monumental n»seareh, — is not 
represented in the version of the inscription given with 
honour (and with well-cut hieroglyphic types from other 
models) by Dr. Birch in the last volume of Hunsen's 
" Egj'pt's Place in History." For the Doctor prints 
good, thick-set, well-formed, hieroglyphics, looks only 
to one possible interi)retation of thvht, and adopts that 
with positivism. No wonder either, in some respects ; 
for a great day it nmst have been for the idolatries of 
old Egj'pt and its latter day, not worshippers, only 
sympathetic admirers, when ilariette W\ Hrst published 
his discovery of this astonishing insori})tion. Tliere is 
good news in it for almost every one of the Mizraite 
false gods ; so that all profanely devout readers may 
learn with thrilling interest that the images of the 
hawk of Horns and the ibis of Thoth, in that pro- 
hlematjcal temple, of which t\us su^^^Ji slovi'Ci \\>sk^\i 


sv/ppoaed to hare onoe formed a port^ were of wood 
gilt ; the boat of the ''three timeB beaatifiol Isis ** wm 
in gilt wood with inomstations of je#6lB; that the 
principal statue of lais was in gold and edlyer; the 
statue of Nephthys in bronze gilt» and ftc, fta, as to 
many other ordinary idols; but surpassing words of 
admiration and adoration were added touching the 
Great Sphinx of Horem-Kou, the biggest idol ci all, 
and declared to be situated just to the south of the 
" Temple of Isis, the Ruler of the Qreat F^nnmid." 

On showing this version of the inscription to Mr. 
Osbum, he instantly pronounced it to be an anachro- 
nism; it had, he said, nothing to do c(mtemfKmine(mdy 
with Cheops, or the 4th Dynasty either ; it was merely 
a rigmarole by certain revivifiers of the ancient Egyp- 
tian idolatr}'', with additions, under the late 26th 

But William Osbum was a firm believer in the Divine 
inspiration of the Bible, and the rebellious human 
origin of the Egyptian gods; that they had been in- 
vented, as very refuges of lies, in slavish fear of, but 
determined Cainite opposition to, the God of Heaven, 
whose supranatural acts in the Deluge and Dispersion 
were then recent and overwhelming to the human mind, 
rendering atheism in that day perfectly impossible to 
even the least reasonable being. Wherefore the most 
fargone of the modem Egyptological scholars utterly 
refused to attend to hia, Osbum's, condemnation of 
Mariette's wonderful stone; and preferred to go on 
trusting themselves entirely to its reputed statements 
for the implied profime nature of ** the Great Pyramid, 
ruled over by Isis," though no symptoms of either 
Isis, or any other, profanity had been found there ; and 
though the ancient Great Pyramid is still an existency 
in the world, vocal with knowledge and wisdom, while 
the later invention of " 1«\r** ^^aa ^^^^ iiadftd away 


from the Egyptian land like a summer cloud or the 
moruing dew. 

At last, however, one of their own number has 
informed upon his fellow Egyptologists ; and he is the 
best and ablest man amongst them too; viz., the Ger- 
man Brugsch Bey ; equally on the sjjot with Mariette 
Bey, and said to be "a more learned hieroglyphic 
scholar." For thus writes the trusty Dr. Grant from 
Cairo, date Juno 3rd, 1873, "I have been learning 
much from Brugsch Bey lately, and ho tells me that 
^lariette's stone 6ear« a lie on the face of it — that the 
style of sculpture is not very ancient, and that the whole 
inscription is simply a legend that has been soratchtHl 
upon it at a late date, and that it cannot be quoted as 
an authority on any of the points mentioned in it." 

So now the Sphinx, with its body pierced through 
and through with long iron rods by Colonel Howard- 
Vyse, and found to contain nothing ; and its nose 
knocked off by a mediieval Mohammedan dervish to 
prevent its both ensnaring his countrymen ])y idola- 
trous beauty, and leading them to incpiire too curiously 
(as Moses warned the Isnielites against their attempt- 
ing to do, on entering Canaan), — " now hoiv did the 
people of this land worship their gods ? " and with its 
actual size a mere molecule at the very base of the hill, 
of whose summit the Great Pyramid is the jmre and 
unexceptionable crown — need not be referred to again 
by any Christian man looking for instruction from the 
Rock of Ages alone. 

K K 





IN the Third Pyramid of Jeezeh— admired by the 
sadly Egyptological BaroD Bunsen, on account of its 
expensive red-granite casing, far above the Great Pyra- 
mid and all its intellectual excellencies — Colonel 
Howard-Vyae found, not only the genuine sepulchral 
sarcophagus, together with parts of the inscribed coffin- 
board, but — a portion of a mummy as well. 

In that case, of wliat or of whom was such frag- 
ment the mummy t 

" Of King Mencheres," insisted every Egyptologist, 
" for he it was who built the third Pyramid some GO years 
after the Great one had been erected." Whereupon the 
remains were transmitted with honour to the British 
Museum ; and the learned Baron, in his " Egj'pt's Place 
in History," has an eloquent eulogium on the "pious" 
king whose ancient remains, if removed at last out of 
their old mausoleum, are now vastly safer io the distant 
isle of tlie Queen-ruled empire, whose free institutions 
preserve her liberty and prosperity for ever. 

But here William Osbum (whom Bunsen never liked) 
steps in with the wholesome reminder, that none of the 
mummies of the Old Emiiire have come down to our 
age : their bodies, fn^rant for a while with spices and 
myrrh, sooner or later returned, dust to dust ; and a 
litilQ of such dark mallei at. l\ie bottom of sarcopltagi. 



is all that has yet been discovered in any of the tombs 
of the earliest period. It was reserved, says he, to the 
over-clever Egyptians of the New Empire, when Thebes 
rose above Memphis, to discover the too efficacious method 
of embalming with natron — a method which has enabled 
the bodies of that later period to last down to our 
times ; and has thereby put it into the power of fanatic 
Mohammedans to treat Pharaonic corpses with every 
contumely, male and female, old and young, rich and 
poor, dragged out of all their decent cerements, to be 
exposed in these latter days on the dunghill, or brokan 
up for fuel. 

Wherefore the parts of a body found in pretty tougk 
preservation by Colonel Vyse in the Third PjTamid, 
could not have belonged to either King Meneheres or 
any of his subjects ; or to any genuine Egyptian so 
early as the fourth dynasty. But presently this further 
discovery was maile, that the cinth in which the remains 
were wrapped up, was not composed of the proverbial 
linen of ancient E^-pt, hut of sheep's wool, — a testil 
malarial which was a rehgious abomination to 
Pharaonic Egj'ptians. 

Then wrote certain scholars, quickly framing up a 
theory to suit the occasion, " Both King Jlencheres and 
all the other Jeezeh Pyramid builders must have been, 
not H^-ptians, but of that ancient and most mysterioi 
class of invailers of, or immigrants into, ancient ~ 
the Hyksos or Shepherd Kings." 

How little is positively known of ikt-m, may ap] 
from one modem author, who writes.— 

" When investigating the early history of the worl 
the Hyksos cross our path like a mighty shadow ; 
advancing from native seats to which it baffled thai 
gf-ogniphy of antifjuily to assign a position, covering for 
a season the shores of the Mediterranean aud V-W Wslts. 
o{ the Nile with the terror of t\i»iir arms «u^ 'Ooa TcaEf«w 





of their conquests, antl at length ranisliJng with a mys- 
tery equal to that of their first appearance." 

While the learned Dr. Hincka writes, " Later investi- 
gations have rather increased than removed my difficul- 
ties ; and, as a matter of argument, it would he in- 
different to me to sustain, that (/te Hykeos once occupied 
Lower Egypt ; or that tJiey were never there at all." 

But Dr. Hincks was perhaps more of an Assyrian, 
than an Egyptian, scholar ; and the pure Egyptologists 
have no doubt whatever about a period of Hyksos' rule 
in Egypt just before the time of the Israelites' captivity, 
and perhaps including a part of it. They consider, 
indeed, ihat there is still mouuTnentally visible the most 
decided separation between the Old and New Empires 
of Ajicient Egj'pt, caused altogether by tlie domination 
of those whom they call the "Shepherds;" for they drop 
the aggrandizing word of " Kings," as needless, when 
talking of those who, if there at all, ruled on the banks 
of the Nile with a rod of iron through three successive 
dynasties, viz., the ISth, IGth, and 17th; and caused 
an almost total blank or perversion for that period in 
the architectural history, as well as much modification 
in the religion, of all the Lower and Middle country. 

Of the precise nature of that change and the origin 
of the party bringing it about, William Osbum lias some 
special ideas, which, with more space at command, we 
might do well to inquire into : though now, as the 
limits of this book are drawing to a close, and as he 
agrees with all the other Egyptologists as to what 
dynasties such party occupied, viz., the 15th, 16th, 
and 1 7th, — we may rest a-ssured that all men of those 
dynasties, whether they were native or foreign shep- 
herds, Hved far too late in the world's history to have 
had any hand in building the Jeezeh Pyramids under 
the much earlier fourth dynasty. 

Hence the Shepherds tW\, CoVoiiei. "S^ae, ^^Mixa. \a 


(on the strength of the woollen-wrapt body from the 
Third Pyramid), if ever really existing, must have been, 
in order to have helped to huild the Pyramids, of a 
period belonging to the said very early fourth dynasty ; 
tind were therefore totally different, in time and fac^ 
from the later Shepherds so well known to Egj-ptologista. 
That these laiev, or 15th, ICth, and 17tb dynasty, 
Shepherds did not build the Jeezeh, or indeed any of 
the Egyptian, Pyramids, does not by itself overthrow 
the whole theory, or possibility of there having been' 
an earlier, and quite distinct, Shepherd invasion, or 
temporary nile of Hyksos in Ixiwer Egypt, and perhaps 
Q during the 4th. or chief Pyramid-building dynasty \ 
for pastoral tribes existed in tlie East from the earliest 
times, and were much endued with tendencies to western 
emigration. But whetlier they really did enter Egypt 
in force, during the 4th dynasty, must be settled on 
direct evidence of its own. Such evidence, indeed, the 
worthy Colonel Ihovghl he had obtained ; though now 
we may see clearly that hia reasoning was founded too 
much on the piece of flannel, and too little on th« 
whole of the grand masonried facte of the Great Pyra- 
mid and their purity from all idolatry ; wliereutK>n he 
soon loses himself in illogical conclusions ; arguing in 
a preconceived circle, thus — 

" Tt lias been a-ssumed (in my, Vyse's, opinion satis- 
factorily) by Bryant, that tliesi* mighty Shepherds (hia 
supposed r^ramid builders in tlie 4th dj-nasty) were 
the descendants of Ham, expelled, on aecount at 
apostacy and rebellion, from Babel, from Egypt, and 
from Palestine ; and who afterwards, under the namA 
of Cyclopes, Pelasgi, PlKenices, &c., were pursued by 
Divine vengeance, and successively driven from eveiy 
settled habitation — from Greece, from Tyre, aiid from 
Carthage, even to the distant regions of America, 
traces of their buildings, and, \t. Vas ^Jee,■Q, »i\.y»«^; 





their costume, as represented in Eg)'ptiaQ sculpture, have 
been discovered. These tribes seem formerly to have 
been living instances of Divine retribution, as the dis- 
persed Jews are at present. They appear to have been 
at last entirely destroyed ; but their Wanderings and 
misfortunes have been recorded by the everliving genius 
of the two greatest poets in the Greek and Latin lan- 
guages ; and the PjTamids remain, enduring yet silent 
monuments of ttie matchless grandeur of this extraor- 
dinary people, of the certainty of Divine justice, and of 
the truth of Revelation." 

But while it is perfectly impossible that such sinful , 
men could have been the genuine authors of all the 
pure and holy features we have found in the Great 
PjTamid, — or that Hamitic Cainites would have found 
any difficulty in amalgamating with the Mizraite Egi 
tians, — it is most satisfactory to know- that the mere 
piece of woollen cloth found in the Third Pyramid c 
be explained in a much easier manner than by going up. 
in the teeth of masonried facts, to the primeval antiquity 
of the world ; or thus — " The remains found by Colonel 
Tyse were those of a mediieval Arab, who, having 
died at Caliph Al Mamoun's breaking into the Third 
Pyramid, was straightway wrapped up in his own bur- 
nouse, and thrust down the entrance-passage for his 
burial, when the Mohammedan workmen came away and i 
closed the place up, as it turned out, for 1,000 years. 
And if the poor man's bones are so well preserved as to ! 
have allowed of their safe transport to London, it is on ! 
account of the short time they have been sepultured, ] 
compared with anything belonging to the real Fourth 
Dynasty and the building of its Pyramids." I 

Of Primeval Sliemite Shepherth, i 

That simple explanation, therefore, completely settles I 

k/fie value of the mistaken \um\)ei 011 ^)Gft ^^-^ea «. "iuij 


ritish Museum ; but leaves us still with a historical 
PquGstioQ on our hands, as to wluither there were, after 
\^, any Hyksos or Shepherd Kin^ from the East, 
Tdescendants too of Shorn, rather than Ham (for of 
I fiamites there were always enough and to spare, keepers 
I'trf their own sheep too, in the persons of the Egyptians 
P^emselTes), in Egypt during the fourth dynasty 7 

Some strangers from the eastern direction were in- 
I deed continually filtering into Lower Egypt through 
^6 Isthmus of Suez, the natural channel of immigra- 
l(ioQ in all ages from Asia, and the path hy which the 
[Egyptians themselves had originally come. But it is 
fttir more particular business now to ascertain, if pos- 
sible, whether during the period of that particular 4th 
dynasty, say from 2300 to 2100 ac. (or an age pre- 
vious to the calling of Abraham), there were any re- 
markable eastern men in position of lordly rule, power, 
or notoriety in the Eg)ptian land : and whether thej 
either had, in the general estimatiou of all men, any- 

■ thing to do with the building of the Great P}Tnmid ; 
I or were likely to have been able to furnish any part of 
I its design, as manifested by modem science ; or had an 
linterest in preserving its religiously pure character, in 
tthe midst of an age and a nation given up to the 
hrorst forms of idolatry. 

■ What then does history say to the point ? 

I History is scanty enough, everj' one will allow, for 
nizDes before Abraham ; and though something may be 
I occasionally made out for even those dates in such a 
I Und as Egypt, it is to be gained, even there, only by 
I « conflict with difficulties. There is actually a dispute, 
^for instance, between the Egyptologists on one side, 
»«nd Alexandrian classics on the other, whether there 
Ims ever a fourth dynasty at all. We must, therefore, 
I when everything is disputed or cUspuWhVft, \a\Mtwg»SA 
Mfefier/iart/ very cIoscJj-. 


Egypl^loi^ic Details of Early Kings. 
To begin with the Egyptologists; the literary foundi 


' his 

tioiis for what they assert, are confined to Maneth<f 
(270 B.C.), or to what has come down to us of his 
own writings in fragments of authors SOO or 400 years 
later ; and whose words may be conveniently cxamiuet' 
in the volume of " Fragments." by Isaac Preston C 
of Caius College, Cambridge (1832 a.d.) 

There then, most undoubtedly, a fourth dynasty Ifr* 
mentioned ; but it begins with a puzzling statement ; 
for while the third dynasty is simply said to be com- 
posed of so mady Memphite kings, and the fi!fth dynasty 
of so many Elephantine kings, this fourth dynasty f 
stated to bo composed of " eight Memphite kings of ^ 
different race." 

This is a curious statement, and I do not know vhai 
it means ; but the list proceeds as follows for the kin^ 
concerned : — 

(1) Soris reined 2fi years. 

(2) Suphiii reigned 63 yenn. He bnilt ths Iir^^t Pyramid; whi 
Herodotus saya wbb conaCrucMd by Cheopa. He wu nrrngBiit towui 
the goda, and wrote the sacred book ; whitji is regaided by tbe Egyptis 
■s a work of gnut importMnoe. . 

(5) Suphia II. reigned G6 yean. 
(4) MenDhereH 83 yaara. 

(6) RhatteWB 26 years. 
[GJ BicherpB 22 years. 

(7) Sebercheres 7 years. 
(81 Thamplhi* 9 years. 
AllogsthBr 2S4 years. 

This literary foundation, the Egyptologists fiirthi 
contend that they can confirm in all its main 
ticulars from the monuments, by finding, even in the 
Great Pyramid itself, evidently alluded to by Manetho, 
rude original quarry-marka with two royal names which 
they interpret Shofo and Noumshofo, and declare to be 
(he (wo Suphises mentioned above ; while they find 
Airtber royal uame o£ Hendieies m "Ciia \:Kai.l:-3i 

nd thff^H 


notorioualy a later construction than both the Great 
Second Pyramids ; which Second Pyramid is elsewhera:] 
attributed to Suphis II., as the Great one is here 
Su|ihis I. 

But the rest of the sentence attached to the name of 
the first Stipliis is a difficulty which the Egyptologists 
cannot altogether mastor. They can understand, for 
instance, easily enough, that he either built the Great 
Pyramid, or reigned while it was being built ; but what 
was his " arrogance towards the gods ?" and what were 
the contents of " his sacred book ? " 

Of all these tilings the Egyptologists knew nothiii|f 
from contemporary monuments ; although they can 
adduce abundant proof therefrom, that Mencheres ofj 
the Third Pyramid was an out-and-out idolater of the 
Egyptians. That was the " piety " which Baron Bun- 
Ben praised ; while Osbnm, though he condemned 
rather timn praised, so far allowed what the other 
Egyptologists founded upon, that he shows, at much 
length. King Mencheres to have been, not indeed the 
original inventor and theotechnist of animal and other 
gods for his countrymen, — but the greatest codifier in 
all history of those things. He, Mencheres, was the 
establisher, too, of a priesthood for those things' coH'' 
tinuol service ; and was an extender of the mythologies] 
system into new and mysterious ramifications ; the very 
man, in fact, who put Misrait« idolatry into that en- 
snaring form and nrtiKiJciil condition with Isis, Osiris, 
Horns, Typhon, Nepthys, and all the rest of hia inven- 
tions, in addition to the older Apis, Mnom, and the 
Mendeaian goat, that it became the grand national and 
UaUng system of his country,— -monopolising the souIb 
of all Egj-)itlnus for two thousand yc^rs, and 
then dying hanl. 

Menchttres was, in point of &ct, in and for the land 
o{ the Nile, just what tbe loo t\(«^«flA tta-inM 

e *^^M 




" Jarenttu [undL" with sQcb lon^ng Adminlioa 
ctnotmtiiig mosi to Ul-ooDcealed (siry, iIcMnbe* 
Homer to e been for Uie Gredts in the same line 
—viz., in *• leolwrhay." Woridly snoce^ in wbidi 
ethereal ut < eleral«d oocapatioo, as it is acconiing to 
Aim, bat ii h more probably an abomimitioa before 
God, — the ;ter (anhappQy not 

ae^ng it in be a &r mure Di^le, 

more aatisf a ambitioa, than any 

amoimt of K-aa either in poetiy or 

prose, civil i military gloir. 

Bat of lUt can pick op but 

little, if anytbin^, positively oi that kind of informa- 
tion. The vorahip, indeed, of bulls and goats had 
been already set up in Egypt during the previous 
dynasty, so that he found it in force on succeeding to 
the throne ; and it perhaps went on during his reign 
until such time as he is reported on one hand to have 
become " arrogant towards the gods," and on the other 
to have closed their temples and stopped their pubUc 
worship, as we shall now see detailed on turning to the 
C£a«m<: authorities. 

Claseu: Kamee for Early Egyptian Kings. 

Amongst all them authors, indeed — i.e., men who 
either were Greeks or followed the Greeks and did not 
know I^yptian — whether with Herodotus in 445 b.c., 
Eratosthenes 230 BC, Diodorus Siculos 60 B.C., and 
Strabo B.C., there is no fourth dynasty at all : nor, for 
that matter, any allusion to any dynasty or arrange- 
ment by dynasties whatever. While the chronological 
order of the kings by name, is at one point altogether 
dislocated irom its sequence in the Manethoan dynasties ; 
the kings' names of the very early fourth dynasty of 

i^yptologiats, being, vatV liie tiaaswa, TjaiKRi- a,^« 




Memphis. As well mi^ht we expect the British Parh'a- 
meDt to give its largest grants for the year to Edinburgh, 
instead of London ; and men will have to wait until 
the whole river of history passes by, and runs itself 
absolutely dry, before we see such a phenomenon as 
that ; although too Scotland was never fairly conquered. 
Setting aside, chen, agreeably with Sir Gardner Wil- 
kinson and oM thu Egyptologists, this one large fault or 
mistaken order of a group of the Egyptian kings in 
Greek and cla.ssic authors. — from Herodotus in 445 
B,c, to the Rev. Mr. Galloway and Mr. Samuel Sharpe, 
in 1869 A.D.,- — as simply and altogether a book-mistake 
of theirs, we shall find in the smaller details, subsequent 
to the dislocation, much agreement. As, for instance, 
in the names of the three successive kings of the tliree 
chief and successive Pyramids of Jeezeh ; which kings' 
names ar^ always given in their proper, or, both monu- 
mental, hieroglyphic, and Manethoan sequence to each 
other ; though the scholars have certainly agreed to 
accept a remarkable variety of names as meaning the 
same word or man ; as thus— 

T Pnuxica or Jeurh 




on he Third 

BioduruB Si-'^ 
calui. ) 

Modem ( 

Suphia I. 
18»ophU ) 

(Chematulw. ) 



Supbiii 11. 

Saophi* II. 




\ Heliodotu*. 



ThjR Litvs of Uie Kings. 

But what, after all, is there iq a name t It is tlie 
character of each iudividiml king of many names, which 
we require ; and especially if there be anytliing in it, 
which may indiisate whether that royal personage could 
have built the Great Pyramid, 

There the conversational stylo of Herodotus (the 
oldest existing author in the world, it is said, next to 
Moses), dipping deep into the feelings of men, will 
serve us better than the hald rigidity of hieroglyphic 
inscriptions ; thoiijjh, as Herodotus gathered up every- 
Uiing without sifting it, and as between the pur]>osed 
Cdsities of what the Egyptian priests often relat«d to 
in a language which he did not understand and 
interpreters did not faithfully translate to him, — it 
is little more than the involuntary evitlenee, uni^er cross- 
examination, that ean be trusted. Here, however, as a 
beginning, are his own simple statements. 

(121) "Cbeop«," HcrorJiDi- to the Egyptiuv pHmta,* "on uronding 
'^) throne, {iluDfcnl iolo all niBiinor of wickedncu. H« cIomkI th* 
ipln, and forbule lb* Ecyptiani bi after ucnQco, con-pellid^ them 
tui to labour one anil all u> hiaMcriDe; tii., m building Ibe (irtiat 
r. ""i" 

(IIS) " Cleopa reiftned flfty jtun ; and wu micccedsd hy hii brother 
UMlJireii, whu imitnied the cimduct of his predeceMOr, built ■ pjniinld — 
Jiat touiller than hia broth et'a—tuid reignod llfty-aii jgan. Thus, doriog 
108 yenta ths l«mp!ea wore abut and nevor opcui-d." 

(129) "Aftrr Cbephcon, Stjc^rioui, >od of CheoiM, aicendod the 
throne. K« reopened the temples, and alluwed the people to reauoie Uie 
practice of Mtriflce. He. too, Irit a pytamiJ. but much inrerinr in aixB In 
hi9 klheio. It ia built, fur half of ita height, ot the atone uf Ethiopia -. " 
u., eipenaive red granite. 

(I3G) " ARer Uycerinnm Aiychia aacendfll the throne. He built the 

Mittem galtumy of the Temple of Vulean (rhlha); and beJnf ■"--- "' 

wlipaing all bu preleceiaore 011 the throne, left ai a 

Tvipi ■ pjrramid o( brii'k." 

Now here we have four successive kings, each of 
whom erected a Pyramid ; and the lo-st of them eiitcriMi 

W^ i 



into the work no leas enthusiastically than the first. 
Therefore it could not have been Pyramid-building 
in itself, or aa known to, and understood by, the nfttives, 
which had the disciiminating eflect of causing the two 
last kings to be approved, and the two first to be hated, 
by all Egyptians to the terrible and intense degree de- 
scribed by successive classic authors. This difference of 
estimation roust have risen firom some difTerence of pro- 
ceeding in either pair of kings ; and such an opposite 
manner is religiously found in this circumstance, that 
the two first kings closed the temples, and stopped the 
worship of the bulls, eats, goats, beetles, and other 
Egyptian gods ; while the two last kings re-opened 
those temples, enlarged them, beautified them, and 
re-estab!islied the soul-degrading theotechnie inventions 
of Egypt in greater splendour than ever: though, too, 
they were the very idols which the Lord declares " He 
will destroy, and cause their images to cease out of 

The Eight Man at last. 

But there is more than this to be gathered from tfil 
classic records ; for there comes up amongst them a 
something suggestive, even to the extent of a ray of 
positive light, upon that very question which, even to 
Diodorus Siculus. was so much more important than 
who were the kings who ordered, viz., who were the 
architects who designed or built, the Pyramids ; for 
Herodotus further states : — 

" (128) The £ByptiBii»sodeteBtlheinemoiy of these (thet«afirat)kin|^ 
(Cheops and Ohephren). tbut they di< not much like evtMi to mention their 
nuneB. Hence, they commotily call tho I'yrnmida (the Grent and the 
Seoond) after PhiUtion (or Philitis}, ti ibepbeid vho iit that lime fed hie 
flocln It boat tho place." 

Seldom has a more important piece of truth been 
uiiintentioDftUy issued \n & ^cti ■«(ytAa. ?iw C>iwc*iner 



I Wilkinson, in his note to that passage,* allowg at once 
rtfae Hyksos, or Shepherd-princely, character and stand- 
I ing of a stranger who could be »o distinguished in con- 
[ Dection with the greatest of tho monuments of Egypt ; 
I and is only anxious to guard hia readers as to the par- 
ticular personage alluded to, having really lived in the 
' early fourth dynasty, and not having been one of those 
later, better known, but totally difierent individuals who 
figured as the Shepherd Kings in the 15th, 16th, and 
17th dynastiea While Mr. Rawliason, in another note 
on the same page, seems equally ready to allow.- — ^not 
only that PhiUtis was a Shepherd prince from Palestine, 
and perhaps of Philistine descent, — but so powerful and 
domineering, that it may be traditions of his oppressions 
in that earlier age, which mixe<l up afterwards in the 
minds of later Egyptians with the evils indicted on 
their country by the subsequent shepherds of the better- , 
[ known dynasties ; and lent so much fear to their i 
1 religious hate of " Shepherd" times and that name. 

If this theorj' of Mr. Rawlinson's be correct, we may 
I learn something further of the Great Pyramid's fourth 
I dynasty Shepherd— Prince Philitia — by attending to 
I what Manetho has written of the subsequent Shepherds; 

and especially by eliminating tbere&om, certain features | 
I which cannot by any possibility be true of those n 
[ such as they were in that later day. For thus wrote 
I the Sebennyte priest :+ — 

" We had formerly a king whose name was Timeuai. 
I In his time it came to pass, I know not how, that < loct I 
[ was displeased with us : and there came up from the 
I £ast, in a strange manner, men of an iguoblc ravo, who 
J had the confidence to invade our country, and easily t 
I subdued it by their power without a battle." 

This, it will be observed, is a very ptVulinr phrase; J 



[Pabt V^ 

and lends much colour to the suggestion that Phtlitk 1 
was enabled to exert a certain amoUDL of control over 
King Shofo and hia Egyptian people, not by the vulgar 
method of military conquest, but by some supernatural 
influence over their minds. 

"All this invading nation," Manetho goes on to say,! 
"was styled Hyesos, that is. Shepherd Kings ; fort 
first syllable, Uyc, in the sacred dialect denotes a lungja 
and Sos signities a shepherd, but this only according t 
the vulgar tongue ; and of these is compounded thw 
term Hyesos : some say they were Arabians." 

Yet if they were Arabians, why did they not retu] 
to Arabia, when they afterwards, " to the number of qcM 
less than 240,000, quitted Egypt by capitulatioi 
all their families and effects?" And went — where to|J 
"To Judiea, and built there," says Manetho, "a city a 
sufficient size to contain this multitude of i 
named it Jerusalem." " 

Now hero is surely a most important tale, if anyi 
written in books by ancient authors is worthy of t 
modem attention. For, making all due allowance J 
some of the references, and much of the expressed hat^l 
and abuse being due to the more modern and largely 
nativot Egyptian shepherds of the loth to the 17th 
dynasties (and who, according to W. Osburn, were chiefly 
conquered and oppressed within the bounds of Lower 
Egj'pt by invasions of Thebans and fanatic Ethiojiians), 
we have as much as testifies to the earlier and truer 
Sbepherd Prince Phihtis, after having long controlled i 
King Shofo during the very time that the Great J 
Pyramid was building,— to tbiit Prince Philitis, I say, J 
then leaving the country with a high hand, or byl 
special agreement, with all his people and flocks, — pro^l 
ceeding to Judaea, and building there a city which hel 



named Jerusalem ; aud which must have at once taken 
a high standing among the primeval cities of the earth, 
if he made it large enough to contain not less than 
240,000 persons. 

Of tite Early Life of Melchizedek 

Now the man who did that, after assisting at the 
foundation of the Great Pyramid in 2170 b.c., must 
have been a contemporary nearly of, but rather older 
than, the Patriarch Abraham, Jiccording to the best 
liiblical cluronology. Or he must have been, as to age, 
standing, country, and even title, very nearly such a 
one as that grandly mysterious kingly chamcter to 
whom even Abraham offered the tenth of the spoils, 
viz., Melchizedek ; further called King of Salem, which 
some consider to have been Jeru-salem. 

The Bible does not, indeed, directly mention Mel- 
chizedek's ever having been sent into Egypt on any 
special mission ; the grandest of missions, if tlu»n to 
erect, or procure the erection of, a prophetical monu- 
ment which was only to be understood in the latter 
days of the world ; but was destined tlu»n to prove the 
Inspiration origin and Messianic character of its design 
to both religious and irreligious. But the Bible does 
not describe anything of the earlier life of Melchizeilek ; 
though it has allusions elsewhere which may possibly 
indicate a grand occasion in the life of one, concern- 
ing whom so very little is said, though by whom so 
much must have be(»n done, in the course of his long, 
heaven-appro vcd, and gloriously-terminating caivtT. 

In Deuteronomy, rh. ii., for instance, there appears 
something of the kind ; when Moses, encouraging the 
Israelites to be of good heart in their march, under 
Divine favour, out of Kgypt into Palestine, — mentions 
two other and long jireceding occa%\o\i% o\\ N?\ivJvN. Vo^vA 

r F 


had shown similar favour to other peoples, and they 
were eMtabI ihed suceessfiilly in consequence. 

First, " t. le children of Esau ; " and afterwards, " the 
Caphtorims which came forth out of Caphtor." Or, as 
alluded to a^in, long after the times of the Exodus (in 
Amos ix, 7), " have n6t I (the Lord) brought up Isi-ael 
out of Egyi from Caphtor ?" 

This C'a] \ occasions, is generally 

considered Pyramid region, too, of 

Lower Egyp the one instance, the 

people are arim, that may imply 

not neceasi }, but men who had 

been sojourning m inai ri>uiitry for a season ; even as 
the testimony of Herodotus infers that PhiUtis (a name 
looked on by some as implying a Fhilistian descent or 
country), with his flocks and herdsmen (appropriately 
then called Philistines in Caphtor), had been doing 
during all the thirty years occupied in the preparations 
for, and then the building up of, the Great Pyramid. 

In short, the Biblical evidence touching this mighty 
and most unique monument of sacred and prophetic 
purport, is deserving of more intimate and peculiar 
study than we have yet bestowed upon it. 




Blblkal Vieivs of Metrology in General. 

TTIEWING the Great Pyramid first of all as a monu- 
" mcnt of metrology alone, that subject has been 
shown from Scripture by many writers (as Alicliaelis, in 
Germany ; Paucton, in France ; and more recently, 
John Taylor, in England) to have been deemed worthy 
of Divine attention, or providence, for the good of 
man ; such instructions as the following having been 
issued through the approved in(»dium of inspired men 
honoured with the commands of Kevelation, viz. : — 

"Ye shaU do no unrightcouaness Iq judgment, in metcyord, in weight, 
or in measuro. 

"Just balances, juflt weights, a juat ephah, and a just hin, shaU ye 
hare : I am the Lord your Qod, which brought you out of the land of 

"Therefore shaU ve ob<«ervA nil my statutes, and all my judgments, and 
do them : 1 am the liOrd.** — Leriticfu xix. 35 — 37. 

" But thou shalt have a perfect and just wtn'v^ht, a p<^rfect and just mea- 
sure shalt thou have : that thy duyD m>iy be leni^thontMl in the laud which 
the Lord thy Crod giveth thoe." — Ikutfrouomy xxv. 15. 

" A false balance is abomination to the Lord: but a just weight ii his 
delight.'* — Provfrhx xi. 1. 

" A just Wfight and balance are the Lord's : all the weights of the bag 
are his work." — Proverhn xvi. 11. 

"Thus saith the Lord God; I^et it suffice jou, O princes of Israel: 
remoTe violence and spoil, and execute judgment and justice, take away 
yoar exactions from my people, s:iith the Ijord God. 

" Ye shall have just balances, and a just ephuh, and a just bath. 

" The ephah and the bath shall bo of one motisure, that the bath may 
contain the tenth part of an homer, and the ephuh the tenth part of an 
homer: the mcasuru thereof shall be adet \ii<i \vom\ixr — l:.iik\c\ ^^z** 




This was a department of tlie Holy Service which 
King David had appointed, in his days, a ]>ortion of the 
Levites to attend to ;• and his son Solomon established 
the grand standards of measure in the noblest propor- 
tions ;+ while Moses had been, in his still earlier day, 
exceedingly particular in all his metrological institutions, 
and impressive in his method of carrj-ing them out; J his 
chief standard measures being, as already shown, the 
earth and heaven founded standards of the Great Pyra- 
mid itself ; if they were not also those which had be( 
elaborated (according to Josephus) by Seth and hi 
descendants in opjmsition to the bad inventions of CaiDd 
and under the direct approval of the Almighty. 

With the structure of the Pyramid building, indi 
in its main design and ultimate purposes (though no' 
so distinctly or categorically alluded to in Scripture, as 
thereby to give men any excuse for turning aside to it, 
like a broken bow, for any kind of apiritual worship), the 
inspired writers of both the Old and New Testaments 
have evinced a very considerable acquaintance. And 
not dry knowledge only ;. for those men, " gifted with 
thoughts above their thoughts," have shown an amount' 
of feeling, only to be explained by a holy consciousm 
of the part which the monument is one day to serve, 
manifesting forth in modes adapted to these and the 
approaching times, the original and ineffable inspiration 
of Scripture, — as well as the practical reasons for ex- 
pecting the return of our Lord to an undoubted personal 
reign for a miraculous season over the entire earth. 

• \ ChronirlsB ixiii. 29. 

t I KiiiBB vii. 29 : Mid 2 Chronicles iv. G. 

I Bee John Daiid Michaelia. of Gottingoti, " On the Plani which 
tloMS took for the KegutatiuD of Weights and UeHaurea ; " at pp, 4S4 — 
*70 ai vol. ii. of hiH " Habretr Weights ind Meiumrei." See alao mv 
" Life md Work," pp. 498—507 of vol. iii. 



Old TestamerU Witnesses to the Great Pyramid. 

So well, too, were the mechanical steps for the founda- 
tion of the Great Pyramid understood (these steps being 
the heavy preliminary works of preparation and subter- 
ranean masonry described by Herodotus as liaving 
characterised the Great Pyramid, and declared by Lepsius 
to have been eschewed in every other pyramid erected 
altogether by, and for, Cainite Eg}'ptiaii idolaters), — so 
well, I say, were these features understood by the in- 
spired writers, that the mysterious things of Nature, 
visible to, but not easily apprehended by, men in the 
early ages, were occasionally described in terms of 
these more exact features of the Great Pyramid. 

Thus, when we read in Job xxxviii., marginally cor- 
rected, that the Lord answered the patriarch out of the 
whirlwind, demanding with power, — 

'* Where wast thou whon I laid the foundations of the earth ? declare, 
if thou knowest understanding. 

*' Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest ? or who hath 
stretched the line upon it P 

^ Whereupon are the sockets thereof m.'ide to sink ? or who laid the 
corner-stone thereof; 

"When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God 
ahouted for joy P*' 

— it is quite plain (since at least John Taylor first pointed 
it out; for to him we owe almost entirely this branch of 
the subject) thiit if the creation of the (»arth is here 
alluded to, it is described under a typo of something 
else, and not as the earth really was created ; or both as 
we know it by modem science to be, and as it was 
described in chap. xxvi. of the siime l>ook of Job, in the 
following words : — 

** Ho stretcheth oat the north over the empty place, and hangcth the 
earth upon nothing.** 

The earliest of the first quoted deseri^tious mi^ht 
apply to the building of any orOlviiwrj "Wakaft \ \sviX* n 



successive pi-acticat features arc enumerated, the builds! 
ing of a stone pyramid by careful measure, nnd in thej 
Promethean, and forethouglit, manner of the Great 
Pyramid, on a previously prejtared platform of rock, is 
the only known work that will fully correspond. 

The stretching of the line -upon it, is more applicable 
to the inclined surface of a pyramid with an angle to 
the horizon of 51° 51', than to the vertical walls of any 
ordinary house ; and — after the pointed and most 
apposite question, " Canst thou bind the sweet influ- 

le of Pleiades?" — the further Divine interrogation^ 

" Knowest thou the ordinances of the heavens t 
Canst thou set the dominion thereof in the earth?" — - 

1 boon happily explained very lately by the Rev, 
F. R. A. Glover. For he shows it to be, the Great 
Pyramid's chronological use of the grand celestial cycle 
of the precession of the equinoxea, taken in eounection 
with a particular polar distance and meridian transit 
of the circumpolar star a Draconis; the memorial of. 
which stellar position, "dominant in the earth, 
exhibited by the lower portion of the entrance-passage 
of the Great PjTamid, set backwards and downwards 
into, and deep, deep into, tlie solid rock of the hill, in 
precisely such a direction as to suit the critical position 
of that star under the influence of precession at the 
very epoch of the Pyramid's foundation. 

But what was meant by " the sockets thereof being ■] 
made to sink," — might have been uncertain, had it not 
been for the researches of the French' at the 
Great Pyramid in 1800; for they described, without 
reference to this sentence, the remarkable sockets which 
had been formed in the previously levelled area of rock 
on which this Pyramid stands ; and {with the assistance 
of the more modem investigations in 18ti5) the manner 
' 1 which each of the lower four corner-stones of the 
I i^framid were fitted into l\\e¥« i^te^rati. liolloy.'B in the 




rock, — causing tliem to become at once the fiducial 
points from wliich all mensurers have, ever since then, 
atrctt'hed their nieasuring-Uaes on the building. 

Four of tlie fivt comer-stones of th« Pyramid are thus 
indicated a« of Scriptural notice ; while the fifth, which 
is in fact of an entirely diverse chanurter and greater 1 
importance, being not one of the foundations, but the 
topmost portion of the whole building, is alluded to 
in Job separately ; more gloriously ; and even as being 
the finishing and crowning portion of the whole in- 
tended work. For when that topmost comer-stone, 
emphatically called "the comer-stone," was finally 
placed, — it is said that the act was greeted by " the 
morning stars singing together, and all the sons of Qod j 
shouting for joy," 

The Biblical interpretation of the passages here 
alludod to is, of courso, " the faithful and Che true 
converts;" "as many as are led by the Spirit of God. 
they are the sons of God." And all such who were ^ 
present at the time, rejoiced in seeing the completion of 
the Great Pyramid with a joy far exceeding what the 
erection of any ordinary building, however palatial, 1 
might have been exjtected to give them ; for tlieir cry, 
when the keaJ'Stoiui of this one " great mountAJn was I 
brought out with shoutings," took the exquisite form of 1 
" Grace, grace unto it ! " • And if they so cried, and it ( 
is so reported in the Holy Bible, wa^ it not because 
' they recognised that that stone had been appointed by ' 
Piviiie wisdom, and in the mystery of God's primeval 
proceedings towards man, to recall some essential ideas 
connected with the one central point about which all 
Scripture revolves ; viz., the Son of God, His incamutioa 
and sacrifice for the salvation of man. But of this v 
I ■ludl be instructed more cleairly in the New TestameoL . 

• Zoch.U.I 



New Testament AUusioTie to the Oreat Pyramid. 

From a practical worker like St. Pjml, we have even, 
a most methodical illustration, in the use which he 
makes of certain constructive differences between the 
four lower corner-stones, and the single comer-stoae 
above ; constructive differences which, if applicable 
any other building at all, are only fully applicable 
the wonderful Great Pyramid ; for his words are — 

" Ye are fellow-citizens of the saints, and of 
household of God ; and are built upon the foundatit 
of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself bei 
the chief cornei'-stone, in whom the whole buildvng, 
framed together, groweih unto an koly temjde to 

This fitly framing of the whole building as it gro' 
from a broad base upwards into one corner-stone aboi 
and which is called the chief, the upper, comer-stone, 
was shown by John Taylor to be an unmistakeable alii 
sion to the Great PjTamid ; and this same noble 
tive employment of that particular topmost stone, via,,! 
its representation of the Messiah, and His crowning the 
scheme of the redemption of man,— ia one frequently 
employed in Holy Scripture ; as in Psalm exviii. 22; 
in the Gospels, and the Epiatles-t The stone is thei 
alluded to, not only as the chief corner-stone, " eh 
and precious," made " the head of the comer" (whii 
ia only perfectly and pre-eminently true of the topmi 
angle of a pjTamid), but as having been for a long t 
" disallowed by the builders," and existing only as 
stone of stumbling and a rock of offence to them."! 

• Epho. iL 19. Pee Hlao J. Tajloc'a " Great Pj-nrniid," pp. 208— 3tf 

t Matt. sii. 42; Mark lii. 10; Luke it 17: AoU iv. 11; I Peter H. *. * 

1 In ths important Ihimlogical work by the Rbv. J<ihn Harriion, D.D., 

" Whoee are the Fathers," Ihete w, it pv 163—172, a very able repre- 

1 toatmtioa of the special oitigeucoa oS nwtft oqdoasWiwwii W'Cm'QKcKm, 


Cu*!-. XXIII.] THE GREAT pyRAMID. 441 

The simile is easily and perfectly ftpplioftblc to our 
Saviour's Appearance on earth ; yet evidently, from the 
very principle of all such figurative allusions, a sorae- 
ihing bearing on the nature of the figure made nse of, 
muHt, Mr. Taylor urged, have been existing on tho earth 
l>efore ; or it would never have been employed. 

Now we know tliat the Great Pj-ramid did stand on 
its desert hill before any of the inspired authors wrote; 
and also, that they seem to have been spiritually con- 
versant with many principles of its construction, althouf^h 
I they were not visiters to the land of Egyjit ; and it is 
I they who alhide to some notorious objections by the 
I guilders t^aiust tlie head comer-stone, while their work 
was in progress. 
What were these ? 

The stones required for building the Great lYramid 

were evidently, from the quarry-marks and instructions 

to the masons still legible upon some of them, prepared 

ftt the quarries according to the architect's orders a long 

[ time bf^^foreliand. For the vast majority, too. of stones, 

' nothing but one unvarj'ing figure, ratier 6attish and 

I chiefly rectangular, was required. But amongst them, 

and (iifterent therefrom, one was ortlerod which did not 

I ohime in with any of the Eg^-ptian building notions. 

oerlainly not of llieir temples, tombs, or palaces. For, 

in place of being cubic, or with nearly i>arallel sides and 

rectangular comers, this single stx)ne was all acuteJy 

angled, all sharj) points ; so that turn it over on any 

Bide as ii lay on tlie ground, one sharp comer was 

always sticking up in the air ; as. too. could not but bo 

tJiu case when the stouc was a sort of model p\-mniid 

[ alboit le«medi tibw whirh erelowutici lake of «ll th<«a 1«kU. Mid all thia 
I Jong Km of (ymbulogy founded in mU arohiiMtare and ail faUtor^. For 111* 
I on* point to anil (at vhjcb cvcrTtliiDK otae it thore mada to eiial, ii. tt 

KinuM lund by oiir I»rd to Toter (Mnti. iri. IH) ; and trtuit advunia) 
_ • Roman Ooholio Church bas, or ha* not, ihoOf^Vv iv w dmud, Vi^ Vt 
in&itAatitliaaaDj-, uver tilhuTClin«luMoVQK:tvw,VactAiR>\>ii»ktKa. 


[Part V., 

in itself, with five sides, tive corners, and sixteen distinct 

Such a stone was of course "a stone of stumblinj 
and a rock of offence "t to builders whose heads i 
not understand, and hearts did not appreciate, the work 1 
they were engaged upon. It was to them " the terrible 1 
crystal ;"+ the pointed stone "on wliich whosoever ■■ 
shall fall, shall be broken ;" and so huge a stone as aTl 
coping for the vast Btructure of the whole Great J 
Pyramid, that "on wliomsoever it shall fall. It willj 
grind him to powder." § 

Yet when once this unique, five-cornered, and raany-H 
angled stone was raised up to its intende<l place i 
summit of the Great Pyramid, the propriety of it»l 
figure must have ap[)eared evident to every impartialj 
beholder ; though the Egyptian workmen, as may I 
gathered from Herodotus, forcibly prevented fro 
breaking out into open opposition, yet went on co 
ceahng sinful hatred in their hearts ; and did— aftea 
the deaths of Cheops and Chci>hren, and after thaJ 
Shepherd-Prince Philitis had left the country — retumj 
with renewed vehemence to their bestial idolatry underj 
. Mencheres, "like doga to their vomit or the sow that;'] 
was washed to her wallowing in the mire." || 

For such determined resistors of grace was surelyil 
prepared, in their very midst, that type of the bottom- 
less pit, the subterranean chamber in the Great Pyramid, I 
yawning to receive them :— 

"This u Phnraoh and d,11 bis multitude, eaith the Lord Qod." — i 
Etek. xxxi. II and 18. 

But again, and now for the instruction of back-. 
sliding Israel, this prophetic aii<l historic monument — I 

• John TflvJor'a " Great Pyiam\4," to, 16^— Tin. 


which, like Melchizedek, had no predecessor, was 
without architectural parentage or descent, and yet 
took rank at once as the greatest of all architecture up 
to the present time, — this more than historic monu- 
ment, I say, seems to speak to us in the words of the 
only wise Architect : — 

"I have declared the former thingfs from the beginning; and they 
went forth out of my mouth, and I shewed them ; / did them suddenly ^ 
and they came to pass." 

** I have even from the beginning declared it to thee ; before it came to 
pass I shewed it to thee ; lest thoii shouldest nay, Mine idol luith done 
them, and my graven image and my molten image, hath commanded 
them." — Isa. xlviii. 3 and 5. 

Never, then, was there any building so perfect as the 
Great Pyramid in fulfilling both the earliest words of 
the Lord given by Inspinition, and also the New Testa- 
ment types of the Messiah. And if the Great Pyramid 
is not mentioned in so clear a manner in the New 
Testament, that all men may instantly see it, whether 
by name, or figure, that may arise from — ^as circum- 
stances still to be related will indiciite — its being con- 
nected with the Second and future, rather than with 
that First and past, Coming of Clirist, which the New 
Testament was mainly to chronicle and ex[>ound. 




THOUGH everything else nmy fail to convince som 
minds that our nation is born to noblest heritogesj] 
tliat the Biblical history of mankind (no matter whi 
I)rotoplasm philosophers on one side, and believers ii^ 
tierman linguistic theories on the other, miJy choi 
aver) is a living and material reality ; and that, too, no| 
only for what has already come to jwiss in historj 
touching the favoured family of the Hebri^ws, but ttl« 
for the working out of the prophecies still remaining t 
be accomplished respecting the two opposed, and distia 
live, branches of that people ; viz., the Israelites of \ 
captivity of the Samnrian Kingdom of Israel on tlu 
one hand, and the Jews of the destruction of, and dia 
persion from, Jerusalem under Titus, on the other;— 
though everj-thing else, I add, may fail to convinosl 
some minds, that our nation may reasonably conaid^fl 
itself to a large extent descended from the former l 
(though they were lost to the view of mankind 2,500 1 
years ago), and owes its present unexampled i)rosperity J 
and power to the special favonr of God, far abovt 
its own intrinsic deserts {and should bow in humilitj 
and adoration accordingly), — the most 
proof, I say, of these things to some minds miq 
\>e, — to note certain recent episodes of our nationfj 1 
history; and to mart VflaaX. fcaa.\fti?. ■sm'^v ^'^Wbss^ 



be&llen us according to the ruling of our statesmen for 
the time beiiig, whether on one side of politics or the 
other, — yet how the nation was preserved, and even 
strengthened, notwithstanding. 

Shall our public ministers then continue in their 
Cning courses in order that the nation may abundantly 
,prosper ? — God forbid ; that were to tempt Goil. And 
though the whole science of statesmanship may be fur 
too mysteriously deep and difficult for any one man to 
presume to point out to another where the whole duty 
of a Prime Minister lies, — yet there is one rather neg- 
lected department of that officer's duty, wherein the 
very nature of the case allows of clear and simple 
mathematical views, capable of all men's understanding. 
ilKing introduced ; and this subject is the Great Pyra- 
mid's special one of metrology : a national as wtll as 
■aored iiiatttiT too, though not yet studied from tliat 
r<Bde of the question by any British minister. 

Aworthy scieuce, indeed, long ill treated and desjiisinl 

■of almost-all men, is metrology ; and yot there caunut 

the shadow of a doubt, that wo are now on the eve 

movements of the whole human race in connection 

th it; all educated commimities bfginninrf now to 

knowledge it to be a marvellous power with germs of 

ilitical influence of the highei^t order; specially adapted. 

too, for the working out of some of the grande-st 

developments of the future. Every nation until now 

has had its own liereilitary system of weights and 

measures ; curiously intertwined no doubt with those 

jof other nations in their distant primeval origins, vul- 

ired perhaps and oven largely debased in times of 

modifeval darkness, as well as pestiferously mcddk-d 

with and complicated by the doctrinaires of new-bom 

modern and o"ervaulting schools, — but still there was 

hitherto something more or less national to evety nation 

its metrology, as in its language -, ani. WTvva^ ^oa 




same purposes as the divertiity of tongues in keeping 
lip the heaven-appointed institution of -natioTiB ; — the 
chief characteristic of all mankind from the days of the 
dispersion ; unknown hefore tliat event, but never for— 
one moment ceasing since then. What, therefore, 
likely to be the result of man seeking in tliese dajl 
by mean of his own devices, to undermine that institi 
tion of natimis, and even endeavouring to quench it a 
the face of God's earth ? 

Whatever the result, the action to produce it 
already begun ; and the fir^t weapon onkined to be 
used, and the first breach to be made in the harriers of 
national distinctions, is that of weights and measurefi.— 
So that, without probably having distinctly contfi 
plated the issue, yet most of the existing civiliz 
nations have for years post been tending, not to | 
forward, but to bring all men back to the old, old s 
they were In when they attempted to build the Towi 
of Babel ; and from which nothing drove them thed 
but a supra-natural manifestation of the power uf God. I 

Progress of the Covimunisi-ic French Metre. 

Several centuries 1^0, and even less, there were near!* 
a hundred varieties of linear standards in use throu^ 
Europe, but one of them after another has latterly 
dropped out of view, until it was rejjorted at 
French Exposition of 1867, that only thirteen couM" 
then be discovered ; and since that epoch, all save 
three or four of them, are said to have practically 
perished, and the metre to be gaining adherents frcoa . 
even their votaries, every day.* 

"There has therefore," says the 7>ro-French 1 
President Barnard, " been large progress made towai 


uniformity, and the most important steps, and the most 
significant steps, are those which have been taken within 
our own century !" — " No man not totally regardless of 
the history of the past, and not absolutely blind to what 
is taking place under his own eye in the present, can 
possibly pretend to believe that the world is to be for 
ever without a uniform system of weights and measures ; 
we cannot suppose that the progress already indicated is 
going to be arrested at the point at w-hich it has now 
reached ! " — ** Of the two systems, therefore, just now 
indicated as the systems between which the world must 
choose, unless in regard to this matter it shall hence- 
forth stand still for ever, — one or the other must 
sooner or later prevail ! ! " And ho considers that of 
these two, the British yard and the French metre, the 
latter is certain to triumph in the end. 

Tliis result has by no means come about altogether 
spontaneously, or through iniseon and only natural 
influences ; the mind of man has had much to do with 
it, and it hivs b(»en the one polar point to which French 
ambition has alone been steadv and true duriiic^ the 
last eighty years ; always working for it whether 
sleeping or waking : whether in war or pi'ace, always 
endeavouring: to throw the net of her metrical system 
of weights and measures over other nations as well as 
her own people ; and though not witliout some Im- 
}>erial ambition to cliain many coiupu^rtHl nations to the 
chariot wheels of Fnince, yet with the far det^per C*om- 
munistic feeling of converting all the nations of the 
i^rth into one great people, speaking one language and 
using but one weight and one measure, and that of 
human, as directly opi>osed to Divine, origination. 

France had been consistent in her own case ; she 
had b(?gun, at h<T first Revolution, by slaughtering oft* 
all the accessible individuals of her reigning family ; 
who, as such, were the very ly\>c wivi 'snw^Ol v^ n5m 



French people of their being a nation, one amonj 
many nationa ; or of their living under that post-Bal 
institution. Having then, at that dreadful close of tl 
last century, killed oil*, as far as she then could, all h< 
royal family, her priests also, and openly ahrogati 
belief in the God of Scripture, she (France) could. 
that time, of all nations consistently, and with show: 
of demonstrable reason, become tlie champion of the 
metric, or anti-nation-existence metrological system 
system since then everywhere secretly adopted by the 
Socialists, Internationalists, Communists in all coiintriegj 
and, strange to say, by certain scientific men also, 
some cases claiming, in others scorning, to be reputei 

The task of spreading this nationally suicidal schemt 
over all the nations of the world, might seem at first? 
quite Quixotic ; and would be, but for schemes and 
forces in the destiny of man, which man knows little or 
nothing aljoul, until tliey have accomplished their ends 
and left him to rue their effects. So that it is owio] 
at least as much to those unseen influences as to tl 
direct action of any visible Frenchman, that the Freni 
metric system has been going forward during the It 
few years of history at a continually accelerated raten 
and that one country after another has been persuadi 
to adopt it, until suddenly it has been found, to our' 
exceeding aatonishmtnt and practical isolation, that 
almost every nation in Europe, and many peoples iu 
Asia, Africa, and America, have already been converted. 

France hei-self, strange to say, haa not profited by 
the system either in war or peace. In war she has been 
lately defeated with greater overthrows than even the. 
Persian empire of old ; and the fighting faculty ha»J 
abandoned her soldii^rs almost as completely as it did th*1 
Babylonians towards the calamitous end of their om 
I powerhl independence, ot tVe gnmiiw^* o? tbe aoldii 



een ^^ 





of Alexander the Great, wheo the Romans skughtercid ' 
tbeni in battle with the utmost ease ; while in peace, ' 
France's commercial trntisactlous, though continually 
being "re-oi^nized" on metrical science, remain far 
below those of Great BritAin. Yet .still she (France) calls 
upon all nations, and so many of these nations answer her 
oall with delight, and madly encourage each other, to 
dotbe themselves with this latter-day invention of hers ; 
which, if successful, must. In so far as it goes, tend to 
decrease the nationality, if not to hasten on the tinal 
clisi^)pearaDce, of every nation adopting it. 

Only three years ago there was published hy a 
committee of Columbia College, United States, an excel- 
lent little book entitled tlie " Metric System." Drawn 
.up chiefly by their Professor of the higher mathe- 
inatics (Charles Davies), and approved by those then in 
power. — this work demonstrated unsparingly the artifi- 
cial character of the French metrical system, the innu- 
merable patches which it required in practice to make 
it hold water at all, the errors of '\\& science, its isap- 
plicabiiity to the ordinary affairs of the mass of human 
kind ; and concluded with reprinting the celebrated 
report on weights and measures by John Quincey 
Adams : which report, after iadul^g in the utmost 
oratorical vehemence for saying whatever could be said , 
as a partisan for either side of the question successively, 
concludes with recommending all good United State* 
men to have as little as possible to do with the Fnmch 
standards ; but to feel hopefully confident tliat Uie in- 
evitable development of the world's history' would, 
sooner or later, bring up some far better system for ths 
future happiness and prosperity of mankind. 

But three short years have so ai'^oelerated the growth 
of French metric influence, or the predestined metro- 
logical temptation and trial of the whole world, — that all 
the parlies to that first book, upou vW ^ftU« »£evtt.\«(« ^a ^ 
a a 


liavc vanished out of existence ; and a now work, witl 
the sume title but totally opposite princi])les, was 
jjfodueed last year, to ordar of new governors, by the new 
President (Barnard) of the same college. An enormous.^ 
issue of this last book is now being thrown ofl' for di 
tribution gratuitously far and wide, and (as our exlrncl 
from it have already indicated) it is ecstatically in favour 
of the French metric system being adopted by all 
Americana with the utmost possible speed. And when 
that is brought about, the author declares that Britain^ 
Ru&sia, and tlie Scandinavian countries will be the unl] 
known dissentients among educated peoples. 

Scandinavia, however, it is asserted, has already bi 
«xhibiting some leaning.^ towards the metric system 
Russia is in the hands of her German othcials, who 
all now metric men, both at home and abroad ; an( 
Britain herself, who has hitherto successfully resist) 
private Bills in the House of Commons in favour 
French metricalism, is told at last that there shall be 
Government Bill next year. If that be carried, Ruseia 
and Scandinavia are expected immediately to yield ; and 
all the nations of the world will then have passed througl 
the great French mill, whose whirUng stones will nevi 
cease to grind, until, excepting only those sealed 
God, "it has caused all, both small and great, rich 
[Kiqr, free and bond, to receive a mark in their rig] 
hand or in their foreheads ; and that no man might buj 
or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of tl 
beast, or the number of his name." (Rev. xiJi, 16, 17.) 

Pfeparatitnis made by the British Government. 

Meanwhile, what have the ministers of GreAt Brits 
l>eeD doing either to fend off this dire calamity, 
embrace and make the lao'st. ol \)im W-^yj WjittiQ^J 





^whichever of the two they may deem it to be ? In parlia- 
mentary bills, nothing at all : and in private study, there 
is reason to fear, as little. Our Prime Minister's lust 
work on the old, old subjeoi of the poems of Homer, 
Loame out almost simultaneously with the announcement 
■ from Paris of twenty nations being about to meet there 
f ia fraternal union and intomatioual congress on thoir 
ffrowing metric system ; and since then, cruelly remind- 
ing of Nero playing his lyre while Home waa burning, 
the same elocjuent orator has written on the superior 
glory of that man who invented a fiddle, over him who 
achieved the modem locomotive,' the support of millions 
on millions of mankind I 

Perhaps it was better for the British countrv that ihat 

I'DUtiistor should have been so employed; for he might 

(b»ve done worse than merely let us drift on under 

lather giiidance than his. But things cannot and will 

stop there ; this view, the pro-French metric 

iliampion, President Barnard, makes very plain. We 

may iudei>d thus fur have been saved irotn a pit of 

Jevii vastly moi'e iirofonud than apjiears on the surface ; 

fbut jiolilieally we have not as yet reached any haven 

P'Of metrological safety ; no soundings are touched ; no 

li secure principles for anchoring to, reached ; and no argu- 

jctnents of sufficient power to stand before the s]iecious 

I insinuations of French metrical agitators have yet been 

uttered in the House of Commons. We Iiave our 

I koeicnt national measures still, but with all their 

I. mediaeval and modem imiierfoctions on their head ; and 

) the attacks, ojien and concealed, of the metrical pany 

I upon them on that account, are unceasing. That i>arty, 

\ moreover, has gaine<l over the Sehoi-l Boanl Comniis- 

f tion ; the new office of the Warden of the Standards has 

WD gorgeously supplied with expensive appantlus fur i 

tch vaaium, weighing and measuring-, &a.d * 

iriio ouglii to have died raliiM l\iaa igwi w^ 



opinions of a dozen years ago, have swallowed thi 
all, and join now in recommending the total 
nationalization of our ancient metrology. 

How long will our plastic rulers, accustomed to take 
demagogic pressure from without, in pluce of principle. 
knowledge, and understanding, stand firm against such 
agitation ? 

The very anxiety of President Barnard and the 
metricalista to bring on the final struggle as between 
the French metre and the English yard, shows that 
they have good reason to know that there is weakness 
in the supporters of the latter. Some involuntary 
throbbing, moreover, in the pulse of humanity is now 
telling all nations, with deeper truth than any philo- 
sophy can, that these are the last times of this dispensa- 
tion ; and that we are now or never to decide a long, long, 
future. " If the work was to be done over again," writes 
President Barnard, with an admirable sense of justice, 
" the French metric system ought to adopt, and doubt- 
less would adopt, not their superficial earth measure 
the metre, hut the Pyramid axial reference of the cubit, 
on account of its immense sujteriorily in science.* But 
it is not to bo done over ^aia," he says, " and never 
can or will be ; we must choose the metrical system as 
it is now or not at all ; it has already been taken np 
by half mankind, and no able system of human inven- 
tion will ever have such a chjince of universal adoption ; 
while no system that cannot and will not become uni- 
versal, is to be tolerated for a moment. Now the British 
yard, or its third part, the foot," adds the President, 
" being only the measure of one nation, will always be 

• This nclcnowledgtnent of Preaident Burnard, »t pp. 93 snd 94 of hin 
book, does bim immense hononr, he being an out-and-oat pro-mctn) m&n ; 
ftod it ia of alt the more weight tbat ho gives an uhlor di«cuiiiioii of th« 
of the curth-siioa 

.la most wieoinfic ■ 
a & lecid&Ue fono. 


t l«dsted by the majority of nations,- 
[ must in the end gain the day." 

-therefore the metro 

The, Stoiis prepared uithitul Hands. 

But is the final contest only between the metre and 
' the British yard or foot ? The anti-metric men in the 
I House of Commons have hitherto succeeded in estab- 
lishing nothing against the idea ; and President Bamard 
(, both that it is so, and that all the wealth and 
numbers of mankind throughout all the world are 
divided on these two sides only. He does, indeed, allow 
in one place that there is a phantom of a third side, 
I riz., the Great Pyramid metrology ; but declares that 
I that, having only a religious foundation, will never 
I BCCumul&te any large party about it.* 

Since the days of Sennacherib defying the God of 

larael, was there ever a speech more Ukoly to call forth 

[ proof, in its own good time, that the arm of the Lord is 

I not shortened ? We see in Scotland already what the 

I belief, that it is the Lord who appointed the chrono- 

p logical institution of the week, will do to make thai 

one time-measure binding on a whole nation ; and 

will the men of that land not also adhere to any such 

other weights and measures in the future, as they shall 

* Tbo exact words ai«, kl p. S8 :— "And one wha.UliB ProfcMoT Piun 
[ Bmyth, bawa his mi<tni]i>gioni Uieorica on rcligioiu gruuiid«. uid prcfnn 
llie Pynmid inch u bii Rtandard, iia a nutttcr of conacienuu. is not likel; 
to «onc<intrBti! ]UMUDd him ■ very powerful party of oppoiitian." 

Bnre •verything in the woyof linpiu atoDiJ&rdi fur the Pyramid tfatom 

i« made hy Pmident B&mknf to re«t on the inch i uid he inteonflee that 

■aciuMlion M D. 73 by writing : — " C. Piuii Smyth alnoet tuuticaUy 

attachn hinuelf to the inch, ■ meaiure *hich be b«Iio«cs with implidt 

tilth to hare been diTinely given to llieapa, builder of the Ore«t 

Pjrramid. and ^unm to Hoaei in the wilderuew; and in wb»t bo, no 

doabt, tvicarda ai the ((reat work of bis life, bo usos no other terra to 

eXfmaa the Urgent dimemdona." I ran only therefore refer my readen 

I to all that I havn wntU'ii in thia book, u veil aa other*, upvn the grand 

I MandMid of the Pyramid, and the unly one icttainl; ci 

t SIcww being the fidil. 



come in time to understand were likewise appoint 
from the same Divine source ! 

President Barnard, in stating the conquests of 
French metrical system at the utmost, bows involun-r. 
tari'y to the religious element ; by the act of stating, not 
merely that the metre has been adopted by 1 60,000,000 
men, but by that number of civilized people 
Christian lands." Yet in that case, if those inhabii 
are truly Christian, will not they all. as well 
Britons, delight to obey in the end, whatever shi 
be proved to have been appointed by Christ in 
beginning of the world ? Especially if in evident 
ticipation of present and future times ; viz., of " 
last days, when scoffers are to iippoar, walking al 
their own lusts and saying, Wliere is the promise 
His Coming (Christ's Second Coming as a King) ? fe 
since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue 
were from the beginning of creation." 

r/te Parties to the Final Oontest. 

It is, indeed, most curiously hut intimately, betw( 
the French metre and the Messianic Great Pyramid cubi 
that the final contest must come ; for the present Britil 
weights and measures, as established by recent parlf 
mentary laws only, are evidently doomed to fall. 

Now the metric and the Pyramid systems, though 
every other point utterly opposed, are yet in this oi 
feature, perfectly similar to each other ; viz., that th( 
both tend to break down tlie post-Babel separation 
men into nations, and combine them all into one 
government : but then, how is this principle carried out, 
by whom, for whom, and to what ends, in either case ? 

The French metric system, though it is not a hundred 
yeare old, is wanted by its promoters to override every- 
thing else in the world, of whatever age, and whatevi 
I origiD. All nations am to \io\f io'wti. 'ws \\. ■, mA. •&.«!» 





it lit found, as it has been at every essential point, fiiU of 
scientific bhintlers, and teeming with sacrilices of thu 
comforts and conveniences of the jwor and innny, to tJie 
mere crottThels of a few doctrinaires in the upper classes, 
— it is never to lie altered, never improved on, never 
rcpliicud in its rule over all mankind by anything else 
of similar human invention ; — no, not though the pre- 
sent order of human life, national distinclions ex- 
(Wptfid. goes on upon this earth, as the human prophets 
of the system say it will, for so very many faumireds 
of thousands of millions of years that the physical earth 
itself will have grown out of shape and size to that 
deforce, as X/o become totally unlit to serve as a standard 
of reference for the mighty metre, the grand symbol of 
human rule in man. for man, and by man himself alone. 
Wherefore Pn-sident Barnard already, in concert with 
other metricHlists, though introducing the metre to the 
world, tiret of all as a scientific earth-measure, yet 
finally allows that they do not care whether it is, or is 
Dot, of that character ; for they intend, hy-and-by, to 
shut out all commensurable reference to the heavens 
ttbove and the earth below ; and simply adopt, within a 
closed chamber, a particular bar of metal made by man, 
as the grand metrological term in which all men,— of 
many nations originally, but soon, they think, to be 
swept together into one vast commune,— shall live and 
move and have any understanding of material things. 

The Great Pyramid system, on the other hand, ia the 
oldest metrological system in the history of the world ; 
has its traces extensively among European peojjles -, and 
is nest to perfect in all those scicntitic points where tho 
French sysl^em fmls. It is moreover full of benevolence 
and tiom]>as»ion for the poor and m<edy, besides t4w;hing 
that their anguish and woes will last but a few years 
more ; for then, agre<»bly with the Scriptures, Chri^ 
h'ttaself wiU agtuu descend from Vicaven, \^na \«afii "^ 





angels and archangels accompanying, and will give to 
man at last that perfect and righteous government which 
man alone is incapable of; and so shall the Saviour 
reign over all nations brought under his one heavenly i 
aceptre, until that Millennial termination arrives, whei 
time shall bu no more ; and the mystery of God witl 
regard to the human race will be accomplished. 

Human, versus JHvijte, Vltimate Rule. 

Even within the moderate bounds of only one natioB, 

and for a short space of time, how totally insufficient ii 

the best human goTemment, to check the evils 

humankind ! 

With all England's present wealth and science, or not 
withstanding it all, pauperism is increasing in the land fl 
rich men are richer, but poor men are more numeroid 
and more hopelessly poor, and chiefly in the great cities f^ 
for there, in truth, the distressed, the miserable, the sic)c:j| 
the vicious, the under-educated, the persecuted and tbj 
. persecutors of society, multiply beyond the rate of (" 
government, all philanthropy, to procure any perman^lll 
relief or hope of amendment. A good country landloi 
may perhaps be able to suiiervise, help, and befriend t 
some limited extent every person iu his little provinci 
community of men of humble ambition and simple life ; 
but in the iai^e towns, whence the great wonders of 
modem civilization emerge — there, in precise proportion 
OS the towns are large, and a few of the inhabitants 
rich beyond all measure — there the houses of the dregs 
of the population, and the progressive debasement of 
humanity are beyond belief, and go on increasing every 
day ;-^recalling with awe the denunciations of Scrip- 
ture against those who join house to house beyond 
human power of controlling results.* 

" " The truth is that out ■wcaW.^i^ and m^'jot t\B.K9««4Qiiot fiillt rosliso 
, tbaauaifuld iJuugeiit to aocielj uUiii^m Ui& c)\uii3A«&n\ ^-nw^a^^V 



Bat, throw all nations into one vast community or 
family of the human kind, a^ the universal a<.loptioD of 
the French metrical system would be the beginning of, — 
and then, no matter whether the movement ha<l been 
made sicker (Scolticfe for surer) by the First French 
Revolution plan of decapitating all members of royal 
&milies, and whether ROcialiHtic communes had been 
established in more or fewer lands, — the scales for doing 

the piM>T, Thfy *eo only tho wondorfiil ndToncea made everr day in 
whatever ran iidJ to the comforla, convenience', pleiuurefi, and luiuriw 
«f theiritwn living. 'ITley nevur dream (hat their waiilUi, «pl(indour, and 
pride, i> (urrouudi.'d by ft cord>>n of kqualor, demonliBHliun, duvaiM, and 

''The higher cIsbm> ktb >Io 
CSDlrea of population Ihere ii 
iminoTBlity, and dineise." 

" FiQin ttaiiitical retumi in London, bewinit on the Dondition of 8L 
GIIm'*, it nppeats that there were in one dittriot 600 r«mili», and of UieM 
no mcinlly oocupiod balona room Mich. InanalIiar,o(T')U fain ill eg, SAO 
oooDpuid bat on* rooiD each, lit anoLher disUiot, out of £00 bniiliaa, 410 
oocuiitd one room csr^h. In one of theu roonu, 12 fuct by 13 (eel, by 7| 
fMt liigli. eight penoDi lived. In anotber room. 13 feel by S fael, bf 6} 
fsat high, five cluldren and their parent* lived." 

" III UiiD cheater amall houM^ are packed toRotherai cloiely ai poaoble, 
and in Ihsmare stowed away an erjormou* amount o( thepoorerpartof tita 
population, t^ii pereona in one room. — only one room to live in, sleep in, 
nod in which to trausHCt all the avooatinna of life." 

" In Liverpool, :IS,D00 hoiuea are occupied by brailiee in ringls room*, 
KT a third of the whole popuUttou exiata ander thoM uiuatij factory oon- 
dilionn, — producing diiiwue, immorality, paaprriam, and orime ; truth and 
honealy are, to human Iieinga to debaard. m^ namei." 

"Our rnilway estcnsiuna, street imi'ruvemenli, the enwlion of new 

houan. public and other bufldinrt, rendered ncceuary by our avor- 

inoMonng proapority, act with the force of a acrew, fordng decent bmiliM 

r t* quit oomfortable bousna. and in many ooea* they have no nltematira 1 

I but to accept iheltcr in already ovcr^crowded and demotatiaed neigbbanr- 

>' IimmU, where then ia litlJn li^ht, dnunage, water, or vontilatiaD, and a~ 

pittpOT Oonvenienc* for natural wants— and what happen* !' After a fc 

weda the strong niKn is bowed down, and th« children are left on incroot 

nrpanparinn to aociety."— Extract from the "tiocialCTiai* in England," 

by W. Martin : Bimunghom, 1B73. 

"At the Manchiisl«T L'ity I'olica Court lately, 

ihy-farmon, living at 116. Knightly t^treet. Queen' 

itathamurder of afcmsle infant. They were also 1 

iKf to murder two female infanta and one male. The fonnor were dii- 

, eovervd lying together on some dJTty straw, covered with an old damp 

blanket; the latter was being noraed by a boy. and the woman was 

detected in the not of trying to conceal tho bod^ of the dead child. Two 


IinoMonng proaponty, act with the force of a screw, forcinit decent umibea ^^m 

t* quit comfortable bouses, and in many ooea* they have no nltematira ^^H 

but to accept iheltcr in already ovcr^crowded and demotatised neigbbonr- ^^H 

hMtds, where then is litlJn light, drainage, water, or vontilatian, and no ^^H 

pittpOT Oonvenienc* for natural wants— and what happen* !' After a few ^^^| 

weda the strong mun is bowed down, and the children are left on incrooN ^^H 

nfpanparism tosociety."— Extract fromthe "tiocialCTiai* in England," ^^| 

by W. Martin : Bimunghom, 1BT3. ^H 

"Al the Manchiisl«T L'ity I'olica Court lately, a man and woman, ^^| 

iMhy-fannon, living at 116, Knightly Street, Queen's Road, were charged ^™ 
witbtha murder of afcmsle infant. They were also charged with atttmja- 
inf to murder two female infanta and one male. The fonnor were dis- 
covered lying together on some dJTty straw, covered with an old damp 
blanket; the latter wai being noraed by a boy. and the woman was 

detected in the not of trying to conceal tho bod^ of the dead child. Two ^^m 
ounce* of mould V flour was the only catebU ihvn%tQ>AA.mUb«Vit«>itb' — ^^H 

JUmimyA daiippaptr, 1B73. ^^1 




le. ^ 


mercantile busiuess and for speculating on in eveiy, 
element of lifc,must enlarge enormously : with the iuevil 
able result, on one side, of a few clever geniuses makinL 
more colossal fortunes, whether honestly or otherwise, 
than ever ; but on the other side, of the wretchednesa, 
the woe, the wickeilness, and the degradation of the chief 
mass of the population going on increasing in all lar} 
centres of gathering together, and becoming more terribi 
in the long future ages than anything chronicled yet. 

Contrast this inevitable outcome of human rule, in- 
creasing inliniteiy in disaster if continued for unlimited 
time unchecked by anything above the laws of nature as . 
philosophers see them now, — with the sacred system c " 
the Messiah's monarchy when He shall be in presenot 
and power over all. A faint idea of only one of th* * 
fliaracteristics of that kingdom was given in the happy 
condition of equality in health and relative prosperity, 
in the camp of the Israelites, when setting forth out 
of Egypt with Moses ; not under human rule only, but 
under the guidance also of the Angel of the Covenant : 
and when " there was not one weak one amongst them," 

What are all the triumphs of human learning to thi 
glorious result in a great nation ; and where has anything) 
hke it been seen either before or since ? 

But in place of approaching such a desirable consum 
matioQ for our perishing, yet increasing, millions, moden 
science and the churches, politics, war, and police^! 
are swerving further and further from it every day,!] 
Yet poor science, in so far as it is for once truly 80<l 
called, often maligned and never wealthy, — viz., tfaftfl 
exact mathematical science of such men as the late] 
Archdeacon Pratt, and which was " •rwt at variance wiUlv 
Revelation." — has yet proved herself of precious service;! 
to all mankind, if she has enabled us in the presenfil 
day of growing doubts, ani \ieaT\s iaCwn^ "Ottenv W 'vse 



to read off the great pre-historical, and prophetic, 
monument of Melchizedek in the land of Egypt ; and 
to find that, besides scientific metrological knowledge, 
it utters things which have been kept secret firom the 
foundation of the world ; things which not even the 
Apostles were permitted to know of, lii40 years ago, 
viz., times and seasons which are in God*s power alone. 
Wherefore thus it is, that the Great Pyramid is now, 
and only now, beginning to announce that a termination 
to the greatest misery of the greatest numbers of human 
beings, or to their continuing indefinitely under mere 
human rule, whether of kings or of republics, — is at 
length drawing nigh. 




T ET US now cast & nipid glance over the principal ' 
^ results obtained in the course of our long research. 

(l.) The Great Pyramid, an entirely prehistoric monu- 
ment, is found, though in Egypt, not to be of Egypt ; ] 
i.6., belonging to, or participating with, anything spiri- 
tually characteristic of that land and people in their 
long course of rebellion against the God of Revelation. 

(2.) By being in Egypt, which is central to the land ■ 
surface of the whole world, the Great Pyramid boeomea | 
similarly central to the Kosmos of man's earthly life and I 
habitation : hut yet has no Egyptian building to compete I 
with it for architectural intention to be in that remark- I 
able position ; because it alone visiljly stands with appro- I 
pHate topographical attributes, over the outspring of that J 
country's delta, or rather fan-shaped, area of soil At J 
the centre of physical origination of the Lower Egyptian J 
land, therefore, the Great Pyramid was placed ; yet byj 
virtue of the sector-shape, both at the centre, and also at 1 
one side, of it,— just as with that " altar or pillar to the J 

I Lord in the midst of the, land of Egypt," and "at M«l 
border thereof" which is to bo manifested in the last day 1 
(Isaiah xix. 1 8 — 20) : expressly to serve at that ultimate I 
time " for a sign and witness unto the Lord of Hosts," 1 
MS well as for a parable and wonder to all intervenii^J 

^ages (Jeremiah xxjdi. 18 — ^li). J 


CuAP. XXV.l THE GREAT py/iA MID. 461 . 

(3.) At every structural poiDt at which it is szamined I 
with sufficient minuteneKs, ability and knowledge, the 
(ireat Pyramid is found not only unlike the most charac- 
teristic buildings of the ancient people of EgS'pt, but 
is actually aQtagouistic to them. £spei^ially is this the 
(sosfl in tluiir iuveterate tendencies to idolatry, animal 
worship, assertions of self-righteousness, Cainite boastingB 
of themselves, with contempt and hatred of all other 
{>eoples. And while all these native and indigenous 
btiildiugs, together with the gigantic stone idols of 
Egypt, are doomed in the Scriptures to bow down, and 
ihaip country to become the basest of kingdoms, — the 
Great Pyramid ia alluded to in the most honourable 
inatiDer, both in the New and Old Testameuls ; \t& head- 
stone being even taken as a tyjie of the Messiali ; and 
its being brought forth to view, having been described 
there, a» a sight which caused the moniing stars to sing 
together, and all the sons of God to shout for joy, with 
cries of " Grace, grace unto it I " 

(4.) The Great Pyramid, in a land where all other 
characteristically Egyptian buildings are profusely deco- 
rated and covered from top to l)ottum. and hotli inside 
and out, with inscriptions of portentous length and siza 
both in writing, painting, and sculpture. — the Great 
I^ramid has, in and upon its finishe<l parts,* no tlecora- 
tion, no painting, no inscription, no destination giv< 
to it, in any human language under the sun. 

And yet, while no other Egyptian buildings can speak 
to their own absolute dates, and have set all the scholars 
of mankind grievously astray on impossible, ridiculoui^ 
and totally antJ-Biblical chronologic st>ln-nie9,- — the <j1 
i^ramid sets forth \ls own absolute date on unerring 
grounds of astronomical seiance. \Vliereu]>oi), being 
already allowed by the best f^ryptologists to be rtiatit'eli/ 





[P*BT VS| 

ulder than all other known buildings of any kind of* 
[iretence, whether in Egj-pt or any other jjart of thti 
ancient world, — the Great Pyramid takes at once the 
lordly position of prescribing limits in time to all those , 
other buildings, or we may say to all architecture what- J 

ver ; and those Pyramid limits are now found to be isl 

n eminent manner confirmatory of Holy Scripture. 
(5.) ^\Tiile every -other ancient structure of Egypt,^ 
imd in so far of the world, was built for its own timdl 
and its then owners, and has had in their day its utili-T 
xatioD, its attendants, worshippers, frequenters or in-1 
habiters, either living or dead, — the Great Pj-ramid haS'fl 
had no use ever made of it : no living man could enter its* 
Htone-fiiled passives when finished ; no dead body eithera 
was, or could have been regularly deposited there ; th8.« 
coffer or so-called sarcophagus is too broad to pass in ' 
any way through the lower part of the first ascending 
|iii»Kage ;— the king of that time, according to triple 
historical tradition, and recently found local indication, _ 
was buried elsewhere; neither, until the last very few*! 
years, was the building in any degree understood by any I 
nation, though all nations have guessad at its hidden I 
mj-atery, its parable in stone; a prophetic and portentous j 
parable, long since thrown in the very way of the ungodly! 

1 order that, " seeing they might see and not perceive, % 
imd hearing they might hear and not understand." 

A thousand years ago Al-Mamoun broke violently into4 
the building, but discovered nothing of its design as nowf 
known ; and though othitrs smashed many of the stones, I 
chipped the edges of more, and performed whatever | 
mischief man could perform with axes, hammers, and fir^ J 

—yet they have no more prevented ceitain grand idea^fl 
with which the whole was fraught in the beginning ofT 
the world, coming to be appreciated in these last very ' 
few years, — than did the destruction of the Temple of 
Solomon and the conymg a^'o.^' ol «N)i Sx.'s- ^«\\wo 


to assist in the service of idols in Babylon, — prevent 
the accomplishment of the Hebrew prophecies touching 
their chief end, the appearance of the Saviour of Man- 
kind among the Jews in Jerusalem. 

(6.) WTiat then, is, or is to be, the end or use for 
which the Great Pymmid was built ? 

The confident public is too apt to override this ques- 
tion with the far lower demand to be promptly told, "Who 
built the Great Pvramid, and what was his name ? " 

If you mean who plodded at fultilling in masonrj' the 
orders given to, and exacted from, them according to 
patterns funiished (some of which are still to be seen 
on the Pj'ramid Hill in the azimuth trenches and the 
trial passages),* — I answer, — the subjects of the Fourth 
Dynasty's Egj'^ptian king, Cheops in Greek, Shofo or 
Khoufou in Coptic ; and they were legion. 

But if you mean who furnished the design of the 
building and saw to its being realised, — even as the 
authorship of Milton's ** Paradise Lost " was a far higher 
work than the hand labour of him who first set it up 
in type, — the answer is, Philitis in Greek, Shem or 
Melchizedek in Scripture. 

And now, those answers to inter^wsed calls being 
rendtTcd, let us return to the practical end for which 
the Great Pynmiid was both designed and built. The 
*tit\ant\er of that end appears — on putting facts together 
— to have been, to subserve in the fifth thousand of 
years of its existence certain pre-ordained intentions of 
God's will in the government of this world of man. For 
the Pyramid was charged by God*s inspired Shepherd- 

* A deflcription of both of thcM ver}' rumarkable features, unexplain- 
able on any but the strictest *' PromethfHn,'* and s<.*ientific, theory, is 
fpTon on pp. 125 and 185 of vol. ii. of *' Lite and Work." While an 
account of the happy manner in which W. Petric wa« enabled to elicit 
tho ** teiitiniony of the trenches** in favour of the circle-squaring in- 
Untinnul figure of the Great Pyramid, is to be found in mv " A.utu\uvl^ <iC 
luteUvctual Man/' at pp. 191—103. 




PriDco, in the beginning of human time, to keep i 
certain message secret and inviolable for 4,000 years, i 
it has done so ; and in the next thousand years it \ 
to enunciate that message to all men, with more thi 
traditional force, more than the authenticity of copiaj 
manuscripts or reputed history,— and that part of tl 
Pyramid's usefulness is now beginning. 

Only as yet beginning ; wherefore let no one jump 
too hastily at what the whole purpose may eventually 
prove itself to be. I, at least, — who have been drawn 
on by a train of events too wonderful for ma to resist, 
to devote my best energies to this work ; in presence of 
which, I by myself am of the weakest of the things of 
the world, — I presume not to spoak to any other tliaoJ 
such parts of the building as have already practical^fl 
developed themselves. Herein, too, enough seems noin 
to liave shone forth to enable any one to state roimdlyfl 
that the message wherefor the Great Pyramid was buillfl 
is largely of a duplicate character ; or thus — - ■ 

(a.) To convey a new proof to men in the preseujl 
age, as to the existence of the personal God of Scripture 9 
and of His actual supra-natural interferences, in patml 
arohai times, with the physical, and otherwise only sub9 
natural, experience of men upon earth. Or to proyj 
in spite, and yet by means, of modern science whiolfl 
in too many cases denies miracles, the actual occurreoeifl 
of an ancient miracle ; and if of one, tlie possibility oS 
all, miracles recorded in Scripture being true. ■ 

(b.) In fulfilment of the first prophecy in GeneailM 
which teaches, together with all the prophets, that ofl 
the seed of the woman without the man, a truly DivioM 
Saviour of Mankind, was to arise and appear amongs^f 
men ; a man apparently amongst men ; in poverty, tot^B 
and humility ; in further fulfilment thereof, the Qreatfl 
P/nimid was to prove, — that precisely as that comiii|n 
was a real historical eveat, a,tx.& Xjot:^ '^%«.e> %.^ & definitaM 



and long pre-ordained date. — so His second coining, I 
when Vis shull descend as ihe Lord from heaven, with 1 
the view of rt'igniiig over all mankind and ruling them I 
ull with one Divine sceptre, and under one all-jusb, f 
beneficent, omnipotent sway, that that great event will | 
likewise be historii'^l, and will Lake place at a definite i 
and also a primevally pre-arranged date. 

Now let us look a little closer into the first of these \ 
two reasons, or puri)oscs ; viz. — 


In an age when writing was a rarity indeed, and barely I 
more locomotion wa*) indulged in by any of mankind i 
than merely to roam with flocks and Iierds from summer ' 
to winter juisttir&go and t*ice vfr«d, and this only in littU 
more than one central region of the earth,- — -in that 
primitive age it was announced that the day would 
come, when of the multiplication of books there should 1 
be no end, — when knowledge should K^ wondetfnlly I 
increased, and men run to and fro over the whole earth, f 
even as they are doing now by railway and steamer ftoinl 
London to the very Antipodes. In the interests of a 
commerce they do it every day ; and in the interests of 1 
Hcience, they are on the eve of specially doing it from f 
every country' of Europe and America, at unlimited ex- 
penditure of national wealth, — though only to gain % I 
little more knowledge of the exact numbers to be set 1 
against a particular datum in astronomy which hafl J 
already been ascertained within a hundredth of the J 
whole amount, and has hod thousands and tens of thou-^ 
sands of money spent uptm iL And all these countries^ 
are highly encourage<l and applauded for so oontinuiiif^ J 
to 8pen<l ihi'ir national resources and results of taxatiM 
of the people, because this \s vW ade\i>j&(^ «^ ^ ^1 



[PtiiT v.- 

world, when science-knowledge to tlie most minute andl 
microscopic degree has so excessively developed amongst! 
mankind, that every one is open-mouthed for science ; J 
and science is supposed to enter into, and support, and 
deserve tlie best of, every rnmiGcation of life. 

I, Therefore, it would seem to be, that an Omniscioud 
mind which foresaw in the beginning the whole history I 
of the world under man, ordained that the message, 
arguments, proofs, of the Great Pyramid should not be] 
expressed in letters of any written language whateverj 
whether living or dead ;■ — -but in terms of scientific fae 
or features amenable to nothing but science, t'e., A mediunt* 
for the communication of ideas to be humanly knowD J 
and interpretable. only in the latter day. The employ- J 
nient of a written langiiagfi, moreover, would have been a J 
restricted mode of conveying the message essentially and« 
cbaracteristically to one nation alone ; whereas the Pyraof 
raid's message was intended for all men, even as Christ'* J 
kingly reign at His second coming is to be universal. 

Trace, too, the several scientific strips by which this J 
purpose of the Great Pyramid is being, and has been^l 
accomplished ; and note how each and evcrj- one of thoitA 
steps, while of the most important class for all science, is 
yet of the simplest character to be looked on as being 
any science at all : — so that the poor in intellect, and ^ 
neglected in education, who are the many, may partakes 
of it, as well as the more highly favoured who are oalya 
a very few. I 

Not in the day of the Great Pyramid at all, but rather] 
since the revival of learning in Europe, no pwra Trta/As-l 
■nmticcU question has taken such extensive hold on thej 
human mind as, the "squaring of the circle." Quit^ I 
right that it should be so, for a time at least, seeing that'l 
it is the basis alike of practical mechanics and high astro- j 
nomy. But as its correct (quantity has been ascertained,.! 

ipowmore than one or iVfoWo'iiei. ^■wKt*ii.^o,«nA.,ii-Ddfiifj 



the form of ir, or the jiroportion of the diameter \a the 
circumference of a circle, is found in almost every 
text-book of mathematics to more decimal places thon 
there is any practical occasion for (see p^e xvi.), — 
men might, rest content and go on to other subjects. 
But numbers of them do not, and will not ; hardly 
a ypjir passes even in the present dny. but some new 
sqiiarer of the circle appears. Generally a self-educated 
man, and with the trnditional notion in his head, 
that the proportion of length between the one line 
already straight ami the other to he made straight in a 
circle, has never been ascertained yet ; and that either 
the Acjulomy of Sciences in I'aris or the Hoyal Society 
of London has offered a large reward to whoever will 
solve the problem : so down he siL'i to the task, and 
sometimes he brings out a verj' close approximation to 
the first few places of figures in the fraction, by prac- 
tical mechanics ; and sometimes by erroneous geometry 
he produces a very wide divergence indeed. But occa- 
sionally the most highly-educated university mathema- 
ticians also enter the field, and bring out [)erehance 
Bome new algebraic series, by which a more rapid con- 
Tergonee than any yet invented to the true numbers of w 
may be obtAined ; see for instance such a case in the last 
Tolame(XVII.) of that roost im|) one now amongst 
the scientific serials of the world, the Smithsonian con- 
tributions to knowledge (Washington, 1S73) : besides its 
references to similarly intende<l formulie in other recent 
mathematical works. Wherefore that numerical expres- 
sion 3'1415d-f-&c., is shown on all hands and in all 
countries, to be one of the most wonderful, lasting, cha- 
racteristic, and neci^siir^- results of the growth of scicuoe 
for all kinds and degrees of intellectual men ; and in an 
increusing proportion as they arrive at a high state of 
civilization, material progn-ss, and practical develo^iment 
Js j( Dot then a little slrangft, l\«A ^>B.ft Ssr*. 




[Paet Ttl 

which catches the eye of a scientific man looking wil 
science and power at the ancient Great Pyramid, ' 
its entire mass, in its every separate particle, all goes 
make up one grand and particular mathematical fij 
expressing the true value of -n, or 3"14159-j-&c. 

If this was accident, it was a very rare accident ; ft 
none of the other thirty-seven known pyramids of E{ 
contain it.* But it was not accident in the 
Pyramid, for the minuter details of its interior, 
already shown, signally confirm the grand outlines ol 
the exterior, and show again and again those peculiar 
proportions, hoth for line and area, which emphatically 
make the Great Pyramid to be, as to shape, a -n shaped, 
and a w memorializing, Pyramid ; or the earhest demon- 
Btratiun known of the numerical value of that particular 
form of squaring the circle which men are still trying 
their hands and heads upon.t 

Phyaictd Science of the Great Pyramid. 

Again, in physics, as a further scientific advance 
the foundation of pure mathematics, is there any ques- 
tion so replete with interest to all human kind as, 
what supports the earth ; when, as Job truly remarked, 
it is hung from nothing, when it is suspended over 
empty space, and yet does not fall ? In place, indeed, 


• The lonniid Pr. Lopsin* BnnmprfttM niity-eeven pyramicla ; where- 
npon Sir Unrdner WilhinBnn remarka, with irreaiBtiblH puthne dI modesty 
and feeling, " hut it u anfurluuatti thftC tha Bixty-ievon pymmidii caimot 
BOW be traced." 

+ In further roforonce to the nnte-chitmbar case in chip, x., where thn 
Ahbe Moigno hiid alroady producod tha nezit oxpreasion, from it» meMUre 

in inohes, of — , = n-, — ProfeaaOT Hamilton L. Smith, including the 

anterior nnd posterior pnwwges with the lengih of the nnte-rhanib(!r, nnd 
tnkirig nccuiint tiiro ol the hieadth, rimilHrly in Pyratrid iiii.'h''B, fiuila, 
in thone l^rms. [1 + ir) X 10 ; («■ -^ «■») X 6 ; and (it' 4- jr') X 6.- 
( them given wtll wittiin ttia Xrauta q^ erai ot Uio treat mcdem 
iBB8tfortliin"lAta*B4'WQsi;" "itJ-l. 



of falling destructively, the earth regularly revoive& 
around a bright central orb, and in such a manner an to 
obtain therefrom light and heat suiuble to man. and 
day and night. What is the nature, then, of that path 
which the earth so describes, and what is the distance 
of the physical-life luminary round which it now 
revolves, but into which it would fall straightway as to 
its linn] bourne and be destroyed by fire, if that onward 
movement were arrested ? As in squaring the circle, 
80 in measuring the distance of the earth't* central sun, 
botli learned and unlearned have been working at the 
question for 2,300 years, and am still for ever employing 
themselves upon it ; and nothing that all mitioDs can do, 
whether by taking their astronomers away from other 
, work, or enlisting naval and military officers as tem- 
porary astronomers, and furnishing them profusely with 
instruments of precision of every servic*'able science, 
and sending them to every inhabitable, and some unin- 
habitable, parts of the earth, is thought too much to 
devote to this question of questions in physics for the 
future behoof of a world grown scientific Yet /Actw is 
the numerical expression for that cosmical quantity nailed 
to the mast of the Great Pyramid from the earliest 
ages ; for it is its mant or vertical height, multiplied by 
its own factor, the ninth power of ten. which is tho 
length all modem men are seeking, and struggling, and 
dying, and will continue to die, in onlcr to get a 
tolerably close approach to tlie arithmetical figure of: 
and this accurate sun-distance at the Pyramid is accom- 
panied by an exhibition of the spatte travelled over 
during a whole circle of the earth's revolution, and the 
tiino in which it is performed. 

And if from solar-system quantities we turn to matters 
of our own planet world in it.self alone, — does not every 
inhabitant thereof yearn to know its size \ and \ei\. waa 
But that imjwasible to all men, oi e^tX t]b.« «k£s:^ «^9^Va 



attain with any exactness ? In illustration whereof it iljB 
recorded, that the Deity confounded Job at ot 
the words : " Hast, thou perceived the lireadlh of t 
earth ? Declare if thou knowest it all." • 

And the only answer that Job, one of the chief &Q|| 
wisest men of the earth at that time, could retui 


"Therefore have I uttered that I understood not; 
things too wondei-ful for me, which I knew 
Wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust 
aahes." t 

But precisely that thing which all mankind froi 
the Creation up to the day of Job, or of Moaes, had ni 
accomplished, and had no idea or power how to 
about to perform it, and did not nialce even any r 
attempts in that direction during the following 2,50) 
years — though they do know it now with cousiderabi 
accuracy — was not only well known to the author 
the design of the Great Pyramiil, but was there em- 
ployed as that most useful standard, iu terms of which 
the base-side length is laid out ; or with accurate decimal 
reference to the earth's pecuhar figure, its polar com- 
pression, the amount thereof, and the most perft 
method of preserving the record for all men. 

Who but the Lord could have done that wondt 
above man's power (/(«n to do ? For, ■' Have ye ni 
known ? have yc not heard ? hath it not been told yi 
from the begiDning ? have ye not understood from the 
foundation of the world ? It is He that sitteth upon 
the circle of the earth." It is He also " Who hatk 
measured the waters iu the liollow of his hand, and 
meted out heaven with the span, and comprehended 

1 dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the 
mountains in scales aud the hills in a balance."^ 


im— ^H 


X lukli xL U, IV, Miill. 


\ JuViUi. 3,6. 


Cbap, XXV.] 



Who, indeed, but the God of Israel could havM 
performed this last-mentioned still greater wonder than 
any mere linear ineaaure, so far as its exceeding diffi- 
culty to men even in the present scientific generatioa 
is concerned ; and could have actually introduced, both 
into the King's Chamber Coffer, and the said chamber 
itttelf, an expression for the next most important quality, 
after size, of the earth-ball we live upon — viz., its 
"mean density;" besides expressing in the base dia- 
gonals of the Pyramid ibe enormous cycle of years 
composing the earth's disturbed rotation or precession 
period of thu equinoxes ; a period six times as long as 
the whole historic life of man yet accomplished, and 
the only known phenomenon for keeping longest records, 
miitabte at once to all degrees and states of men. 

Sdence not the Qreai PyraimJ^a Final Object. 

Yet with all this anioimt of science brought before 
Qs out of the Great Pyramid, yea even with all this .j 
quintessence of scientific results, let us not be run awuy 
with by the notion of some, — that to leach science, I 
was the beginning and end for which that building was < 
erected. Certain men, I do indeed know only too well, 
will not go astray in that direction ; for they have 
already wandered oH" into the opposite error of assum- I 
ing, that the many successive result.s deduced from the 1 
measures of the Great Pyramid, cannot he each and ] 
every one of them intentional, or indicative of any I 
wisdom of Divine Inspimtion, — because each of them, , 
after the first, was a necessary mathematical resolt | 
from, and consequence of, any Pyramid whatever, if it j 
hod a shape and size so far given. 

This reasoning is strangely short-sighted ; becaoso in 
the first place, both the shape and size required the supe- 

!* miDd to choose and decide 0^>i\q.', «sA ' 



second or third eosmical result haa been yet deduced, 
from any necemO'Ty subsidiary features in the size of the' 
Great Pyramid, without introducing, at the same time, a' 
second or thin! unit of measure of diverse order, and 
connected with the first, by no features of the mere 
geometry of the Pyramid, but rather by allied physical 
researches and Bibhcal readings. As, for instance, after 
the whole vertical height, undivided, was appropriated 
for sun-distance, — ^then the unit of a sacred Hebrew eulnt 
was employed for the days of the year when applied to 
the base-side length ; and finally the earth's axis com- 
mensurable iiick for the amount of a year's precession, ' 
in conjunction with the length of the base-diagonals.. 
While the earth's mean density, if expressed in the same 
inches cubed, is obtained, not from the same parts or 
any necessary deductions from those parts of the whole 
Pyramid, but from the totally independent features of 
the King's Chamber and the Cofl'er ; which were abso- 
lutely separate results of the mind of the designer of 
the whole structure, and are to be found in no other 
Pyramid, temple, or tomb whatever. 

Further Fallingn Away from Simj^le Fact aiul Truth. 

Another class of modem educationists, however, have 
lately deviated towards still another point of the compass 
of error ; as thus : — Tliroughout all Sir Isaac Newton's 
dissertation on cubits, he dwells on nothing more for- 
cibly, and explains nothing more clearly, than the abso- 
lute antithasis between the cubit of the Hebrews and 
the cubit of the Egyptians. Each of them was sacred to 
its own party ; but, while the sacredness of one of them 
is confirmed by Scripture, the sacredness of the other is 
sinfulness there ; it is profane in Scriptura Yet some 
I loefl iiave been lately deceWei \n\,o lM\c,>j'\a.^ ^3Ba.^. v^«x«< 



Cbai-. XKV.J the great Pl'RAMID. 


are just as many glorious cosmical coincidences in the 
size of the sat^'xed Great Pyramid and its part-i wlicn 
measured by the profane cubit of idolatrous f^^ypt, as 
by the cubit which Mo!r-s told the Isruelitus was iho 
cubit of the Lord iheir (iixt 

This cannot be, if tho Pyramid contains original 

Messianic allusions. But it may be ulmmt m ; for ogaio 

and again Scripture warns us to beware of temptation 

ftud the wiles of the tempter, — that sin can pMl on so 

Bpecious an apyieorance of sanctity, that almost all men 

shall be carried away by its devices ; and the danger 

I irill never be grejiter than in the very kst times 

I immediately preceding tho I^ord's Second Coming ; for 

Itken Anti-<^hrist shall appear personally, giving out 

rthat he is Christ, and working such signs and wonders 

H shall deceive, if it were possible, even tho very elect. 

A nearly parallel case, in the ancient lai]d of the 

I Great Pynimid (recorded doubtless for our guidance), ia 

I that of the enehuntments of Pharaoh'a Egyptian priesu 

I with their rods, against the heaven-perfoniMHi miracles 

l«f Aaron's rod. The enchantments of either side for 

k while were almost the same, for either i>arty turned 

Ethoir respective rods into ser{)ents large or sniall ; but 

I in the end, Aaron's grand rod swallowed up all tho 

I tinhol^ brood of jietty snakes from the r«ids of the t^|H 

I tian priests : and then those unhappy men were totally 

Ituuhle to go on any further with ihfir eticliuntments. 

Now apply this ease to the metrological rods still 
■ ■urviving, — viz., the sacn>d cubit of Moses ou one side. 
Iftod the profane cubit of Kgypt on the other, and botli 
J of them in the Great Pyramiil. Tho former has its finit 
Ligtand acknowledgment of its really niling there for the 
TLord its originator, in giving forth the days of the year, 
I when applied as the standard of measure to Uie aide of 
Lkho base of the whole structun> ; i.«., the aide of tba 
vaeat base, divided by the day* ol \ii<i vwa.^vtwi'Cw* 

length of the sacrtid cubit of Moses, and shows it to bfr' 
the 1 0"th part of the earth's semi-axis of rotation in 
length. But the profane cubit of Egypt is not so pro- 
duced, or producible by, or from, any of the leading 
dimensions either of the bodies of the solar system, or 
of the Great Pyramid, No, indeed, it is only by going 
to a much amuUer part — the King's Chamber, and 
chopping up its length into tvxnfy little bitu, that then 
an approximate representative of the profane cubit of 
Egypt, 2001, rather than 207, Pyramid inches long'^ 
is obtained ; and some secondary physical phenomi 
are said to be evenly comraensui-able tlierewith. 

But what Pyramid authority is there for any Chi 
tian, for sacred purposes, chopping up that grand unit, 
the King's Cluimbcr length, into twenty ports and pro- 
ducing a)l this vermin swarm? None that I know of, 
for there is no twenty marked in the room ; and the 
floor length is, iii actual fact, one noble whole, which 
no one should dare unanthorizedly to destroy as such. 

Yet still, what one given scientific reason, intellectual 
men are obstinate in asking, can be shown, for preserving 
that length of the King's Chamber untouched ? It « 
a fact, so fer ; but does it mean anything in, and by, 
that whole length ; a length which, so far as we can 
superficially see, says nothing in favour of the 'sacred 
Hebrew cubit, or decimal numeration, or notable Pyi*?^ 
mid parts, — but rather the contrary ? Up to JuIy^J 
1873, I myself had not the slightest idea ; and it was 
only when in pain and distress at the falling away of 
some of my best friends towards both the profane cubit 
of Eg^-pt, and the sidereal year of a few doctrinaires and 
two of the Pyramid measurers only, in place of going to 
the solar year of all humanity and of ail of the Pyramid 
measurers taken fairly, — that suddenly, not by my own 
penetration, but rather by a veil being withdrawn from 
my eyes, I isuddtii^y undeisUioi NtVuX V'bA. \niea. Ni^\& 


I me for eight years, as well as pulilishcd for six years to 
all the world, and yet liad uevur been guessed at either 
by me or the world. 

The length o( the King's Chamber, as taken from 
the mean of all my measures (because far more numerous 
than those of anyone else), is 41 21 32 I*yramid inches : 
it is moreover the longest granite line in the Pyramid, 

I »nd admirably adapted, with its level position, polished 
rectangular ends, and uniform temperature, for a good 
measure being made of it. Indeed, it is the bust 
modem measured line of the best preserved of the 
ancient parts of the whole Great Pyramid.* 

But still, demand the querists, why was not so con- 
spicuous a length made a i-oum/ number of sacred cubits ? 
Because it was intended to typify reasons as well 
ms facts, I am now enabled to reply ; for it expresses, — 
1, the leugth of the base-side of the whole Great Pyra- 
mid, agreeably with the mean of all the direct measured 
thereof ; 2, its vertical height ; 3, its ir shape ; 4. the 
metrological combination of sacred cubits and earth- 
oommensurable inches ; and, 5, the absolute length of 

I that sacred cubit which was ordained of God, in after- 
ages, to Moses and the Israelites. 

u King'* Chamber ■ 

n in " Lifii w 

rii'livit, uid wiih Iba idmd taken 
[ TOuglily. Tliey >ie ril^o givrn limiliiily St page 1TB or ihia book. Ilera, 
L wiTh the mnie originiil nuiiibi^ni. Uiey «ra lumeit fioiii Bi iliih iiitA Pyni- 
_!> .■ .. ^|_j ^^ tDfan Ukt^ mora exaiilv, or lo ihrea pUo>B of 

roduvinK the brenillhs (ibierved rIhii a neciMuiry rcfltiV- 
%\ fttim Mr. JoTDirti fiimpfrm'a iiumi of the hquurea (-uh pogf 
[ 181), UiH brmdlh or th« Fhmnbvr dihv b« mfsired to be tbcotetiiall)!' and 
[ •xauLly lialT iif Ihe luiiKlh, auil wjib tbe following re*ult lor Ulb fliul 
u of Uie whole : — 

n of all UiB clemcuU toiictrt^i =. VVl'W;!^-"' 



[Paw V. , 

All these several things out of one and the same sel 
of numbers ? 

Yea, out of one and the same set of numbers, whi 
used on certain principles of calculation of which plai 
indications are given on the walls of the ante-chambi 
to the King's Chamber by the original builders ; via, 
the diameters of a circle and square of equal area wii 
each other ; together with a reference of this theorem to 
a length of four times 103 inches and a fraction long.* 

That length can, of all lengths thereabouts, of course 
be no other than the 41 21 32 of the King's Chaml 
floor itself. 

Now 412132 is, no doubt, an awkward-lookiny 
fractional and uneven number, hearing no easy or 
self-evident proportion to the known length of base-sii 
or vertical height of Great Pyramid, or to Pyramid 
numbers of inches, or cubits, or to the value of 
But, following the hint given in the ante-chamberj 
(Captain Tracey's most suggestive discovery), ani 
calling those 412132 Pyramid inches 4121 
Pyramid, or sacred, cubits (of 25 such inches each),- 
consider that number, I say, of cubits the diameter oi 
circle ; and then, — 

* Four linen of thiit longtb, deeply uid grandlj- cut. &ra on the aoatll 
« nil of [he ante- chamber. Wa h&ve nlrendy Uken tliem lu aymboliung 
K di^isiDii of that wall-»urf&ce, trannvenely into S ; M ther <lo, ftnd tuve 
J«d iia from that circumslarico to rotoguiue the division of lie walls of the 
King's Cbnuilier into flvu couTses. But thny do not, therefore, cease ti> be 
t'lur lilies ; four lines, too, of & certain 1eTi)^h. The eis< t ori|;inal 
luii({th is now a problem, for ibe lover part ol' them is broken ftway in 
the guuerul modurn brvuka)^ of the tup of the nnte-diainber's south. 
doorway, aiiil it may bave Iiten us muvh as 105'6 inches (via., the dif- 
leroDce liutireun Iha hHigl-t of the duorway and that of the niile-cbam- 
ber), if the lines ware tontinued to tbo very comer. But wliile that 
original couipluteneas is not pruvtd, the lOfi'G is quite close enough to 


aid ^^ 


ch amber' H purponei 
Kick's aiamber. t. 
be obluined irom tWt luugtb,! 

itanl from any other computing line, for all the 
umre eyuopsis of wbst is to be found L 
ou-^t'i ihu 413 13'!, .wA leave 111) on IJCu 




(1). That circle has equal area with a square (see 
computation below •), each side of which measureii 
S65'242 + &c. sacred cuhits ; or is equal in those cubits 
to the length of the socket side of the Great Pyramid 
from the mean of all the measures ; and equal also, in 
days, to the universally acknowledged number of days 
and parts of a day in a mtjan solar tropical year; i.e., 
a solar year for the general times and season purposfX 
of all mankind. 

Next (2), consider that same length of 412132 
cubits to be the side of a square, — that square is of ' 
equal area with a circle whose radius= 23S'520-f & 
sacred cubits ;'f also = the already concluded height of 
the Great Pyramid from all the measures ; equal also, 
when reduced back from cubits to inches, very nearly 
to the mean of the iwo distinct heights which the 
King's Chamber so curiously possesses in simultaneouB i 

• 412 133 

-diamrtorofucitcU . 
Find lU HFC* . 

' log. a-6lfi03flS 


Add log. of ^ . . . 

. - e-89S08» 

li^i;. arpB of reqairrd circle 


Find length 

r^„.r.»I,,«]m.. . . 

. ;)fi-i2sieM 

\f%. lid? rMjiiired 

Nat, iiumlierof«det«|>iiind. 

. = 2«!5812 
. . 3CS"Jil+Jtr. 

t <iai3i 

= «Joof.qi«™ .... 
Fiod UM of that *au>r» 

Log.ofuMrequimi . . 

^ t<>R. s-flisoasa 

. „ i M007M 

Find ndm> 

f circla of equal ue* 


8abt«cl log. of ^ . . 

Kilt. mitnbiTtorditmatn 
Radiiu r«qmt«d 

. — » 8060899 

-r » 

. — a-«87*fll» 



P'abt Tj| 

I'xistence ; or to double tlie 11(J"26 length of the unte 
chamber floor. 

Further (3), the diameter of a circle havi 
232"520+&c. for radius ; {i^to) theperiphery of aaquai 
whose side length = 365 '242 + &c, of the same unifal 
: : 1 : TT, the grand and leading Pyramid proposition. 

{4.) When Pyramid inches inside the King's" 
(Chamber are found to tally with sacred cuhits measuretl 
outside the Great Pyramid to the 1,000th part of 
unity, not only in giving a coincidence in numbers, . 
but in assigning a good scientific reason for them,— 
we cannot but allow that those PjTamid inches anv 
those sacred cubits were acknowledged and used by tin 
designer of the entire structure. And finally, 

(5.) The absolute length of the sacred cubit of thai 
Oreat Pyramid and Mosea, is deducible now to the teit-fl 
thousandth of an inch from a direct measure of thsfl 
most glorious and best preserved part of the ancicnti 
structure, viz., the King's Chamber, on being simplyj 
computed according to the modem determination 
the value of v and length of the year ; and comes oQtfl 
from the local measure of 413'o45 British inches to be"! 
250250+&C. British inches. 

In which case that whole quantity of length of thbl 
King's Chamber floor has an importance of symbology ' 
and signification in its intfgrity, which enables it in a 
moment to overcome and swallow up all that artificial 
brood of little, useless, profane cubits which ill-advised 
persons had attempted to manufacture out of its supposed 
cutting up ; and defies tkem to produce, in terms of their 
units, or by means of their euehautments, overthrown . 
hke those of the old Egyptian priests, anything of eqnal 1 
importance to men, religion, and history, — either iitfl 
the Pyramid's structure or the cosmicnl order of nature.1 

These modem PharanuistR have even brought them-^ 
, selves under more solemn. cogtuxravWi ^«^ — 


OUT RniiHB, stith tha Lnid; bring forth Tourilrongieiuoiu. 
f MHh the »'<<{ ot Jnc'>)i. 

" I>t them brini: thecn fnrth Nnd ihew ua whut nhHll hnpppn : let Ihnni 
snow the rurmfr thiriga, what they h». Ihiit nre mnv cotibkIft Ihiin. itnJ 

luinh ilL 31, 22. 

, things which the scientific and sacrod thoorj- of 
Itbe Great Pyraoiid seems to enunciate in its second 
Ipart, — 

This second part of the end wherefore the Orent 
i^ramid was built, I have already said, a{>{)€ars to be^u 
;somewhat thus ; viz., to show the reality, and the settled, 
•8 well as long pre-ordained, times and seasons for encli 
«f the two comings of Christ. Both for that one which 
"" been, i.e., which was 1873 years ago, and under whoie 
then commenced spiritual dispensation we are still Hviuji ; 
and also for that other one, in kingly glory and power, 
which is yet to beam upon us. 

Whtn, that second coming has been appointed to take 
place, must be a most momentous question ; and is one to 
wliich I can only reply, that, so far as the Great Pyramid 
seems to indicate at present in the Grand Gallery, the 
j. existing Cliristian dispensation must first close {in some 
krtial manner or degree), the saints be removed, and 
period of trouble; and darkness commence ; for how 
long, it is difficult to say, seeing that the scale of a 
Pyramid inch to a year appears to change there. 

Ver^' long the time can hanlly be. if the PjTamid 
standards of the metrology of that universal kingdom, 
tthe only succes.<iful universal kingdom that there cvw 
'"will be on earth, the kingdom of the Lord Christ, are 
Already beginning to appear from out of the place of 
■ecurity where they were deposited in the beginning of 
the world 

But that place of- security, the Great Pyramid, is in 
vpt. Is Egypt ready to receWe xU« \«rt*VX 





Of Egypt in the latter day, incompreheiiRibly woi 
derful tbinga are recorded in Scripture. It is apparently 
to be the first of the three, — Egypt, Assyria, aod Israel ; 
and the Lord of Hosts shall bless it, saying, " Blessed be 
Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my h&uds, 
and Israel mine inheritance." (Isaiah six. 24, 25.) 

But previously to that day, and after the Great Pyramid 
shall have become manifested as a sign and a witness to 
the Lord of Hosts,— there shall go up a great cry unto 
the Lord from the land of Egypt ; " for they shall cry 
unto the Lord because of the oppressors, and he shall 
send them a saviour and a great one, and he shall deliver 
them. And the Ixird shall be known to Egypt, and the 
Egyptians shall know the Lord in that day, and shall 
do sacrifice and oblation ; yea, they shall vow a vow 
unto the Lord and perform it. And the Lord shall 
smite Kgypt ; he shall smite and heal it ; and they shall 
return even to the I^ord, and he shall be entreated of 
thein and shall heal them." 


The X'cwPolu-y of Old Egypt. ^M 

Now what is this great cry to go up unto the Lord 
from Egypt and because of the oppressors ? 

Of old, all men who drank the waters of the Nile on 
either sirfe of the lower part of the course of that river, 
say from Assouan, say even &om the Second Cataract in 
Nubia down to the sea. i.e. , from the very furthest distance 
that can pretend to any Coptic civilization or people,- — 
all these men were considered to belong to Egj'pt. 

But within the last few years an insane ambition, or 
a hardening of the heart, has touched Uie Court at 
Cairo, ta apply the ancient proverb to length all along 
the stream, as well as distance on either side of the 
lower part only ; and to maintain, that all lands through 
wiiieli the Nile flows, aui faom "«\i\»i\i \t comes (though 

chw.xxv.] the great pyramid. 



those lands have remained utterly unknown to, and un- 
visited by, Egj'ptians from tlie beginning of tUe world), 
belong by right to Egypt. The main reason, as yet 
given forth, why modem Egypt should have a right to 
attack and take possession of the other Nile countries, 
and not they, take Egypt, seenas to be. — that Egypt is the 
only one of them all which has astonishud and dt'ljghted 
mankind (but offended God) through forty centuries with 
triumphs of ornamental architecture, glories of sculpture, 
and mysteries of painting and wisdom. Wherefore every 
zealous paid servant of the Egyptian state has now to 
argue this case to the outside world ; and to maintain 
victoriously against all comers, that Uis Highness the 
Khedive, being the direct successor of Rameses the 
Great, is fully justified in sending up armies to make 
war on all men and countries so far as they may be 
found eveutuully on the course of the Nile ; because he 
lias an hereditary right forcibly to annex them all, even 
right away into the southern hemisphere, and bring 
them under Egypt's inevitable Pharaonic rule. 

The scheme has a certain air of grandeur about it ; 
so majestically ignoring all ordinary ideas of wiuit con- 
stitutes a aisxtx belli; and the very notion of present- 
day Turks, who cannot draw at all, and are bound by 
their rehgion to eschew everything in the stiape of 
human portrikituru, — the idea of them of all men claiming 
the reword due to Egypt's ancient artistical skill, and her 
sculptured idolatry too, — is rich beyond expression. But 
the wisdom wherewith the subtle measures for accomplish- 
ing the purpose ore being tnk(>u, is a feat transcending 
diplomacy; and yet, — "the Egj'ptians ore men, and not 
God ; and their horses flesh, and not spirit ; * wherefore 
out of those very sttrps and means, as tlie jiride that gueth 
before a fall, it may bo that the cIusq uf the Turkish 
rule will come. 



Slave-holderB possess Egypt. 

In setting up again, ami in a new French garden, 
the officials of the Khedive are now doing, the atati 
of Barneses, and the stone and metal idok of old 
in order to claim aesthetic credit with European di 
tan4i (who themselves dabble far too much 
accursed thing), these Egypto-Turka are losing their 
only claim, as Mohammedans, to any favour from the 
God of Israel over the reprobate, image and relic-wor- 
shipping, Christians of the East. These degraded m< 
being apparently the wretches who, though plagued 
the locust and scoqiion-like Saracen armies that pro^ 
ceeded out of the smoke from the bottomless pit, yet, 
to the last, "repented not of the works of their hands, 
that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold 
and silver, and brass and stone, and of wood ; which 
neither can see, nor hear, nor walk." (Rev. ix. 20.) And 
the Khedive's niso of sending up a large army to the 
sources of the Nile, under an Englishman forsooth, to 
annex all the negro countries he should discover, to the 
slave-power of Egypt,— for the pretended purpose of 
putting down the slave-trade, when its result can only ' 
to give into tlie slave-holding hands of the Egyplij 
Government more extensive autl uncontrolled supplies' 
of slaves than ever, — while that ruse carries deception 
to a point beyond which probably the arch-deceiver 
himself could no further go, it may be the very item that 
was required to fill the catalogue of woe, and bring the 
question of the slavery of mankind to its last footing. 

The Enghsh emancipation was great ; the Russian 
greater ; the American still greater ; but the Egyptian, 
may prove to bo the greatest of all ; for with it, the slavery 
of Constantinople and of the Mohammedans generally, 
will fall too ; and that slavery of theirs includes anothn, 
honor within itself, toi ^je^oni o.\\ xWtCktiatian slav( 





^Bver did ; for it requires Government manufoctorieR for 
converting boys into odious miuihines, fit to guard the 
multitudinous hareoms of rich Mohammedans ; and the 
pains, the woes, the slaughter amongiit the poor imitweiits, 

I before the fell piir|>oae of their tjTant masters is accom- 
plished, can be known to Qod alone. 
" Oh, but when the slaves do reach Cairo {for these 
faeinous manufactories are a long way up the river), they 
ftre well treated," say some would-be apologists for thfi 
secret system of slave-marts which they know go on in 
Egypt, in spite of all the counter protestations to Europe 
by a Government which profits by, and wws, them. " When 
tiie slaves do reach Cairo," say these well-meAning but 
weak apologists, " they get considerate masters, enter rich 
households, and pass far more easy, comfortable lives, 
than any of the independent Aj-ab, or Coptic, fellahs in 

P their agricultural villi^es." 
" But the principle is bad," insists a man of sterner 
mould, "and the results must therefore be degrading 
to the master as well as the slave ; not to say anything 
of all the previous and some following cruellies, which 
tball make so many afflicted ones in the land of %Tjit. 
cry to the Lord because of the oppres.sors. And though 
the Tjord may hare long tarried, the time will come, and 
the Great Pj-ramid indicates it to be near, when, in some 
supranatural manner, God sAoM «7irf them a saviour atut 
a grmt one, and lu: vlutll lielivtr thevi." 

The Egyjit 0/ the Lord Chrutt. 

I If, then, the present possessors of Egyjit be not those 
whom the Lord Christ is likely to say (at least, in their 
!sent and most unreponting state), when His pi-rsonal 
gn begins, — " Blessed be Egypt, my people, and 
ayiia, the work of my hauda, v-u^ Iscu^, -u^t&'a 


heritance," — who are those favoured ones, in and 
Egypt, likely to be \ 

Of the present locnhties of the ancient Assyrians, 
do not know much, thougli there is a growing idea that, 
they have drifted with the human current of history 
westward from their original habitats, and are now to 
be found amongst those whom the ethnologists delight 
to call Indo-Germans ; but who seem phlegmatically con- 
tent to be, and remain, an iuluud, continental people 
without a single foreign possession. But of Israelites 
oiu- nation is now becoming, even year by year, through' 
means of the works of John Wilson and Edward Hint^ 
fer less blind than it has been through all the previoi 
period of its occupation of these Isles of the Sea whii 
contain us now ; from whence too we have overflow) 
both to rule mth order, enhghtened justice, and a firm 
hand among many Eastern nations, and to occupy and 
make to blossom the "desolate heritages" of distant 
parts of the earth. While the resemblance of oui 
earliest Saxon, or Eykravnute, metrology to the sys! 
of the Great Pyramid, both gives us a species of " Inhi 
ance" interest in that building, and may include som»<' 
thing else still more noble in connection with the coming 
universal Messianic kingdom : when, " All the ends of 
the world shall remember, and turn unto the Lord : and, 
all the kindreds of the nations shall woi-ship before him.'j 
That is, when sueh kingdom of the Lord's shall at 
be established. But before then, — what t 

Only last year, when the Abb^ Moigno, in Paris, was 
advocating amongst his countrymen, with a heavenly 
patriotism higher than all patriotism usually so-called, the 
weights and measures of the Great PjTamid ; and pleading 
for them as belonging to that government whose Father 
and King is God,- — he was met by a noted savant of the 
Academy with the argument, " No 1 let us keep to our 
own invented Freui;la Hie\.Te ■, \«ii».msri Qn^ai. "EKltain, 



dtea ^ 









• OUX^— 



ds of 


with an inch so very like the Great Pyramid's inch, 
would have a glorifying advantage over us if that ancient 
system were to be universally adopted."* 

Alas! has national rivalry or national envy driven 
modem Frenchmen to so suicidal a policy as this ! 
And at the same time, has national apathy, if not 
apostacy, brought some Englishmen so low, that it is 
even noxOy within these last very few years, that they 
have begun to talk about abolishing their own heredi- 
tary measures, and propose to throw in their metrolo- 
gical lot with the all-compelling republic, to be perhaps for 
a moment, under the Communistic French metric system, 
and amid the general drifting (which is now going on) 
of all the classically descended nations into infidelity. 

If, on the one hand, in the coming contest of the 
standards of measure, the promises of Go<l made to our 
nation of old, are abundant beyond what the heart of 
man could conceive ;-^on the other, our responsibilities, 
perhaps dangers, are most grave. For though on one 
side we are Scripturally told (in connection with the pre- 
parations for setting up the Messiah's kingdom), that it 
shall be " when God has bent Judah for Him, filled 
the botv with Ephraiin, and raised up thy sons, O Zion, 
(Israelites of both houses,) against thy aoruf, Greece^ 
and made thee as the sword of a mighty man," — 

Let us *'hQ not high-minded but fear," when on the 
other side we also read, in the same undying scroll, — 
" The children of Ephraim, being armed and carrying 
bows, turned back in the day of battle." 

May the Lord in his mercy, preserve all those who 
have once put their hand to tlie plough, from ever 
looking back 

• "Let Mondes," KoTembei 7, 1872, p. 393. 















I^HIS fine p:(Eunple of ons nf the old casmg-etones of tho 
■^ Oroat PjTomid, is a recent arqutsitioTi in ftirther illuB- 
tratioD of Chapter II., and vas discovered by Ur. Waymuan 
Dixon, C.E., in 1872. loose, and forming part of the mediteral 
hill of rubbish on the north side of the Great I^omid. 

Not only is it the largett caaing-stono fragment which has 
yet been hronght to Europe, but it has this superior feature 
of interest above all known examples ; viz., that U has 
portions of the two original, worked, md mr/aeet, as well of 
the top, bottom, and sloping front. 

It is therefore the only easing-ntone from the Great ryramid 
of which we know, or may measure, the anrii>nt length from 
one end side to the othET. For although the far larger 
casing-etonee «i« tilu discovered l»y Colonel Tlownrd-Vyse near 
tho middle of the north foot of the Oroat IVramid, mighl 
ensily have been mea«urod in similar length, — and p^rhnps 
■were, before being misehievoiisly broken to pieces by night 
depredators, as related by the Colonel, — still no actual 
measures of t)ie In^lh of those stones are extant, so far as I 
■m aware. 

There is not indeed any theoretical neceesity, in view of the 
first and chief purpose for whici casing-stones of the Omot 
Pyramid are usually interrogated (viz., the angle of alopf- or 
bevel of the front, compared with the horizontal planes of the 
top and bottom surfact<8 of tlio stone), that we »/mitlJ know 
their length from side-end to side-end. Ifutin the example of 
this, Mr. Waynman Dixon's casing-stone, when ila length was 
at last, and very recently, measured by him, it was found so verf 
doae to the fomial quantity of 25 tncViea, «» VnwvXaiA^j Vi "t«« 


some queBtion whether that length had been inUndri. For 
siiuh intentioii would have been eq^uivalent in that place, both 
to exhibiting the leng^tb uf the linear symbolical standard of 
the Great Pyrnoiid, and showing, by its proportion to the 
whole base-aide length of the monumont, tho number of days 
and parts of a day in a year, — a piece of practical astronomy 
for in advance of all men in that early ago. 

This at present unique stone, then, having been kindly pre- 
sented to me by Mr. Waynman Dixon, has been formally. 
deposited in the Library of the Eoyol Observatory, Edin- 
burgh, at 16, Royal Terrace, and ia roughly of the folioi 
leading dimenaions : — 

SO'S inohes hi^h, trom Uval bottom to level top anr&ce i 
3S-7 I, deep, or from front to back, at the bottom \ 

20-3 „ „ , top; 

26'2 „ in stopD, from botlom foot up to top of sloping bevelled 
li'fi „ long, from side end to Bide eud, at Itout. 

But on attempting to arrive at much accuracy of measure- 
ment, tliere are several further details to be taken into 
account, aa thus : — The original worked surface forming the 
back of the sfoae, is entirely gone or broken away, and only 
fragments (sometimes much loss than the half) of each of the 
other five worked eurfaces remain. Hence a neceHsary pre- 
liminary to any exact measure proved to be, the making up, 
of each broken surface-plane to its ancient completeness oC. 
superficies by applying thereto either a flat drawing-board of 
a sheet of plate-glaas held in contact position. 

Sven this method, unfortunately, was not quite accurate 0|^' 
fair to the ancient niaeons, because the full truth of their ei 
faces was intended by them to be tested only by the cii>cuiB< 
ferential border thereof, — the central region of every surface, 
except the bevelled Blojje, being slightly lowered beneath the 
borders; and in no ease is there now any opportunity of 
measuring all across one of these surfaces, or fW)m border to 
border. Making, however, between such parts of any worked 
surface as were still extant, the beat compromise which thq 
case admitted of, the following results have been obtained 
since the earlier chapters of this book were written : — 

1. The top and Ixittom surfaces of the stone are not quito>^ 
paraJiel ; for, while their mean distance apart (or height) 

'^ ^- 





(1) At back of *loDa 

raj At front top . . . 
(3) At front top, pro- 

Tuiticallf uverDie 
fhiDt fuot of the 

= 2078 

= 20-71 

2. Tlie errors, or variations of height seen above, are en- 
dontly of a nature which would have tended to beinp cor- 
rected, had the back borders of both bottom and top surfa«ee 
been in place. But it is otherwise with the length of the 
Btone from side-end to eide-ond, both at different heights, and 
still more at different distances from front to back ; for the 
error there is not only in the other direction, but is far 
larger ; and is directly of such a kind, as to make the back of 
the stone broader than the front, or to cause it to bo woilged ut 
and hdd fast when built into place. And this was the very 
feature of Great Pj-ramid masonr)', combined often with stone 
cramps, which gave Colonel Vyse bo much trouble when 
excavating into the south side of the monument; for ho could 
only get each stone out by breaking it into pieces i» ntu, and 
drawing it forth piecemeal. Accordingly we find for Hr. 
Dixon's casing-stone, — 

Jjeng-tli from cnil eide to end «idi^, ■ 


= w-srii». 

back top 

-27-8 „ 

front top 

~ M-a .. 

front at m 

ddie level 

- M-B „ 

front foot 

■t lu*Mt leve 

= a»-9 .. 

3. Henro the sloping or bevelled front of the stone cannot 
be said to be accurately, or simply, 25 inches long from aide 
end to side end. It is indeed of that length at a level of 
about 6 inches above its base, because it is 03 inch shorter 
than tliat at the veiy base, and 1*2 inchee longer at tlie top; 
but that is a very difierent thing from being 25 inohea bruad 
all the way up and all the way down. 

4, The vertical height of tlie stone having been determined 
=: 20'fi3 inches, to within 01 inch at tbo b<tet part of the 
block for measuring the slope length of the iMirclled front ; 
and the latter having been determined to bn somewhere 

_ between 26-22 and 2621 inches ; that is equivalent to saj-Ing 
L,(after trigonometrical computation) that the an^^le of alt^ijA ia 
1 SV S3' 16' and 51' 49' f>b' . Kni S)tie*a t^asm.-olOM 




evidently con lin the theoretical angle of the Great Pyrftmid, 
61° 51' 14", heiween them very fairly. 

The angle oC the stone might perhaps have been obtained 
cloaer than the limits of the 3 minutea above given, had 
the mass been either larger, or in that eseeptionally fine 
Btate of preservation which Colonel Vyae'a magnificent ex- 

amples f 

other oxampl' 

experienced i 

testified to. 1 

certainly wea. 

parts of if« &o 

one place, thei 

too in the Mo 

general surface, f 

if not specially guarded against, by 0'05 of a 

there to 8' of angle. 

"Wherefore it is more than over to be regretted, that 
Colonel Vyse's two colossal casing- stones, so exquisitely 
preserved almost. intact for 4,000 years, or from the primeval 
and prehistoric days of the earth down to the year 1837 a.d., 
have been wilfully destroyed within the last forty years of 
the scientific and educated age of the modem world, for no 
known object. 

I. when he di8t>overod them. But this 

iBsing, besides having 

3e by falls or blows (as 

bases of fi-acturoa) has 

1 i., cYcu. on the best -preserved 

; ™ .^at ■ the bottom thereof, in 

(a very unusual feature 

.J bly projecting above the 

,,? of vitiating Ihe result of measure, 

n inch, amounting 



GREAT PYRAMID. By Letter dated 8th December, 

(a) the coffer's pathway into its present abode. 

Preliminary Explanation by P. 8. 

Although it is usually held, on the sepulchral theory of the 
Egyptologists, that the passages of the Great Pyralnid were 
formed, both in size and angle, for nothing but the convenience 
of introducing the coffer, or sarcophagus, to its present final 
resting-place, yet there are some remarkable limitations 
opposed to that idea by loading mechanical features, thus : — 

1. The coffer being, without any lid, of the same height 
as the door of the King's Chamber, within the fraction of an 
inch, — ^and an orthodox granite sarcophagus lid having always 
stood 6 or 7 inches higher than the sjurcophagus itself, — the 
coffer could only have been introduced lidless, or not in 
sarcophagus fashion at all. 

2. Even lidless, the coffer could not have been got in under 
the comer in the ceiling of the cntrance-passage when tr}'ing 
to pass from that passage into the first ascending passage. 

Both of these objections are gener^y admitted by every one 
who has been at the Chreat Pyramid, measuring-rod in hand ; 
but the latter of the two difficulties was recently sought to be 
obviated by the suggestion thrown out by a London engineer 
— that the coffer had never been required to turn the above- 
mentioned comer, because, instead of being introduced into 
the Pyramid by the descending entrance-passage, it had hp* 
brought into an unknown chaxa\>Qi qu \2^^ \^«aa \sh^ ^ 


u-hence he conceiv&d that an asopnding passage Rommeneed b 
rise, in the exact angular line of the first aacendiug passagfti 
produced diiwnwards. through the floor of the entranCQ 
pafinaga and the maflonry beneath it. 

This would evidently have been a complete method < 
avoiding the one alleged difficulty of turning a cc 
indeed such a lower chamber and continuation 
really existed ; but though the engineer went out to thai 
Great Pyramid, and bored in divers direftious, he could tJ' 
cover no symptoms of either one or the other. The questioB 
was then started, whether, even if such a passage did exis^i 
the coffer could pass end first (and alao without a lid) through 
the whole length of the known and existing Pyramid poasagea 
to the King" a Chamber. , And then came up the circumstance, 
hitherto chronicled only in " Life and Work," that the lowest 
part uf the first ascending passage is so much contracted in 
breadth, in order to enable the conical granite block there to 
act OS a cork -portcullis, that the coffer could not get through 
by an amount of about 0'3 of an inch. J 

The engineer, however, refused to accept these measures,' I 
and aiWr going to the place, announced that he had found J 
that the coffer \eovli pass the contracted point by a quarter of '^ 
an inch clear ; a statement which both raised hopes again in 
many minds that the lower chamber and passage really 
existed, and even produced some indignation against my 
measures in "Life and Work " being to rrroneom, "that by 
themselves they would have prevented any search being made 
for so promising an addition to our knowledge of the Pyra- 
mid's interior." 

Now my measures of the breadth of the ooffer, and the 
breadth of that contracted part of the first ascending passage, 
had not heen made either relatively to each other or with the 
knowledge of any important question depending on a com' J 
bination of the two ; each had been measured by itself ia 4 
absolute terms at the several times 1 was in each part of th« I 
Pyramid referred to ; — and they were only confronted with each I 
other several years after the thus separately obtained reaulta I 
had been printed. Knowing therefore, on one aide, how pos- f 
sible it is for any one to make a larger error in two separata I 
absolute measures, than in a difference; but on the 
aide, that no one who meaBUtoi ttie ftuA of the cofi'er a 
*nd baatily in the present iaj, -woviii. ft*A t\\iisi *iia « 

n.] APPENDICES. +9i 

' breadth of that eud, or the present breadth of the chief part 
of the length of the ressel (by reason of tfio chipping that 
has been perpetrated oU the way up and down the comer 
edges, requiring special methods of elimination, and not ea«y 
ones, in the darkness of the King's Chamber), — knowing, I 
•ay, these conflicting practical difficulties, I requested Dr. 
Or&nt. if hie manifold offi[:ial employments should permit him 
SO to do, to go out to the Great I'yraniid from Cain>, and make 
a new and carofnl mensuration of the two breadths, one after 
the other, with the same measuring-rod, and with attention 
to the coffer's peculiarities of fracture mentioned abo»e. 
This he has now happily done, and describee thus, — 
" On December 5th I went out to the l^ramid, taking Mr. 

[ WaUer (an English dentist in Cairo) with me. For the 
Weadth of the lower end of the ascending passage, I measured, 
not as you did, the breadth of the portcullis stopping it up, 
Imt the breadth uf the imssage itself, at that point. Not, huw- 
«rer, that that should make any sensible difference, for I 

i don't think it would be possible to insert the thinnest kind of 

I paper between the portcullis and the passage wall. 

" The result of my measurement c-onfirms yours, via., the 
ler in King's Chamber, although turned strai^t into axil 

I of ascending passage, oould not have been passed along it. 

. LowiB Em or Aacccoixa Piuaok. mubdud cmih to Kobth Evd 
BuiTiBs Ihcbbs. 

Rr«iulth 6vrD o>i8t to west, acrou top or north edg« . 3S-38 

Ditto, uross middle 3S'44 

Ditto, kcrou bottom or south ad^a 3H-I1 

CorFEB in KiMo's Chajibbb. 

Breadth of nnrth end 3S-GJ 

Breadth ot south end SSTi 

"These are my measures, and I can vouch for tlieir accu- 
y within i inch, 

?Z fiunk this strengthens the theory of the coffer having 
? other purjmse than that of a sarcophitgits, as all 
i have been introduced to their chambnrB ^ Ikt 
I leailiny lo Iheoi.'' 



Writes Dr. Grant ; " Mr. Waller has takeu for me a perfect 
ooat or rathet impression of tlid boss on tlie gfanite leaf, also 
of a normal p irt of the ante-chaailier, also of a normal part of 
wall of King' ■ fllinrn>i«p Bill! nlan nf ft nonunl part of outside 
of coffer, 

" These slir Fer has had a finer poliafa 

than the wi niug it ; still the King's 

Chamber hb volished. onl^ the granite 

appears of a it of vhich the coffer is 


"Neither th ler, granito loaf, nor boss 

have bi"'ii jiolisJiea, uiit simply very awurnt'lv jjitli'-d. Be- 
tween granite leaf and north wall of ante-chamber no attempt 
seems to have been made even to level tho surface of that 
part of the wall, so that on the east side there is <juite a large 
bulging on the granite wall." 

(c) This part of the letter refers to a small peculiarity of 
one of tho five " pigeon-holes " on either side of the chasm at 
the north beginning of the Grand Gallery (see Plate XIII.), 
and also to the oblique, cruciform stones let into the wall, 
over against each of the holes in the ramp, beginning with 
the fourth from the north end. But thia inquiry is not yet 
concluded (see p. 380). 




Thx late veneralile and Rot. Dr. Leider, of Cairo, enlarged 
much to me, ia December, 1864, on the bsaiitj (in German- 
Engtisli) uf a little pyramid whicti was just viiiible oa the 
veatern horizon, or far away in tbe Libyan desert, aa seen 
from the sunuuit of the Great Pyramid. 

In April, 1865, on ascending that monument, I rerified the 
•ooount 8o far, that there waa out there in that direction a 
conical eminence, which might be either a natural hill or a 
xounded and mined pyramid, I could not, at so great a dis- 
tance, eay which. 

Only after my return home did I Mly appreciate the 
Angularity, if the eminence was a pyramid, of such an erec- 
tion bein^ found so for away &om the desert frontier line of 
Egypt, when all her other pyramids conform closely thereto. 
I made inquiries, therefore, far and wide as to any traveller, 
living or dead, haTing been into the desert in that dirwtion, 
but without success. In the meanwhile, both Dr. and Mrs. 
Leider were dead ; and throe dififerent parties whom I had 
succeesively primed on this particular pjTamid subject when 
they were going out to Egypt, failed to perform their proniiaed 
little piece of exploration. 

At last, in 18'72, Mr. Waynman Dison. fortified by the 
companionship of Ih-, Grant, of Cairo, took the field. A for- 
midable party of tlii^ir speuial aojuaintances among the 
pyramid Arabs rushed to accompany them, on camels, with 
long guns and ancient battle-axea ; and after a tcn-houra* 
march into the thirsty and barren desert, westward from 
the Great Pyramid, they reached the conical mound — the 
Toritable Dr. Leider'e pjTamid; but, m it turned out, not 
ft true or built pyramid, or artificial Ktxu>Aax« iiA vkj >dsi&.- 



t near the t 

to which fact a ri^ef of rock 
mit sufficiently and immediately 

A uBefij .egative was thus given to sundry pyramid epecu- 
latioiLB, o I passage ^m Josepbiis, touching the second of 
the two ( itific monumenta built by tlie righteous descend- 
ants of f in their anti-Cainito visit to the land of Siriad, 
whitih hai " ' ■■ ■ » veraJ yeaw ; and the party 
was rewB ral-history science by find- 
ing doae sf a petrified forest, in the J 
shape of trunks of trees ; some of ' 
them Ten and others worn out of \ 
shape by ^ desert sand which they < 
had been Waynmao I>L\on and Dr. ' 
Grant hs .. • this geological discovery of 
theirs sevenii iimos sint^e tiinn, a further niid fuller account 
may, I believe, shortly be expected from their pens. 



CULATIONS: Ts A Letter from Himself. 

Edinburoh, \bth DeeemheTf 1873. 

My dear Sir, 

I have the pleasure to return the four letters on Qreat 
Pyramid measures which you kindly sent me on 8th current^ 
and in doing so would take the opportunity oi mentioning 
the following points, some of which you may not have 

As before stated, the diagonal c^ either end of- King^s 
Chamber bears to length of Pyramid's base the same pro- 
portion nearly, that one day bears to the number of days in a 
lunation. The error is however too great to be neglected, 
for it makes the base-side 9127*84 Pyramid inches, instead 
of 9131*05, or more than three inches too short. Yet the 
relation seems intentional ; for when all four sides of the base 
are taken as the measure of a lunation, then, instead of the 
above-mentioned diagonal, we have the circuit of the King's 
Chamber floor— equal to 12 of the chamber's units, and also 
to the 24 arris lines of the coffer — as a not altogether 
unfitting representative of the cycle of a day. To represent 
the year on the same scale would however require a circle 
with radius 71,871 inches. In connection with this it maybe 
noted that the Sling's Chamber floor consists of two squares, 
each of which has an area in exact decimal miniature of the 
surface of a sphere described about the sun, at the mean 
distance of the earth ; in other words, each half of the floor 
would receive I -10^ of the rays of a vertical sun, shining 
constantly upon it, or the whole floor would intercept the 
same fraction of its rays, shining 12 hours out of the 2A^ 
This decimal relation is a simple deduc^on tcora^H^^H^^Rst^ssk 

whioh connects tlie King's Cliambfr'a proportions with the 
Fyramid's vertical height, and that vhich connects the 
vertical height with the sun's mean distance. The division 
of the said sphere -surface into 10^^ equal areas is in amanner 
contemplated in the origin of the Pyramid : for, dividing the 
sphere's equator into 10" equal parts for meridians, and its 
axis into 10" equal parts for latitude planes, — these parts 

will be respectively 365-242 and ' ^ inches. The portioa 
of the sun's surface corresponding to one of these ports 'n-ould 
be about -9148 square inch. 

It is a fact curious enough in itself, and which perhaps 
fumishod the Pyramid builders with a natural precedent for 
their extensive adaption of the same ratio, — that the volume 
of tha sun is eo nearly 1 -1 0^ of that of the sphere just referred 
to ; tlie mean radius for the sun which would give tliat ratio 
exactly, being 426,272 British miles, FAjdi which it would 
^o follow that the sun's vohtme is 10"" times that of s 
sphere whose radius is the height of the Pyramid ; for 
.latter sphere is to the sphere of the earth's mean distant 
from sun, as 1 : 10»'» ; and lO**^' divided by 10' is 10!». 

There is another and smaller sphere which niaj have some^j 
thing to say here. You have shown that Solomon's " Moll 
Sea" was, as to its general form, almost certainly a hemt-j 
sphere, and its hollow contents a remarkable gauge of 
aim and weight of the earth. If its outer diameter were 
260-4756 Pyramid inches, or but a fraction greater than the 
10 S. cubits assigned to it, the contents of the whole sphere 
would he just 1-10^* of the sun. And nearly the same result 
would be brought out by considering its form as shghtly 
spheroidal, ao as to make the vessel a perfect model, on a 
aoale of 1-2. 000, 000th, of one hemisphere (in equatorial section) 
of the earth. Then, if the hollow interior were timtlar, and 
its contents 50x71,588 Pyramid cubic inches, — or I-20th of 
the sphere described about the King's Chamber. — the thick- 
ness of the braes, varying from 5-7244 and 5-7229 on the 
principal equatorial axes, to 5'7146 on the polar axis, would 
be eminently expressive, in inch-units, of nearly the same 
earth-density as is denoted by such interior capacity — namely, 

There is implied in t^ie loTegoiag a cwrtsia near oommea^' 

>f s 





l>e Tfladily shown by cnmparing both with the E'yraniid'e 
altitudii. Let the mean diameter of the earth (say 501,1116,000 
I'yramid inches) be divided by a milUon. and by the cub« 
root of 10 ; the result will be 232-5924, or the number of 8. 
lubits in 581481 iniihos, while the theoretical heig'ht of th« 
Pyramid is SHIS'OI, or 1*8 inch less. Letting thia difierenoe 
pass, it will be seen that if the earth's mean diameter were 
half aa gn-at aa it is, the volume of the earth would then be 
10'* tinies the sphere whose radius is the Pyraniid'a height, 
while the Him ja lO" time* the some, and is therefore = 
1,250,000 earthe. But in order that this ahoold Tie exactly 
true, theearth'e meao dinmetor would require to be 500,950,000 
i^yramid inches. 

The ratio of the Pyramid's height to tlie earth's diameter 
is the duplic;ate or square of that of the earth's ellipticity at 
Rome one meridian — the ratio to the meaa diameter being 
l-293-606th. which is probably not far from the elliptieity of 
the Pyramid's own meridian. Lot E = linear value of this 
ratio, U = earth's mean diameter (or its diameter at the 
Great P^-ramid ?), and A = Pyramid's height. Then 

A:B::E:lf; orAM = E* 

«nd eipressing M in terms of A (we preceding paragraph), 

A (40.000 i/Vi A) = E' ; or 10,000 v'lFA* = E» 

S<iuiire root of which = JOO I'ilTA = E 

And lOoC'ioA =^\ 

Prom this and previous propositions it appears that 
(neglecting amaUdiSorences) the Pyramid's height is oommen- 
Burable, iu terms of integral powers and roots of 10. with — 

1. The difference between the polar and some ono equa- 
torial radius of the earth ; 

2. The earth's mean semi-radius; 

3. The sun's moan radius ; and, 

4. The mean dJHtancu of iLe sun, or mean radius vertor of 
the eartli'e orbit ; 

J parte of tliesQ qaui.<ti>ieft. 



The theory of squares in Queen's Cliaiubor gives for t 
cubic diagonal of that room 3&6'915 Pyramiii inches. This ll 
doubtleaa nearer the truth than the Mfi'04 derived from j 
mean measuroe, which are uncorrected for wall-incrustatioi 
— and aocords very nearly with another theoretical quauti^ 
obtained as follows. Ten million is the number of 8. T 
cubita in the earth's semi-axis of rotation, or of 50-ineh eubitk!^ 
in the whole axis. If 10,000,000 iqvtare inches be formed 
into a circle, the diameter of that circle, divided by 10, will 
be 356-82-J6, or the cubic diagonal of Queen's Chamber. But 
356-8246 ia the diameter of a si>heru whose contents i 

= :000 coffers divided by 3, or -^ 7l,3C5 ; and 356-8246: 
^is also 71,365. Again, if 10,000,000 mihk inclies {\ 

capacity of the Queen's Chamber) be formed into a sphi 
the diameter of that sphere, divided by 10, will be 26-73001 
or the interior breadth of the coifer ; and 267-3008 squared 
is 71,449. A raoro direct connection between Queen's 
Chamber and coffer is this, that the cubic diagonal of the 
former ia just 4 times the cubic diagonal of the interior of 
the latter: 356-8246 -i- 4 = 8!)-206 ; or 356-915 4-4 = 89-229; 
as compared with 89-166 from your mean measures of oofferii 
Hence, if 10,000,000 square euhiU, be taken, and made into ft' 
circle, that circle will have a diameter of 89,206 inches, =^ 
1000 coffer diagonals. But it is possible that the 4 interior- 
diagonals of this vessel (perhaps also the 4 exterior dio* 
gonals) were purposely of different lengths. For instance^, 
the mean length of the Pyrftniid'a arris lines, divided by 10(^ 
is either 89-0946 or 89-3404, fccording as the base-aide is 
called 365-242 or 36625 6. cubits; and the latter number 
cubed gives 10 times the coffer's contents, or 713,090 cubtM 
inches; while the mean (89*2175) agrees with the ooffa 
diagonals derived above from Queen's Chamber. 1 

If the cubic diagonal of the exterior of the coffer were « 
times the interior breadth, or 106-920 (my measures howeva 
give only 106-468), it would moke the circumscribed spheMJ 
juat one-tenth of that inscribed in tbe King's Chamber'K 
heig-ht; for 230-3886 -r- 4/10= 106-912. 

■ Perhaps the cofier'e aiie, eh-s^, and position in tlw 
i^amid may be inditalei m \Si.B SoNin-«Sa^ ■^a.-j. "^s. '%, 



Petrie haB observed that it stands at a level of 100 timea 
its (iwn lieight, below the Pyramid's Bummit : — 

Lot 40'9!)54 (King's Chamber eomi-diagouaI-T-2 «■) = 
least or central height of coffer; then I'yrauiid's heigpht, 
.581301, —4099-54 = 1713-47,= level of (op of coffer 
above PjTamid'a base. 

Let 41-4096= greatest or comer height of cofTer ; then 
581301 —4140-96 = 167205. = level of hoiUtm of coffer 
above Pyramid's base. 

And the square roota uf 171347 and 167205 are 41*4 
and 40-9 nearly. 

Let 581301 be divided into tvo parts, such that the 
square root of the less shall be 1-lOOth of the greateTi 
these parta wilt be 

(a) 4U7-57, 

(6) 1695-44, 
and will represent the mtan level of coffer, or level of its 
Gcutre. And the square root of (i) = 41' 17S7 is the coffer's 
mean height; while the square root of (a) ^ 641683 u 
the mean of it« mean tenj^ and breadth : which ilimen- 
sione, combined with a proportion of 3 ; T for length and 
breadth, give for cubic cont^-nts of exterior 142,704, <w 
71,352 X 2. 

Also if 41 17-57 be taken as radius, then circumferenn 
(or perimeter of plane through Pyroiuid at level of ooffur'a 
centre) =25,871-5 or the years in IVeceeaion Period; 
agreeing closely with cubic diagonal of King's Chamber, 
measuring to foot of walls, X 100, = 25,873. 

As the sum of the 24 arris lines of coffw is = cimut of 
King's Chamber floor, their mean length, and also th* 
difference between lougth and breadth of bttMi, will bo 
5I'5I65 iniihes, = diameter of a sphere whose contents are 
71,588, which, though larger than most of the values for 
coffer's contents, seems entitled to some weight, as it ie 
repeated in the sphere described alraut King's (Jhamber. 

It would appear that the oumbers 3, 5, 7, and 10 (whose 
sum is 25) play a prominent part in both the King's and 
Queen's Chamber, with this differenoe, that while in th« 
King's Chamber 3 is coupled with 7, and 5 with lU.- 
the uraugements of the coffer, t ^To^i:l\onA. kxA igtswaiL 
"lirt/uaM" of the roomi— ia tlio Qmo«b!» ^^ws&wa'Vs.'"*' 





lAat is associated with 0, and T with 10, — aji in the 3 x 5 1 
arrangement of the gquares, the 7 sides and 10 angles of thsj 
room, its 5 X 3 an is lines, and its 10^ inches' capacitj'. 
1 am, my dear Sir, 

Tours very truly, 
Paoi-Msom PiAZ7i Shttu, JAMES SIMPSON. 

' IS, BoTAi. Tereucb. 

kc«o'b cbambek ugiohts. 

With reforenpe to the collection of my theoretic results for 
the siee of the King's Chamber in I^ramid inches at p. 181, 
it IB correct bo for as it goes, but would have been oompletcir 
for aU the other problems t« be solved — besides the one you 
were then treating of, viz., my sums of the squares — if you 
bad added the second height whicli the room posses 
which, if the first height = 230-3886, is according to your" 
measures at the place, = 230-3886 + 60 Pyramid incheej-,! 
say 235-3886. 

My theoretic results acknowledge the nepoasity of such ft 
second height to the room ; for while its geometrical syni' 
metry and some connections with outflide of Pyramid, aa w^ 
as an apparent reference to the earth's size and density (ia 
height -*- a density of 5-70424 being = rSr side of 
equal to the earth), depend on and come out excellently with 
the first height ; the cubic capacity of 20 million inches, and 
the IT relation between length of room and circuit of north or 
south wall — results not loss important to a scientific monu- 
m^mt — only come out on using the second height. At the . 
same time, however, theory is not able to assign in eve^^ 
case one and the same precise value to the increment of' 
second over first height; for in one problem it makes the 
quantity 4-85, in another 5-11 Pyramid inches, indicating on 
the mean 5-0 inches very nearly. While finally, the reference 
from chamber length to vertical height of Great Pyramid 
demands a chamber height almost equal to the mean of the. 
two heights ; viz., 232-52 Pyramid inches. A quantity, how- 
ever, specially known to the architect, its exact half beii^^ 
represented in the 116-26 length of the ante-Cxhaciber, 
H^UbA by 50 in pl&ce of 25. 




CmtEB the first half of the above title, the chief philoeophic 
■rohitect of our time, James FergTisson, D.C.L., htu pablinhed 
durinf; the last year an important ix'tavo volume of ^.1:2 pp., 
ami 2a4 illuBtratioiiB : and the book is abundantly di'siTip- 
tive of roug-h Cyclopean etono circlee. suiJi ae Stoneheng*. 
Arebury, Stanton -Drew, 4e., and of all the ,o<x^8sio^al rows 
or grouj* of stones which, howerer rough, hoTC evidently 
beeu 1)rou)rht to their plaees aod aet np by the hand of man, 
uid are now known aa dolmens, kistvaens, menhirs, crom- 
lochs. trilithons, &c., &c., both in Europe, A^ia, and Africa, 

After brushing away the dust of supposed prehistoric, and 
with aome persons evon geologic, 8gt}« of antiquity ; and nfVr 
diseHtabliehing the Druids from temples they were only thwi>- 
retically promoted to, long after they had disajipenred from 
the Borfaee of the earth under the sword of the Bomaiia — 
Mr. Fergussnn succeaafblly ahows (avoiding indeed the earlier 
chambered tumuli of Lydions. Pelasgi, Etniscnns. ftc, and 
keeping cliiefly to the extreme west of Eurojm; — he sliows. I 
tepeat, that tho datos of all the chief examples uf these rou^ 
md rude Btooe. or stone and earth, urectioua are certAiuly 
confinod within periods of from 300 to 900 a.d.. and wers 
eummemorative chiefly of the anoceeafiil military exploits of 
thoae rarious new peuplns who appeared in Europe at tliat 
time fltun the North and East, and establiabed tbemaelvM on 
tile niins of the Bomati Empire. 

In so far this author's subject has nothing in common with 
the Qmat Pj-ramid, whether in ita perfection of finiah or 
vastly earlier dale of erection : yet for all thai is the Cn«Bl 
lyramid lugged into his boo^, and "nilix wu^ wtv vffiw*^ ifc 




iiusohiof to the BOCTed and stipntifie I'yramidal theory, 
few words in esplauation of what he considers he has 
plished towards that dcstrm'tiTB end and aim of bis ambitii 
may not be thought unsuitable here. 

Under pretended cover, then, of following the method of the 
Fyramid scientific theorists, Mr. Fergiisson demurely speaks 
of the size of his rude stone circles (which he hnows were 
built some 1,200 years ago) being, as a rule, either 100 feet, 
or 100 metre*, in diameter. 

■Whatever mny be said for the feet, of course Mr. 
gUBBon understands, and no one better, that the old 
builders could not have had any modem French metre 
among them : but he asserts that sueh a standard is what 
legitimately comes out, as the rule, when the scientiHc 
Pyramid methods of theorising are applied to the 
of the siKe of his stone circles ; and that he therefore audi 
thereby not only obtains a ehort and easy method of d4 
scribing their size, but also of reducijjg to absurdity what>^ 
ever has recently been written for the eaored and scientific 
character of the Great Pyramid, And yet ho is so mortally 
a&ajd of his character being injured in London society, 
by any one possibly supposing that he has admitted the 
truth of the smallest part of the said sacred and scientific 
theory of the Groat Pyramid, merely because he has touched 
upon it at all, — that altliough he has " Piazzi Smyth his 
theories " in his index, — yet the subject-matter so alluded to 
does not appear in the large and reailable letterpress of Mr, 
Fergussou's book, but in the abnost invisible small print of 
a note, and even then with the following bashful apology for 
himself: — 

'' I am almost a&aid to allude to it, even in a note, lest onyj 
one should accuse me of founding any theory upon it, likl 
Piazri Smyth's British inches in the Pj-ramids. but it L 
curious coincidence that ueiirly all the British circles are 
out in two dimensions. [Mark that, if you please, gentl«.l 
reader: Nearly all the British circles are set out in two 
dimensions.] The smaller class are 100 feet, the larger are 
100 metres, in diameter. They are all more than 100 yarda. 
The latter measure (metres) is, at all events, certainly acci- 
dental, BO far as we at present know, hut as a nomenclature 
tmd memoria Urhnica, tbe am^loyment of the term may h» 
useful, {irovided it is cIbojAj vmieiaUwi "Ca-tfi. ai 'Onssirj ' 


that <^H 


' of the^* 


— *re 







■o ^^ 


based upon it :" and there then follow throughout Mr. Fer- 
gusBoti'e book his frequent iiUusione to the stone drdos, u 
being either 100 feet, or 100 metre, circJes. 

Now, though in tho aliore extrtu.-l I could not but be 
shocked at the iBttmwI arfldt«"tural D.C.L.'e triple blunder 
of " Piaixi Smi/fh't discovery of Urituh inch»* in the Pyra- 
mids," — in plwo of "John Taj/lor'n discovery of earU-mm- 
mnum-ahU inekn being; founded ujion in the unique, primeval, 
and anli-Egyiitian design of thu Great Pgramid;" still I 
thouglit myself bound to tu^cept, until the contrary had been 
proTod, that the celebrated Mr. Fergusson had really alighted 
on a very cimous numerical ooiucidence having the dogrw of 
closeness alone recognised in modem Groat I^Tomid theuris- 
ing, amiinget his rude stone circles. la which case, all honour 
to Mr. Fergusson, no matter what the consequences of hia 
discKirory might ultimately prove to be. 

With tho beet desiro therefore to appreciato the truth and 
cogency of James Fergusscin's remark able jbuf, I have noted 
one after anuther, as tliey came up, the fotluwiug measures of 
the stone circles, out of Ait men book; — 

Page fi 1 , chxm'bered tamuliu, tl&leJ, in dimivtar . = It tttL 

„ G5, "MLcmd" ttoDe circle, b}' acale, in diunetor = SO 

„ 63, ftvat stone cirule, claled, in diamuter 

„ 62, ■ninller circle, aUted, in diiimotvr 

„ S2, dill snailer, «tati-d, in disiDoMr . 

„ S3, two interiai; circloa, each, bj Kale, 

16, Btoue uimle, aUtsd, in diameter . 

76, do. do. 

78, fiilbunt tuiBuliia, atatwl, base dim 




), oircolu pUtfoRn, listed, dUmsii 
t, niupiut. (tatfld, circumr«rcnco -r 
), tUtOQ circle, by acala, disinaler . 
t, tumulua. slated, diameter . 
i, oval ring, atalod, diamotar. 
i, atone cinje, «U ' ' " 

'a^ IBl, itone alrcle,by scale, diameter 

194, otaI nioand 
1S4, cufTed mound 
1S4, circular mound 

= 430 [o S30 

le cirole, stated, diameter 

Now wlien we find here, that out of more than fifty of Mr. 
PerguBson's own examples, only one of them measiireB 100 1 
feet, and not one of them tOO metres, and thut the remainder 
vary from 24 to 1,200 feet in diajneter, — it is pretty plain 
that he must have a positive deficiency in some part of hia. 
head touching numbers, though a large ambition in hia 
heart to immortuliso himself therein. And as to his accom- 
panying dread of being possibly suspected in the London j 
clubs of having become a veritable ecientifie Great Pyramid 
theorist, through means of his fallacious 100-metre eirclo 
discovery, — so that he conceals, at the sama time that he 
publishes, such supposed discovery by consigTiing it to the 
small print only of a note at the foot of a page, and covered 
over, even there, with a particular apology: — alaa! it may '^ 
rather remind other men of a certain courtier in Asia Minor,/ 
who, while bursting with desire to tell of hi* then receutfl 
and too wonderful, discovery, yet was so timid about it'l 
withal, that he must nooda go far away from the haunts of i 
men, dig a hole by the bank of a secluded river, breaths -f 
into it the suicidal words, that "Midas has the ears of a 
ass," and then hastily fill iu the earth again: but which.fl 
refused to retain the sscret bo conSiei \a vt-, tor the sedges^ 
1 whiuh afterwairda grew O^ei &e ^W«, ■«^l'alBS«t a. -wiai. d[ 






heaven rustled among their leaTes, still murmured forth, 
" Midas has the eore of an ass." 

But Mr. Fergusson is not always timid, for how he doe* 
delight to stomp ujion paitiat&king Dr. Stukely, the lion of 
200 yearu ago, who himgelf measured and mapped in the field 
BO many of the rude stone drvJes. That work was perhaps 
Dr. StiUmly's farU ; wherefore, when Mr. Fergusson, at his 
own p. 149. makes such a mull ss to name a ciiole of 345 
feet in diameter, "a lOO-metrecirvIe," 100 metres amounting 
only to 328*09 fe«t, why did he not remember to say that hi* 
predecessor, I>r. Stuk^ly, had remarked two centuries ago 
on many of those old eirules having been laid out in round 
numbers of the far older, and indeed coutemporaueoue, pro- 
fane fnhit of Egypt; especially when that cubit, being taken 
in its doiilde form of the cubit of Kumak, is equal, in its 
100 multiple, to exactly 343 feet, or the very quantity whicJi 
Mr. i'ergusson had then before him to eaplain. if he ouuld. 
rithout einning against both mensurotloa truth and tli« 
sequeace of hist*^ ? 

But there is worse to come. 


In his p. 31, speakiiig of the Great Pyramid, Mr. FergtM* 
ion truly allows it to be " the most perfect and gigantic epcci- 
nen of masonry that the world has yet seen ;" and that, 
according to mere human methods of development and pro- 
gression, almost inhnite myriads of years must have intepv«ned 
between the &rst rude tumuli, or stone sepulchres erected in 
Bgypt, and the building of tuth a pyramid. 

But in that case there ought to be vastly more stone monU' 
meats in Fgypt before the day of the Great Pyramid. IdiaB 
afUr it, especially as in the dry Egyptian climate we arv told 
again and again that '* nothing decays ;" and then oomis tha 
stunning announcement, both from Ur. Ferguason. l>r. 
Lepsius, and every good Egyptologist, that there are do 
monuments at all in Fgypt older than the Great Pjra^'^- 
The Great Pyramid, therefore, according to all the known 
faots of the luiigi>Et known country <)n the face of the earth, 
led off the art of stone architecture in E^'^t in& nkddm\i^TsM); 
to axceiieucy, or a totally diSetonV aie.\ax«t tena viSi V' 




sicperionce of what always is, and must be, when man woi'kB 
by bia own powers alone, uiiassiBted by direct Divine inspi* 

Of this astotinding, and humanly un explain able, abyss trf 
nothing of architectural remains at all before, but an abun> 
dant train after, the majestic Great Pyramid,: — Mr, Fergusaon 
saya in another foot-note. " it is so eurioua as almost to justify 
PiazKi Smyth's wonderful theories on the subject, 

And what does Mr. FerguBSon therefore do? Does he 
consent to the cogency of these, as well as all the othsr, 
facta of his own profeasional science, and his own atill nn 
peculiar methods of philosophising u|)on them in order 
elicit the monumental history of man ; and confess, that soi; 
far aa they go, they do lead to nothing less than a Divin« 
intervention in the history of man having here occurred in 
the primeval times of the human race ; to the end that this, 

m atill unequalled, glory of building, the Great Pyramid, 
appeared niddetdi/ on the stage of history ; aa when the Lord 
saya tlirough Isaiah (ilviii. 3), "I did them suddenly andr 
they came to pass " ? I 

Nothing of the kind. The unhappy man merely wrapa' 
his mantle of prejudice more tightly than ever around hinj ; 
and after actually attempting to thrust down the throats of 
the public the same improper unction which he has been 
applying to keep down the conscience-pricks of his own soul, 
exclaims, in the forced worda of endeavour to shame the facta 
— " But there is no reason whatever to suppose that the pro- 
greaa of art in Egypt differed easentially frtim that elaowhere. 
The previous examples are lost, and that seema all.' 

That all, indeed ! Why. that is admitting everything ; an( 
iropbes the destruction and total diaappearanoe, without leav- 
ing a wrack behind in the most jireservative of all climateB, 
of moro architecture than ia now standing on the surface of 
the whole globe : and the admission may fiulher worthily 
include what Mr. Fergueson nowhere allows (though the 
Great Pyramid scholars do), viz., the truth of the Noad ' 
deluge, the diapersion of mankind according to the BihJ 
and the innate wiokedneas of the human heart. 











The following short paper, — ^having been sent to the Royal 
Society of London on October 27th, 1873, and not having been 
heard of again by me, except that it was received there, up 
to the time of going to press with this Appendix in January, 
1874, it is printed here in the interests of truth and fact. 

P. 8. 

On the Length of a Side of the Baee of the Great Pyramid^ hy 

Piaxzi Smyth, F.Ii.S. 

My attention has been directed to the abstract of a paper 
in the Proceedings of the Royal Society for June, 1873 
(pp. 407 and 408), through its having led Professor Clerk 
Maxwell into a serious error in an Egyptian allusion ventured 
by him in his otherwise most admirable address on '' Mole- 
cules '' before the British Association lately at Bradford. 

The error, published by so influential a body, is far too 
grave to be passed over; because, not only does it fight 
against the time-honoured conclusions of the first Egyptolo- 
gists of the age as to what was '' the common " and indeed 
imiversal cubit length of ancient Egypt ; not only too does it 
imply a metrolog^cal equality between Egypt and Greece, 
instead of Egypt and Babylon — but because the new length 
now assigned to the so-called ''common " cubit of Egypt is 
only brought in at all by its author. General Sir Henry 
James, R.E., by means of — 

i. An unfair selection, twice wpe^Vftdi^ ^1 ^^ tssl^vk^ 


measured lengthe of the boee-Bide of tlie Great FyTatmd.fl 

2, A meaning attributed by him to certain words i 
HerodotuB, making them tell the very opposite stoiy to whi 
they were intended by their real author to do. 

These things were indeed shown by me, in their simpltf 
and true light, in Vol. XIII. of the " Edinburgh Astronomioa* 
Observations," pp. R67 — R72. But as Sir Henry JamoH n 
returns to his errors as though they had never 
tioned, and produces them as part of the regular work of tl 
Ordnance Survey of Great Britain ; and as they are moreovar.'l 
on the present occasion issued to the world (in abstraot at 
least) nnder the name of the Koyal Society, and haro been 
further spread, witli damaging effect to the truth in the 
minds of many, by the British Association—on all these 
accounts it eeeroa necessary to make some public protest in 
the name and for the sake of the three noblest attributes of 
scientific man, viz., accurate measuring, truth stating, and 
just doing, with a glowing allusion to which Professor Clerk ^ 
Maxwell closed his able and eloquent discourse. 

"The most recent meosuroa of the Great Pyramid's bastt^ 
side," says Sir Henry James, in the ' Royal Society's Proceed- 
ings,' " are those made by the Royal Engineers and Mr. I nglis, 
a civil engineer, and give a mean length of 9,120 British 
inches." Whereupon Sir Henry James adopts that quantity 
as exactly proving an hypothesis lately invented by himself J 
and mentions no other competing measures. 

Yet Sir Heniy Jamns knew of other measures, and quite \ 
worthy ones too of boing brought into the general mean 
determination. For while in that very Proceedings' paper he 
quotes Colonel Howard- Vyse and Mr. Perring for the baM- 
side lengtlis of several other pyramids, tliough he does not 
quote them there for the more important Great Pyramid'a J 
base-side length, — he not only did quote those authors in 
former paper in 1 B67 for that feature of that pyramid, but h 
erected them then, under the name of Colonel Howord-Vystt J 

alone, into his sole authority, not even allowing Mr. Inglis'ci J 

reauit at that time to appear \>3 l.\v« swi» tA Sl- 







And the reason why Sir H«nry Janice qunted so honouralily 
V7§e'8 9.16B inch nieasuro and estiuguished Mr. IngUs'e 
9,110 inch measure in 1B67, woe beoause he (Sir Heniy 
Jampsj had just then publishcid an hypothesis dafrlaring that 
the Great l>}-Tamid'B bafie-side ought to measure 9,166 liritish 

WhU« the reason on the contrary why Sir Henry Jamos 
does not now continue to quote Vyse's 9,168 inch measure, 
but in place (if it adopts IngUs's 9, 110 (after having uiesned 
it with Ills own men's 9,130) inch measure, is, — because he 
has now dmpped hia first hypothesis, and adopted another 
of totally different construction and requiring ojdy 9,120 
inches to measure the Great Pyramid's base-side. 

In face of a method so unusual in science, as this alternate 
selection of some, and concealment of other data to suit 
quickly successive, and rashly launched, hypothetical views, 
it is but a small, and yet a proper, point for the Royal Society 
to be further informed of; vii., that Mr. Inglis's measures 
should not be quoted by any one (and least of all by any 
general commanding, and profiting in name and fortune by 
the acts of, British eubalterus and soldiers), under Mr. Inglis's 
name alone; seeing that he, Mr. Inglis, was sent to the 
I^ramid by his then master, Mr. Alton, to do whatever ho 
did for Mr. Aituo at hie (Mr. Alton's) expense, and a(.ifording 
to his (Mr. Alton's) previous arrangmnents for it also on the 

Mr. IngUs. moreover, was assisted by mo when at the 
Pyramid in tinding two out of his four statioa points, when 
kU his own efforts had failed ; and his final mensuration 
results wore communicated to me by Mr. Ait«n for the first 
and only full and autlientic publication they have had yot, 
TiK., in my book. " Ijfe and Work," iiublished in April, 1867. 
All these oireumstauces too have been knowingly neglected 

■ 8tc JtAnrum. NuvrmW IC, 1667. p. 660. Tbu hypotheti* »u,that 
Ihn win rmMin whi-iufvini Iho (Irrvt Pyiatnid b«<l Ihph boill o( it* urtaU 
bin] «!« wu, to alluw ■ (ida nf Ihx !«-< to m-iUDni 360 ciibilB of XltSI 
tiulie* SBcli. Thai tiumbor wu rialnl by Sir Hi-nr; Janiea tn aniouiit lo 
T64 fcEt^ S.I 68 infh», whicli tnidc tho ncounlapiwr pprinrt <i>iUi Vjru's 
in«nirvo(9,laK inuliiw. Itiit ((Wwani* ii *■« pointMl oat to Sir Ilenix 
JatiiiM tllst sua X 3&'<8H ■nioiintrd lo 9, 1 ;A-fl8 iuchn ; and m, molvnver. ha 
□mill) not find uy autbority for sn anaieut oubit lA 4Sll Uiobc* long, ha 
abandoned that aohatna and ■ubaoqiienU]- in*t«Md &««« qu«,«\^i^^aa 
knM him ia a UOmilj diffsNutsM ol itm&atn. 





by Sir Henry Jamce, whose first entry into the Fyranud 
Mubject was an attack, in November, 1867, ujioii the book 
which contained them all ; the atta<;k beginning in these 



"ThepablicBtionnfthefllaboriitework o; 
}iy Profensor Pinzxi Smyth, hiu led me to : 
tioDi mid dimunBiuiiB uf this Pyramid. . . . 

But although Sir Henrf James may «om» choose to tl 
Colonel Howard-Tyse and Mr. Perring's measure overboi 
— and has led both the Eoyal Society and ProfesHor Clerk 
Uttswell unwittingly to confirm the not, — the fioyal Society 
may bo assured that the French nation has not abandoned 
our greatest Pyramid explorer. TIeither has that gallant 
people forgotten their own Academicians in the most scientific 
of all military e.xpeditions. On the contrary, they cherish, 
the remembrance that it was their naranff of the Egypto-; 
French Academy under Napoleon Bonaparte, who first 
covered two of the only true station points for 
Pyramid base-side measuring, and ascertained the lei 
that base-aide by their measures (certainly not inferior 
care and skill to those of any one who has been there 
to be 9,163 English inohea. 

Indeed, it so chances that within the lost few weeks there 
have been discussions in Paris, in the learned Abb*3 Moigno'a 
journal, "Lea Mondea," as to whether, on one side, a certain 
M. Du/eu was right in recently taking, as the onli/ worthy 
authorities for the Great Pyramid's baae-side length, the 
Napoleonic Academicians and Colonel-Howard Vyse, giving 
a mean of 9,166 inches; or, on the other side, the Eoyal 
Society and Sir Henry James in keeping baek those meSi* 
sures and publishing a selection of other persons' measi 
onli/, implying a length of no more than 9, 120 inches. 

But as this subject is pretty certain now to be attended] 
to in the interests of international justice by more able 
than myeelf, — I hasten on to the second part of this sh( 
pajier, or to what Herodotus did really say in the pi 
referred to. 



et dia^H 


■ior t^H 

tllOTO ^ 


As regards " the common cubit " of Egypt, eays Bir Henry 
James in the "Proceeding* of the Hoyal Society," and already 
quoted from thence to the whole Itritish Asaociatiou, — " we 
have the statement of Ilarodotus that the Egyptian cubit vu 
equal to the (Jreuk oubit, that of Samoa." 

Throe years ago I had the houour of ehowing, before 
classicists or, well as scientists, that Herodotus mode no such 
statement about the Greek cubit. He said that the Egyptian 
cubit was equal to the cubit of Samos ; but Samos woe not 
Greece. It was on the contrary, for the dates referred to, 
tite opposite of Greece ; especially in the eyes of Herodotus, 
who regarded it as Asian and P^rsi&u ; and the fint attack 
upnn it by the Locedicmonian Dariou^, he terms their ex]i«- 
dition into A»ia, words which the Bov. Canon Kawlinson de- 
clares are tmpkatie as to the eenee in which Herodotus used 
the tenii Saniian. 

In this sense also, and with its metrological applirntion 
H well (or of the Samion cubit being of tlie same length as 
Uie Egyptian, viz., 20'7 inches nearly, and both of thtnn the 
same as the Babylonian of 500 B.C.), the phrase of Herodotus 
was understood by Sir Isaac Newton nearly two centuries 
ago : also by our own chief Egyptologist, Sir Qardner Wil- 
kinson ; and likewise by the teamed Babylonian scholar, I>r. 
Brandis, of Berlin, with almost all other authoritiefl. 

Hence, unless the Koyal Society is consenting that « 
^nerol officer of the Boyal EngLoeers shall ride orer botJi all 
tiie facts and all the best interpreters of the finis from Sir 
Isaac Newton downwards, they con hardly objw-t to my 
bringing up nnee again, in the interests uf tlie world, thv 
luost uiitablc luctrological equation of all antiquity ; vie. that 
the Somian cubit, which tlie Eg7,q)tian cubit was said to be 
oqual to by " the Father of History." wos. together with the 
then contemporary Asiatic cubit. = "lO-T British indies in h-ngth 
+ 01 inch nearly. Hence we may be absolutely certain tliat 
the Somian cubit of Henxtutus was nut I8-'2-t British inches 
long only, as was the Greek cubit ; and then see the unhnppy 
position iu V hich Sir Henry James has placed himself and the 
Koyal Society. 

He, erroneoualy ima^mng thall llt« ¥«oft»a «*;iiv\ ■««*. >»* 




more than 1824 inchea long, not only freely announced, on -V 
hia own authority, the other day that the Great l*yrftmM 
waa built to have a measured length of base-eide = 500 
of those cubits, vi/., 9,120 British inches ; but, in ordor to 
show an appearance of confirmation of his idea, he actually 
proceeded a second time to miarepreseut the list of modem 
observations of the base-sido of the Great Pyramid, by drop, 
ping out now the biggest ones and taking up only the smalleat ^^^ 
ones ; EuiJ the Koyal Society has published the perverte^^^| 
result. ^^1 


Modem Burveyors, even with the true Groat Pyramid"^^^! 
baae station points given them to measure between, haTO^^I 
been lamentably wide of each other, whether they have 
measured one side only, or all four, and then taken a mean 
of the eidoB, of what every observer oasuntes to bo a iqvart, 
horizontal plane. 

But though wide of each otlior, the four chief and extreme 
authorities may, I trust, be regarded as both honest and not 
very far from equal to eaeh other in ability. Whence, if the ^^ 
resultfi of different observers were — ^^M 

(1) French Aca^pmiciana ia 1'99 and 18DD, an the 1 _ ,,,, „ ., . ^^^| 

north BidB only j = 9,I6J Brit. IBI.^™ 

(2} Howard-VysetiudPeTringinlSST.ontheiiorth I ^ „ ... ^^M 

Bide only I ^^M 

(3) AiUinu>dIrgUxinlS6S,mciHiiof »llfourB\des* = 9,110 ^H 

(4) UidnancH Survoj'ois in 1:^69, mean of all four I _ g ,,~ ^^M 

— modem ecionea, I presume, ooimot pretend to say that the 
true result should be anywltere else than near the mean of 
the whole. ^H 

This was the conclusion which I came to in 1 867 i^^| 
deducing, for reasons given in " Life and Work," 9,140 Britidt^^| 
inchea, as the real Groat Pyramid original and intended ■ 
baae-sido length. A length, too, which I have been enabled 
to find within the last few months, is remarkably, even 
brilliantly and esactly, confirmed by the mathematical rela- 

* In tha Ailon and Ini;lu individual rncaBareB of earJi gido. lh« nortbja 
aide appeara iw 9,120 BiUU\i int^vw, inivtahn'^ » ««is)Ant diffiiitinoa iii | 
Ihmit meusuret lu comp;injd wiv\i Qiuw liwA Wm vk \ wni'L. 

VI.] A PPENDICES, 5 » 7 

tions of the much more accurate measures (chiefly taken by 
two Professors of Astronomy, separated from each other by 
230 years) of the King's Chamber, so-called, in the Great 
I^amid. But as that striking case is already discussed at 
length in a work now at the press, I will not detain the 
Society any further with it at the present time. 


Towards the end of his abstract-paper in the '*Eoyal 
Society's Proceedings," Sir Henry James alludes to the 
breadth of the entrance passage of the Great, as well as of 
other. Pyramids ; but quotes only certain measures nearly forty 
years old, and taken to no more refinement than the nearest 

As such a proceeding misrepresents both the present-day 
literature of the Great Pyramid, and its metrical capabilities 
also, — ^may I request that the Eoyal Society will be pleased 
to accept the following copy of my measures, taken in 1865 
and published in 1867,* of both the height and breadth of 
the Great I^amid's entrance-passage, at several different 
points in the course of its length, and registered in all cases 
to the nearest hundredth of an inch. 

P. S. 

15, RoTAL Tberacb, Edinburgh, 
October 27, 1873. 


This morning's post has brought important news, both 
public and private. 

The public news is to the startling effect, that Parliament 
has been suddenly dissolved. If this should prevent Govern- 
ment from performing their promise of bringing in a Metrical 
Bill this year, it will add yet another example to the many 
previous ones, already alluded to on pag^ 214, of such 

* TheM measiin^ beinf^ cbieAy the «kiii« «a >^qim ^\l\^ ^\\^ki «a(^ 
page 311 oftbit book, need not be T«pea\M \wqt«. 



intended bills having again and again been broken withonl 

The private news is a letter from the Eoyol Society of J 
London, rejecting and returning me the original M^^. fum 
the subject of Appendix VI., on the plea of b secret snbi 
committee of their own having reported, that it was not of ■ 
nature suited for reading before the Society. 

Looking to the errors and something worse of the previous 
antagonist paper ftoni the Southampton Office, whith wa* 
thought suitable by the officers of the Society to be read, and 
honourably printed too, first in the Society's "Proceedings" 
and afterwards in its " Transactions," — and comparing thema 
with the simple contents of this plain paper in reply, whidk"! 
the secret committee (the Star-chamber of the Society) n 
not allow, for tw'tabilitj/'« sake, to be read nor to appear {) 
any way before the meetings, — the general public may fot 
their own conclusions, — 

1. Ab to whether the Koyal Society really desires its puV* 
lioations, in matters relating to the science of the Great 
Pyramid, to represent "accurate measuring, truth -stating, and 
justicedoing;" or, the esnct opposite of those things P Andj 

2. How far modem sciencn by itself alone, ruling in hiA^ 
places of tlie earth, is likely to salisfj' the hopes of perishj 
humanity through oil time to come ? 


1 BD-ALLATIF, ui A™l,Un ■ 

A on lb 

Atwl ud Cain, 00 

Atwolut* trami . 

Chuibeir of Or«t Pynjni<l. 1<^ 
Aduu, Jubn (taiii»T, IM, S3, 4U 
AddcrkT. Hr . on hmWi, WI3 
A9# of •^toTBliaD, 3S1 
I Agotir. a. C, ~Lottei« en Ua Prim- 

1, Hft. 116. 
ApidoKT ft" tba crron of auUnr nb- 
Anlw «topp«d up TcnliUtiuf *■>*■"■* *^-. 
AnMIiDliinl teste DfUsOnrtrrnmld. 

lUdia, pop^ Uh* < W. « 
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.(hebanuiL 6. Vlf 40| AlH 

BhIt. Fmieii, ll>, Ml— l«B. IdBk lIBt KM, 

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— ml. mit pftwul. J^ M 

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Biblieil Tin 

of Uarttagr io faanat. 

BibUol w «k. STH-'MH 
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Binh, Dr. Tbomn, M.A (of in(<. MO 
Bird'* cwpr of Exsliaaiwr jmd ■■■linl. 

'.. IM&ftIt 

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Bn«Hb B«, (M 4W 
Bl"BD<TW. tti., MlMlal 




CipadHr Buasiun ti 

tablw (d. KS, ISO 

„ nUIlona bstmai 'Kinifi Cbuilin' 

Cartmchn at King CbeopM ftnmd in 

Wtdne Xngban. Ill 
Ctivy, Mr., ITS, aSl, 38S, KIO, 3R1, 383, 

CulnVsloDe, Wr. Dlnm'ii, IW— (M 
Cuting-iloiiM, Hcnrirf-VTM'*. ta 

.. Howud-Vne'B. found Urge, 1» 

„ arairchf'T. IB,17 

Qitidoffae of the Boulok mnwuin, « 
Camdieh, Mr.. I tin. IBS, left 
C^TigllH, Signor, 7y 78. 881 

.. ,8tenoi, 
Coiling of King'! 

OuiUtmser, H.U.I 
Chalmem, Dr.., St 
ChampolLiDEL 10? 

imber, %S— AH 

OiroaidagT, ««n«DC 34 
Clvkr, Dr., »7, 113, US. HOT, 3S1 
Clukg. Coldncl Boh, U. Its, »T2 
CUnlii uitiqaity on tba intarior dT Uie 
Qreat Pjrunid, 78 
„ nrnmea (br narly EgypBrn Hngm, 

, d«tenniiMtlonDfGftpaDiCr by Qrw 

, druwing in tliB French tmrV 

Egypt of the, 131 
. ItdgB, anomaly ofthe. isn 

rinp-'i dmw 
ophrigofl tJ 

.. Tuflor'iEDggslediiKDfthi!. 118 
„ weight, iempenituifl, and pramrfl 

,, wbTofthut tue.llS 
Ciiisnred Pjrsmld. llfl 
CnrntDetmu ibilitlei in th< pyruold, 


Commonijrtic Franch metn, progTHfl of 

noBBnattitaa. 171— ITfl 
Carner-antknui, dlloOTery ol. *) 

" Daad Book" nTthfl Kgypdiuu, ago. ttl , 

Twrterdw Bsv, 10 \ 

Ub Umuy. it, BO I 

Do Horgu. ProE, 17S fl 

Dan^ty And tempcnktorc. \IQ J 

lie Sanlocy, 408 1 

DBOtBTonuiB^ tat ' 
DiffervntiflJ chronology of Ih 

ln]-«tur of the Ori^unt 

s 8nn«T, mill 
Snrrsy oo (b* _ 

, Ur. Wmynmu, mado oast of boa^ \ 

, Hr. Wnynmiumn' 
, Mr, WuynoiBn, or 

aneen's ChuDlx 
, Hr. Wnynmun, re 


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ttoniictbt, laa 

d«l«niitBUDa ol tbo, .... 
mu doMitr. air Q. B. AHy* MMlt 

«4, Wf, 



:e PTTunid* in 

,, -Fmich Acailinny of 1T9P, in. Ml 
FnTitoksJO de'ail* of orlr idtwi. tM 

t^ntleloKiili' dala of Qnot IVmolil. 

„ ottMnaaphiiredantrlaonoiBatrtiMl 
Kntnnos puHgBot t^ Qrmi FjTBmid, 

Kqiitl ■«&» ; 

GqiulDTiil ud ottur 

E^roHwi biIbcI enten into tha qoaalini 
olUutORHl ^"^ " ■" 

>1nt dlaoomr of Join 'HiTlar'*, U 

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, Ib.tnnla^tTTt}. m 

, mid Hovsrd-YrH b«e-«l(to mM- 

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nfumiDE for MpteitT 

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„ Ki<oa«, Iniiwledfn of at 
0«cistwalii(l Hpbtudt* of Uw 


G«i«ni>h7 and . 

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■sgls, lie. 1)W 

., propoctlaiu of th» Onat 

DilHMI, Mr ,- 


loMT, Km, P-tLA., ; 


Uiand nUaiT'a onbieat 

bUitiM. W8t m 
OnadaTPTTiuDid and 8(dat AnalufT, 
llraniM^ uutt— — ' — ■ — ' 

„ laOM 

„ laa(iilw>oftbcbii*aaUia.m 

„ tbcmatHialoftlwsnair. lOB 

„ wban uad ia lh> Unal PrraoU. 

OiuL Ur. of CUn. 10. U4. 4in', 498 
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Uw I>naid. sns, MS. ws 
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QiMl t>rami>LaU(ccd amt ofda WM»- 

„ an tha other pjiamidaBnlik* ll%J 

it rrnuDld, alnn UK DtTOiirite 
■B mthiopalDKicKl nuntuimt. ' 


OnaTH, FnC, m thr 

, dl»cton of ths tmilding mfffi not 
, evth'sdeiiBtTDiiinbei intlw, IM 
, fr» from all idolmlitjiu iiucriplioiu, 

ogoiiut nmo urth Ibeoj 
p irmd Mukdvdi, AIM 
, bsiBbtobW 
, blnorr and the Interior. T' 

Uuar ilBmdftrd oontru 
Frowli meUe, 31 
, nudBofitpvlioulu' BLZO,^ 

Don-idoliUniaiL 04 
nnmlnt U tti^ coonea In 
KbiK'i Cliunbar of tl», I4« 

poHlticn in Ibo delta land af Epjpt, 
pifiFot ftppeaTAnoe of tha, tfi 

H ■QbtemuuHm chmrabpr of the, 7- 

. wbjr wu It built, utdtr 
, 8phiu oonai^od to 

mid. MT 

a, iH, « 


DODk i-rulkm with Ur. Bnmjf , B48— 
d«i«rtptlon of the pusigea, 306, 
Bg^DntlTe eipraiidB misled Jo- 
led th? ffnnila lenf, 1U 

G buildEt 

ID DHlure of Ibo stuug of 


Gr«fc dibit. 33, 61S 
Gregory. Dr. OluiUina. 14 
any, iii Gnwge, SOB 

Heitt imd pmanr 

oa, KM 
Edftarm Bey. IM— 1I§ 

EiuvdiUiT inoh meunn*. «* 
Eerodonu, 0, 9. IS, U. 18, n. I<H. « 

XM8. StG, SSI, 420— 430, 4itT, All, Sit 
Herwhel, (iir John, ». 176, *B7, IM 

„ eonllnnal J. Tb^Idt^ autb u 
Pymnid juifdoffi«fl. 4U, 41 

„ ontfaeutrDoanuaUliwwllbRnlf 
U) the Fpomid, f ■• -••■ 

H on the diuDPtor ] 

I'yrajnid. 71 

Bopldna, Mr. £*aii, oa Mnb** ■ 

Hnnuui reUpotn biRliIrT, SM, MD 
Hurmin Mrsm dlTine Bltiiwts ml* 
Home, Joevpb. 37a 

:b4t trpilted i 

l^ija. Mr., lU, _.. 

lenwtloiiHl appondiz to Ora^t ^> 

mellooluii] man, auliquityal, lU, Iflt 

OrdUt Pyiwnid. A 
Iron meaiuring-rod «f Prof, Oraana, irr 
laaUh, % 1(8, 373, 404, 443, 410. 4ai\ «U , 

am, Blr H., St. -<». IM, 

Buii, !<■ Tarieties of orUiOB«plif , 

Job. Boak of, n, iM, MS, ars. <.<i7, us. 

Juaud, H.. 1>. BO, «e, iS, Ul. 13a. uu, 

JoMph WoU. oitj of C4iro, 168 


Kn HSU of Uw (l>wt PmaAl-i 


Khidin. hto fcwm»«. du ui 
Kinc ChuiM I? 
KiDc, Mr. CU 

Kiaft Cbuobei 



Lo^nnd on tha PrnnUil at UHhoDt. :Ut 
La-dur*!. UTm suppOKd pTtmiBli], iW 
Unurlk ukd bmidlh ol tbc Ark at Ifao 


,. udbnadliirfttaaeiiMr, 114,106 
~ ' ' I fncbs* nt bendltwr 

V br Piof. UT«*n* of Uw 

br. IDOt 1«»-U1, 

i^piiBi. Dr., ^ n—n, «, 14% »i, «e, 

411— 411, 4W 
-IdaUcsdnk" Iff, 4»,au 
■■ LMm M tlM Pirrwiida," br B- C. 

L^t'^rtK, H., M, M7 

LntUew, «» 

hunt, air O. C, nniH EtrVtoIosil*, 

" Uto ud Werk," M; SI, W, 1 4«l ITS, BO. 

Mt, an, aw, tM, m, a^ Mt, aw— 
4w,«a,, M 

Lim or iba K^iga. «W 
Ltral* Napdleoa, 110 

Luke, 8L, 440 

Uudoiuld elAbtritoi, lit 
MhKkt. Rct. Ur.. 1!8 
U igiia Chmttk. IBV. 300 
Mutlud, Kn-nnrg. WT 
Muatha, «, IM, ns. toai 41t, 41 

thrk, St., 440 
Hutin, W., 4n 
Mukdnw, W., 108, 



■HWODt itf Uw OthI Pjmold 1 

HjiuarT of flnt VAMQdiiw fNUMM 

HattlMW, St., 440, 441 

Humll. Prat dark, Ut, BI4 

Mmo iwntxnbira a( tbi hiUtobIa wrth. 

Malite « 

- brVntlam»C.Vmirim^U» 

uishuiu. ar. 4a*t tM 

"' ■ — b«aw«l«kt, jliwiwlw aa. 

in U> ■■« of tba Itnu rmoud. ai 

"-* waif Uv — 

■ o(tb>pi 


-_io/ kW'* Chunbsr to otrfiir, 

llHHreMa mt Itw JtaMb I'lprunlili bf 
AcnlaUoB, Ju 

of IVntiUJ 

Ur.. U 


RomiBL p, tU. 
tlowM. lb.. Ml 


■m llHUrwl 

Sund ijt «f U* ' 

, toavhtar tkt Oratf ItnaM, Mt- 


Job. Tt. SM. »!, ni, UT, UB. tn 

PTDTStbl. 436 

Itcinti. 1; l»«,n^ Ml, «(S.4T0, W, U 

Jaramlab. p, *i. 

Nlwpa or Onot r 

BbMnhmnkh R«, U„ l«) 
Sbrptiird Klin. «l»— «n 
„ Brnnl DO Uu. Ill 
„ Oabora OS tbo, uu. «M 

BbHkbuivh. Mn 
SMabothMO. Ur. Javpfa, 13 
Hdwoil tax, H4 
SiUliua'i AiMTinui ~ Jmr 

aimpnt, Mr. J , IK 1T>, l«a-liO, 

aro-i9\ tra, an, nt, 4i«~-a<it 

- l«rm; n toyt.tMl.tM 

Hmlth, Itt. Il«il<unln. Hi 

Boifh, Prof. dTL.. ITI. in, ItC. MI.M 


Sadnleiiiwio tburlMi 1. (AT 
Snltr diT. t;^ m 
Salomia'i maltnn *«. MO— M3. 300 
Sopwlth. Itr.. IM. aw 
SpKUki trmiiUm. MO, Ml 
.. ■« 

rynntldWWtJ. »■( ,-- 

Sqwttc «r tkt alrd*. t); M 

8&»dlH4 MMW**. MOW oC la 

' Iniflk M^fafid In Onat Fyra 

maalrr. Rbu. Md I^ Hfdilu. ti • 

- b, Ju 

1e nftBpBdW. Porn maimirM. S», SBU 
„ drnutty of naPHflit Egrpt, *1^ 
. MiUi'g iil« in PTTJUnid iDcben, U 
„ OnMl I'yraniW ffngth mHuure, MH 
„ mmnm it tbe Pynmid's oonfr. 

' „ Pfiunld uid British linmr mn 
■ore. HI), «M— IH 
_ Finniid miriit neunra, SM 
- ipaidflo gmftiMi, 3«0 

„ tmunnlvrsa, MB 
„ t)»FTnHiddaaf^TPt,llS 
„ ireiKMineuiLre,^.l!W 
Tiiiln of enOeT meuum, IW— 141 
,. iiK»Dr« from "Life snd Work, 

„ tlMaunnofUK>qiiu«.lT8— 181 
T«ylor. John, B, 10, 1% 14, 17, 18, SI, t4, 


Uoot of. U7- 

Wallaa. Dr., a 

Ur, SM 
Wjirdcn ot thn 
WoilH. Mr., «1 
We^th, the n 

„ Id Prnmid tbennometcr di 

Test. oni. lal, MO 

" Thiliii," b J Herodotna. S87 

TrieriiH>^djri»Biii», M7 

Tbertniimotiini. HI— ISO *BS, (U 

Time, dnr^un n(, 1171 WUion. John, 

„ measnrninthbOmtPynii1iia,304 I Wisgnte. Mr..